Phosphorus

White phosphorus exposed to air glows in the dark
The tetrahedral structure of P4O10 and P4S10.
A stable diphosphene, a derivative of phosphorus(I).
Robert Boyle
Guano mining in the Central Chincha Islands, ca. 1860.
Mining of phosphate rock in Nauru
Match striking surface made of a mixture of red phosphorus, glue and ground glass. The glass powder is used to increase the friction.
Phosphorus explosion

Chemical element with the symbol P and atomic number 15.

- Phosphorus
White phosphorus exposed to air glows in the dark

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Alpha

Phosphogypsum stack located near Kėdainiai, Lithuania 55.24639°N, 24.02889°W.

Phosphogypsum

Calcium sulfate hydrate formed as a by-product of the production of fertilizer from phosphate rock.

Calcium sulfate hydrate formed as a by-product of the production of fertilizer from phosphate rock.

Phosphogypsum stack located near Kėdainiai, Lithuania 55.24639°N, 24.02889°W.
A 2015 astronaut photo of the Medina of Sfax with part of the port and the distinctive circular earth works of the 420 ha Taparura redevelopment project of which 260 ha have been reclaimed from the sea by depositing phosphogypsum.
A phosphogypsum stack or "gyp stack", located near Fort Meade, Florida. These contain the waste byproducts of the phosphate fertilizer industry.

Other components of phosphogypsum include silica (5–10%), fluoride (F, ~1%), phosphorus (P, ~0.5%), iron (Fe, ~0.1%), aluminum (Al, ~0.1%), barium (Ba, 50 ppm), lead (Pb, ~5 ppm), chromium (Cr, ~3 ppm), selenium (Se, ~1 ppm), cadmium (Cd, ~0.3 ppm).

Graph showing annual world phosphate rock production (megatons per yr), 1900–2016, reported by US Geological Survey

Peak phosphorus

Graph showing annual world phosphate rock production (megatons per yr), 1900–2016, reported by US Geological Survey
Phosphate rock mined in the United States, 1900-2015 (data from US Geological Survey)
Global distribution of commercial reserves of rock phosphate in 2016
Phosphate mine on Nauru, once one of the world's major sources of phosphate rock.

Peak phosphorus is a concept to describe the point in time when humanity reaches the maximum global production rate of phosphorus as an industrial and commercial raw material.

Raw sewage arriving at a sewage treatment plant in Syria (note that protective gloves should be worn when sampling sewage).

Sewage

Type of wastewater that is produced by a community of people.

Type of wastewater that is produced by a community of people.

Raw sewage arriving at a sewage treatment plant in Syria (note that protective gloves should be worn when sampling sewage).
Pumping station lifting sewage to the treatment plant in Bujumbura, Burundi
Greywater (a component of sewage) in a settling tank
Screening of the sewage with bar screens at a sewage treatment plant to remove larger objects in Norton, Zimbabwe
Screening of sewage at a sewage treatment plant in Bujumbura, Burundi
Lack of maintenance is causing sewage to overflow from a manhole into the street of an informal settlement near Cape Town, South Africa.
Ocean outfall pipes in Cape May, New Jersey, United States – pipes exposed after the sand was removed by severe storm

The major nutrients of interest are nitrogen and phosphorus.

China has the largest agricultural output of any country.

Agriculture

Practice of cultivating plants and livestock.

Practice of cultivating plants and livestock.

China has the largest agricultural output of any country.
Centres of origin, as numbered by Nikolai Vavilov in the 1930s. Area 3 (gray) is no longer recognised as a centre of origin, and New Guinea (area P, orange) was identified more recently.
Agricultural scenes of threshing, a grain store, harvesting with sickles, digging, tree-cutting and ploughing from ancient Egypt. Tomb of Nakht, 15th century BC
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
Reindeer herds form the basis of pastoral agriculture for several Arctic and Subarctic peoples.
Harvesting wheat with a combine harvester accompanied by a tractor and trailer
Spreading manure by hand in Zambia
On the three-sector theory, the proportion of people working in agriculture (left-hard bar in each group, green) falls as an economy becomes more developed.
Rollover protection bar retrofitted to a mid-20th century Fordson tractor
Value of agricultural production, 2016
Slash and burn shifting cultivation, Thailand
Intercropping of coconut and Mexican marigold
Intensively farmed pigs
Raising chickens intensively for meat in a broiler house
Tilling an arable field
A center pivot irrigation system
Winnowing grain: global warming will probably harm crop yields in low latitude countries like Ethiopia.
Wheat cultivar tolerant of high salinity (left) compared with non-tolerant variety
Seedlings in a green house. This is what it looks like when seedlings are growing from plant breeding.
Genetically modified potato plants (left) resist virus diseases that damage unmodified plants (right).
Water pollution in a rural stream due to runoff from farming activity in New Zealand
Farmyard anaerobic digester converts waste plant material and manure from livestock into biogas fuel.
Circular irrigated crop fields in Kansas. Healthy, growing crops of corn and sorghum are green (sorghum may be slightly paler). Wheat is brilliant gold. Fields of brown have been recently harvested and plowed or have lain in fallow for the year.
Spraying a crop with a pesticide
Terraces, conservation tillage and conservation buffers reduce soil erosion and water pollution on this farm in Iowa.
Mechanised agriculture: from the first models in the 1940s, tools like a cotton picker could replace 50 farm workers, at the price of increased use of fossil fuel.
In 19th century Britain, the protectionist Corn Laws led to high prices and widespread protest, such as this 1846 meeting of the Anti-Corn Law League.
An agronomist mapping a plant genome

Excessive fertilization and manure application to cropland, as well as high livestock stocking densities cause nutrient (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) runoff and leaching from agricultural land.

A bone dating from the Pleistocene Ice Age of an extinct species of elephant

Bone

For other uses, see Bone (disambiguation) or Bones (disambiguation).

For other uses, see Bone (disambiguation) or Bones (disambiguation).

A bone dating from the Pleistocene Ice Age of an extinct species of elephant
Cross-section details of a long bone
Micrograph of cancellous bone
Bone cells
Light micrograph of decalcified cancellous bone tissue displaying osteoblasts actively synthesizing osteoid, containing two osteocytes.
Transmission electron micrograph of decalcified woven bone matrix displaying characteristic irregular orientation of collagen fibers
Structure of a long bone
One way to classify bones is by their shape or appearance.
Endochondral ossification
Light micrograph of a section through a juvenile knee joint (rat) showing the cartilagineous growth plates
Radiography used to identify possible bone fractures after a knee injury
Reduced bone mineral density in Osteoporosis (R), increasing the likelihood of fractures
Human femurs and humerus from Roman period, with evidence of healed fractures
Skeletal fluorosis in a cow's leg, due to industrial contamination
Leg and pelvic girdle bones of bird
Bones of slaughtered cattle on a farm in Namibia
Cells in bone marrow
Scanning electron microscope of bone at 100× magnification
Structure detail of an animal bone

Mineral storage – bones act as reserves of minerals important for the body, most notably calcium and phosphorus.

Vyacheslav Molotov, 1945

Molotov cocktail

Hand thrown incendiary weapon constructed from a frangible container filled with flammable substances equipped with a fuse (typically a glass bottle filled with flammable liquids sealed with a cloth wick).

Hand thrown incendiary weapon constructed from a frangible container filled with flammable substances equipped with a fuse (typically a glass bottle filled with flammable liquids sealed with a cloth wick).

Vyacheslav Molotov, 1945
Monarchists during the Spanish Civil War with fire bottle.
Finnish soldiers in the Winter War. Tanks were destroyed with satchel charges and Molotov cocktails. The bottle has storm matches instead of a rag for a fuse.
A squad of Home Guard soldiers training to defend a street with 'Molotov cocktail' petrol bombs
Civilians in Kyiv preparing Molotov cocktails for use during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
Molotov cocktails produced for use in Ukrainian Euromaidan protests
Puputovs seen during the 2017 Venezuelan protests.
An anarchist protester with a Molotov cocktail aimed at police during protests in 2013 in Mexico.
Molotov bread basket
A Finnish soldier with a Molotov cocktail
British Home Guard improvised weapons in Imperial War Museum, London.
Improvised munitions from the Warsaw uprising, 1944
Molotov cocktails used by Ukrainian protesters

The demonstration involved throwing glass bottles containing a mixture of petrol and phosphorus at pieces of wood and into a hut.

North American F-100 Super Sabre deploying napalm in a training exercise.

Napalm

Incendiary mixture of a gelling agent and a volatile petrochemical or diesel fuel).

Incendiary mixture of a gelling agent and a volatile petrochemical or diesel fuel).

North American F-100 Super Sabre deploying napalm in a training exercise.
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Results of a napalm strike by the Aviation navale on suspected Viet Minh positions during the First Indochina War, December 1953
Riverboat of the US Brown-water navy deploying an ignited napalm mixture from a riverboat-mounted flamethrower in Vietnam.

One of Fieser's colleagues suggested adding phosphorus to the mix which increased the "ability to penetrate deeply [...] into the musculature, where it would continue to burn day after day."

False colour composite of Venus in visual and ultraviolet wavelengths (from Mariner 10). The surface is completely obscured by clouds.

Venus

Second planet from the Sun and is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty.

Second planet from the Sun and is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty.

False colour composite of Venus in visual and ultraviolet wavelengths (from Mariner 10). The surface is completely obscured by clouds.
Size comparison of Venus and Earth
False-colour radar map of Maat Mons
Impact craters on the surface of Venus (false-colour image reconstructed from radar data)
The differentiated structure of Venus
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting approximately 1.6 times (yellow trail) in Earth's 365 days (blue trail).
Venus, pictured center-right, is always brighter than all other planets or stars as seen from Earth. Jupiter is visible at the top of the image.
The phases of Venus and evolution of its apparent diameter
Transit of Venus, 2004
The pentagram of Venus. Earth is positioned at the centre of the diagram, and the curve represents the direction and distance of Venus as a function of time.
The "black drop effect" as recorded during the 1769 transit
Galileo's discovery that Venus showed phases (although remaining near the Sun in Earth's sky) proved that it orbits the Sun and not Earth.
Modern telescopic view of Venus from Earth's surface
Mockup of the Venera 1 spacecraft
Artist's impression of Mariner 2, launched in 1962: a skeletal, bottle-shaped spacecraft with a large radio dish on top
Global false color view of Venus in ultraviolet radiation done by Mariner 10
180-degree panorama of Venus's surface from the Soviet Venera 9 lander, 1975. Black-and-white image of barren, black, slate-like rocks against a flat sky. The ground and the probe are the focus. Several lines are missing due to a simultaneous transmission of the scientific data.
Venus is portrayed just to the right of the large cypress tree in Vincent van Gogh's 1889 painting The Starry Night.
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The Greeks used the names Phōsphoros (Φωσϕόρος), meaning "light-bringer" (whence the element phosphorus; alternately Ēōsphoros (Ἠωσϕόρος), meaning "dawn-bringer"), for the morning star, and Hesperos (Ἕσπερος), meaning "Western one", for the evening star.

Carl Scheele

Carl Wilhelm Scheele

Swedish German pharmaceutical chemist.

Swedish German pharmaceutical chemist.

Carl Scheele
Engraving on the title page of Scheele's Chemical Treatise on Air and Fire (1777) (d. Königl. Schwed. Acad. d. Wissenschaft Mitgliedes, Chemische Abhandlung von der Luft und dem Feuer)
Pyrolusite or MnO2.
Chlorine gas.
Statue of Scheele in Köping, Sweden.
Mémoires de chymie, 1785, French translation by Mme. Claudine Picardet
Early history of chlorine, 1944

In 1774, Scheele further investigated barium in pyrolusite: From page 102: "4:to Något af en ny Jord-art, hvilken, så mycket jag vet, ännu är obekant." (4th Something of a new type of ore [i.e., mineral], which, as far as I know, is still unknown.) From page 112: "Den besynnerliga Jord-arten, som visar sig vid alla klara uplösningar af Brunstenen, hvarom något är anfördt i 18. §." (This peculiar type of ore [i.e., mineral] appears in all clear solutions of brown-stone, concerning which something is stated in section 18.) manganese (1774), molybdenum (1778), and tungsten (1781), as well as several chemical compounds, including citric acid, lactic acid, glycerol, hydrogen cyanide (also known, in aqueous solution, as prussic acid), hydrogen fluoride, and hydrogen sulfide (1777). In addition, he discovered a process similar to pasteurization, along with a means of mass-producing phosphorus (1769), leading Sweden to become one of the world's leading producers of matches.

Example of phosphorescence

Phosphor

Substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence; it emits light when exposed to some type of radiant energy.

Substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence; it emits light when exposed to some type of radiant energy.

Example of phosphorescence
Monochrome monitor
Aperture grille CRT phosphors
Jablonski diagram shows the energy levels in a fluorescing atom in a phosphor. An electron in the phosphor absorbs a high-energy photon from the applied radiation, exciting it to a higher energy level.  After losing some energy in non-radiative transitions, it eventually transitions back to its ground state energy level by fluorescence, emitting a photon of lower energy in the visible light region.
Spectra of constituent blue, green and red phosphors in a common cathode ray tube.

Phosphorus, the light-emitting chemical element for which phosphors are named, emits light due to chemiluminescence, not phosphorescence.