A report on Phosphorus

White phosphorus exposed to air glows in the dark
The tetrahedral structure of P4O10 and P4S10.
A stable diphosphene, a derivative of phosphorus(I).
Robert Boyle
Guano mining in the Central Chincha Islands, ca. 1860.
Mining of phosphate rock in Nauru
Match striking surface made of a mixture of red phosphorus, glue and ground glass. The glass powder is used to increase the friction.
Phosphorus explosion

Chemical element with the symbol P and atomic number 15.

- Phosphorus
White phosphorus exposed to air glows in the dark

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A, B, and C represent the soil profile, a notation firstly coined by Vasily Dokuchaev (1846–1903), the father of pedology. Here, A is the topsoil; B is a regolith; C is a saprolite (a less-weathered regolith); the bottom-most layer represents the bedrock.

Soil

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Mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

Mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

A, B, and C represent the soil profile, a notation firstly coined by Vasily Dokuchaev (1846–1903), the father of pedology. Here, A is the topsoil; B is a regolith; C is a saprolite (a less-weathered regolith); the bottom-most layer represents the bedrock.
Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till in Northern Ireland
Soil profile: Darkened topsoil and reddish subsoil layers are typical of humid subtropical climate regions.
Desertification
Erosion control

They are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), boron (B), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni) and chlorine (Cl).

Mineral (nutrient)

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Chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.

Chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.

The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and magnesium.

Phosphor bronze propeller salvaged from 1940s American warship.

Phosphor bronze

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Member of the family of copper alloys.

Member of the family of copper alloys.

Phosphor bronze propeller salvaged from 1940s American warship.
The CuOFP capsule used as overpack for spent nuclear fuel disposal in the KBS-3 concept (Finnish version).
Phosphor bronze tenor and soprano saxophones
Acoustic guitar string wrapped with phosphor bronze

It is composed of copper that is alloyed with 0.5–11% of tin and 0.01–0.35% phosphorus, and may contain other elements to confer specific properties (e.g. lead at 0.5–3.0% to form free-machining phosphor bronze).

Johann Wilhelm Hittorf c. undefined 1904

Johann Wilhelm Hittorf

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German physicist who was born in Bonn and died in Münster, Germany.

German physicist who was born in Bonn and died in Münster, Germany.

Johann Wilhelm Hittorf c. undefined 1904

Hittorf's early investigations were on the allotropes of phosphorus and selenium.

Harvest of capsicum grown with compost made from human excreta at an experimental garden in Haiti

Reuse of human excreta

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Safe, beneficial use of treated human excreta after applying suitable treatment steps and risk management approaches that are customized for the intended reuse application.

Safe, beneficial use of treated human excreta after applying suitable treatment steps and risk management approaches that are customized for the intended reuse application.

Harvest of capsicum grown with compost made from human excreta at an experimental garden in Haiti
A sewage farm in Hampshire, England
Comparison of spinach field with (left) and without (right) compost, experiments at the SOIL farm in Port-au-Prince, Haiti
Application of urine on a field near Bonn, Germany, by means of flexible hose close to the soil
Basil plants: The plants on the right are not fertilized, while the plants on the left are fertilized with urine - in a nutrient-poor soil
Application of urine on eggplants during a comprehensive urine application field testing study at Xavier University, Philippines
Cabbage grown in excreta-based compost (left) and without soil amendments (right), SOIL in Haiti
Gardeners of Fada N'Gourma in Burkina Faso apply dry excreta after mixing with other organic fertilizer (donkey manure, cow manure) and pure fertile soil, and after maturing for another 2 to 4 months

In contrast, phosphorus was utilized at a higher rate than soluble phosphate.

Peloidal phosphorite, Phosphoria Formation, Simplot Mine, Idaho. 4.6 cm wide.

Phosphorite

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Non-detrital sedimentary rock that contains high amounts of phosphate minerals.

Non-detrital sedimentary rock that contains high amounts of phosphate minerals.

Peloidal phosphorite, Phosphoria Formation, Simplot Mine, Idaho. 4.6 cm wide.
Fossiliferous peloidal phosphorite, (4.7 cm across), Yunnan Province, China.
Guano phosphorite mining in the Chincha Islands of Peru, c. 1860
Phosphorite mine near Oron, Negev, Israel.

This rock phosphate is then either solubilized to produce wet-process phosphoric acid, or smelted to produce elemental phosphorus.

Molten slag is carried outside and poured into a dump

Slag

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By-product of smelting ores and used metals.

By-product of smelting ores and used metals.

Molten slag is carried outside and poured into a dump
Global production of iron and steel, 1942- 2018, according to USGS.
Pile of steelmaking slag at the ArcelorMittal Indiana Harbor steelmaking facility, Indiana. Photograph by Nadine Piatak, USGS.
The Manufacture of Iron – Carting Away the Scoriæ (slag), an 1873 wood engraving
Slag run-off from one of the open hearth furnaces of a steel mill, Republic Steel, Youngstown, Ohio, November 1941. Slag is drawn off the furnace just before the molten steel is poured into ladles for ingotting.
A path through a slag heap in Clarkdale, Arizona, showing the striations from the rusting corrugated sheets retaining it.
Early slag from Denmark, c. 200-500 CE

The major components of these slags include the oxides of calcium, magnesium, silicon, iron, and aluminium, with lesser amounts of manganese, phosphorus, and others depending on the specifics of the raw materials used.

Figure 2: Diffraction pattern of gaseous benzene

Gas electron diffraction

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One of the applications of electron diffraction techniques.

One of the applications of electron diffraction techniques.

Figure 2: Diffraction pattern of gaseous benzene
Scheme 1: Schematic drawing of an electron diffraction apparatus
Scheme 2: Data reduction process from the concentric scattering pattern to the molecular scattering intensity curve
Figure 1: Gas-diffraction apparatus at the University of Bielefeld, Germany
Figure 3: Scheme of a rotating sector, placement of the rotating sector within a GED apparatus and two examples of diffraction pattrens recorded with and without rotating sector.
Scheme 2: Schematic scattering proces of an electron passing a positively charged atomic nucleus
Firgure 4. Electron wave scattered at a pair of atomic nuclei at different distances
Figure 5: Examples of molecular intensity curves (lefte) and their Fourier tranformed, the radial districution curves of P4 and P3As.

The very simple example in Figure 5 shows the results for evaporated white phosphorus, P4.

The USS Los Angeles, a United States Navy airship built in Germany by the Luftschiffbau Zeppelin (Zeppelin Airship Company)

Zeppelin

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Type of rigid airship named after the German inventor Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin who pioneered rigid airship development at the beginning of the 20th century.

Type of rigid airship named after the German inventor Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin who pioneered rigid airship development at the beginning of the 20th century.

The USS Los Angeles, a United States Navy airship built in Germany by the Luftschiffbau Zeppelin (Zeppelin Airship Company)
The pink ovals depict hydrogen cells inside the LZ 127, the magenta elements are Blaugas cells. The full-resolution picture labels more internals.
Ferdinand von Zeppelin
The first flight of LZ 1 over Lake Constance (the Bodensee) in 1900
Zeppelin LZ 4 with its multiple stabilizers, 1908
Wreckage of LZ 4
LZ 7 Deutschland
A monument near Bad Iburg commemorating the 1910 LZ 7 crash
LZ 18 (L 2)
German zeppelin bombs Liège WWI
Crater of a Zeppelin bomb in Paris, 1916
Wreckage of Zeppelin L31 shot down over England 23 Sept 1916.
A Zeppelin flying over
British First World War poster of a Zeppelin above London at night
A commemorative plaque at 61 Farringdon Road, London
Zeppelin memorial flagstone, Edinburgh
Zeppelin bomb, on display at the National Museum of Flight near Edinburgh
Section of girder from a Zeppelin shot down in England in 1916. Now at the National Physical Laboratory
British propaganda postcard, entitled "The End of the 'Baby-Killer'"
A damaged Zeppelin gondola with a collapsable boat lying nearby. September 1916
L32 Great Burstead Memorial
1917 watercolour by Felix Schwormstädt – translated title: "In the rear engine gondola of a Zeppelin airship during the flight through enemy airspace after a successful attack on England"
Memorial in Camberwell Old Cemetery, London, to 21 civilians killed by Zeppelin bombings in 1917
The observation car preserved at the Imperial War Museum
The Bodensee 1919
The Nordstern 1920
ZR-3 USS Los Angeles over southern Manhattan
Graf Zeppelin under construction
The Graf Zeppelin
US Air Mail 1930 picturing the Graf Zeppelin
The Hindenburg: note swastikas on tail fins.
The Hindenburg on fire in 1937
Zeppelin NT

Britain developed new bullets, the Brock containing oxidant potassium chlorate, and the Buckingham filled with phosphorus, which reacted with the chlorate to catch fire and hence ignite the Zeppelin's hydrogen.

False colour composite of Venus in visual and ultraviolet wavelengths (from Mariner 10). The surface is completely obscured by clouds.

Venus

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Second planet from the Sun and is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty.

Second planet from the Sun and is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty.

False colour composite of Venus in visual and ultraviolet wavelengths (from Mariner 10). The surface is completely obscured by clouds.
Size comparison of Venus and Earth
False-colour radar map of Maat Mons
Impact craters on the surface of Venus (false-colour image reconstructed from radar data)
The differentiated structure of Venus
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting approximately 1.6 times (yellow trail) in Earth's 365 days (blue trail).
Venus, pictured center-right, is always brighter than all other planets or stars as seen from Earth. Jupiter is visible at the top of the image.
The phases of Venus and evolution of its apparent diameter
Transit of Venus, 2004
The pentagram of Venus. Earth is positioned at the centre of the diagram, and the curve represents the direction and distance of Venus as a function of time.
The "black drop effect" as recorded during the 1769 transit
Galileo's discovery that Venus showed phases (although remaining near the Sun in Earth's sky) proved that it orbits the Sun and not Earth.
Modern telescopic view of Venus from Earth's surface
Mockup of the Venera 1 spacecraft
Artist's impression of Mariner 2, launched in 1962: a skeletal, bottle-shaped spacecraft with a large radio dish on top
Global false color view of Venus in ultraviolet radiation done by Mariner 10
180-degree panorama of Venus's surface from the Soviet Venera 9 lander, 1975. Black-and-white image of barren, black, slate-like rocks against a flat sky. The ground and the probe are the focus. Several lines are missing due to a simultaneous transmission of the scientific data.
Venus is portrayed just to the right of the large cypress tree in Vincent van Gogh's 1889 painting The Starry Night.
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The Greeks used the names Phōsphoros (Φωσϕόρος), meaning "light-bringer" (whence the element phosphorus; alternately Ēōsphoros (Ἠωσϕόρος), meaning "dawn-bringer"), for the morning star, and Hesperos (Ἕσπερος), meaning "Western one", for the evening star.