A report on Phosphorus

White phosphorus exposed to air glows in the dark
The tetrahedral structure of P4O10 and P4S10.
A stable diphosphene, a derivative of phosphorus(I).
Robert Boyle
Guano mining in the Central Chincha Islands, ca. 1860.
Mining of phosphate rock in Nauru
Match striking surface made of a mixture of red phosphorus, glue and ground glass. The glass powder is used to increase the friction.
Phosphorus explosion

Chemical element with the symbol P and atomic number 15.

- Phosphorus
White phosphorus exposed to air glows in the dark

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A copper retort

Retort

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Device used for distillation or dry distillation of substances.

Device used for distillation or dry distillation of substances.

A copper retort
A glass retort
Retort in use

An early method for producing phosphorus starts by roasting bones, and uses clay retorts encased in a very hot brick furnace to distill out the highly toxic product.

Methamphetamine

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Potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.

Potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.

Desoxyn (Methamphetamine Hydrochloride) 100 tablets.
A 2010 study ranking various illegal and legal drugs based on statements by drug-harm experts. Methamphetamine was found to be the fourth most damaging to society.
A suspected case of meth mouth
This diagram depicts the neuroimmune mechanisms that mediate methamphetamine-induced neurodegeneration in the human brain. The NF-κB-mediated neuroimmune response to methamphetamine use which results in the increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier arises through its binding at and activation of sigma receptors, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), the dysregulation of glutamate transporters (specifically, EAAT1 and EAAT2) and glucose metabolism, and excessive Ca2+ ion influx in glial cells and dopamine neurons.
This illustration depicts the normal operation of the dopaminergic terminal to the left, and the dopaminergic terminal in the presence of methamphetamine to the right. Methamphetamine reverses the action of the dopamine transporter (DAT) by activating TAAR1 (not shown). TAAR1 activation also causes some of the dopamine transporters to move into the presynaptic neuron and cease transport (not shown). At VMAT2 (labeled VMAT), methamphetamine causes dopamine efflux (release).
Shards of pure methamphetamine hydrochloride, also known as crystal meth
Pervitin, a methamphetamine brand used by German soldiers during World War II, was dispensed in these tablet containers.
U.S. drug overdose related fatalities in 2017 were 70,200, including 10,333 of those related to psychostimulants (including methamphetamine).

Three decades later, in 1919, methamphetamine hydrochloride was synthesized by pharmacologist Akira Ogata via reduction of ephedrine using red phosphorus and iodine.

The CuOFP capsule used as overpack for spent nuclear fuel disposal in the KBS-3 concept (Swedish version)

Oxygen-free copper

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Group of wrought high-conductivity copper alloys that have been electrolytically refined to reduce the level of oxygen to 0.001% or below.

Group of wrought high-conductivity copper alloys that have been electrolytically refined to reduce the level of oxygen to 0.001% or below.

The CuOFP capsule used as overpack for spent nuclear fuel disposal in the KBS-3 concept (Swedish version)

High-electrical-conductivity coppers are distinct from coppers deoxidized by the addition of phosphorus in the smelting process.

Carl Scheele

Carl Wilhelm Scheele

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Swedish German pharmaceutical chemist.

Swedish German pharmaceutical chemist.

Carl Scheele
Engraving on the title page of Scheele's Chemical Treatise on Air and Fire (1777) (d. Königl. Schwed. Acad. d. Wissenschaft Mitgliedes, Chemische Abhandlung von der Luft und dem Feuer)
Pyrolusite or MnO2.
Chlorine gas.
Statue of Scheele in Köping, Sweden.
Mémoires de chymie, 1785, French translation by Mme. Claudine Picardet
Early history of chlorine, 1944

In 1774, Scheele further investigated barium in pyrolusite: From page 102: "4:to Något af en ny Jord-art, hvilken, så mycket jag vet, ännu är obekant." (4th Something of a new type of ore [i.e., mineral], which, as far as I know, is still unknown.) From page 112: "Den besynnerliga Jord-arten, som visar sig vid alla klara uplösningar af Brunstenen, hvarom något är anfördt i 18. §." (This peculiar type of ore [i.e., mineral] appears in all clear solutions of brown-stone, concerning which something is stated in section 18.) manganese (1774), molybdenum (1778), and tungsten (1781), as well as several chemical compounds, including citric acid, lactic acid, glycerol, hydrogen cyanide (also known, in aqueous solution, as prussic acid), hydrogen fluoride, and hydrogen sulfide (1777). In addition, he discovered a process similar to pasteurization, along with a means of mass-producing phosphorus (1769), leading Sweden to become one of the world's leading producers of matches.

China has the largest agricultural output of any country.

Agriculture

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Practice of cultivating plants and livestock.

Practice of cultivating plants and livestock.

China has the largest agricultural output of any country.
Centres of origin, as numbered by Nikolai Vavilov in the 1930s. Area 3 (gray) is no longer recognised as a centre of origin, and New Guinea (area P, orange) was identified more recently.
Agricultural scenes of threshing, a grain store, harvesting with sickles, digging, tree-cutting and ploughing from ancient Egypt. Tomb of Nakht, 15th century BC
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
Reindeer herds form the basis of pastoral agriculture for several Arctic and Subarctic peoples.
Harvesting wheat with a combine harvester accompanied by a tractor and trailer
Spreading manure by hand in Zambia
On the three-sector theory, the proportion of people working in agriculture (left-hard bar in each group, green) falls as an economy becomes more developed.
Rollover protection bar retrofitted to a mid-20th century Fordson tractor
Value of agricultural production, 2016
Slash and burn shifting cultivation, Thailand
Intercropping of coconut and Mexican marigold
Intensively farmed pigs
Raising chickens intensively for meat in a broiler house
Tilling an arable field
A center pivot irrigation system
Winnowing grain: global warming will probably harm crop yields in low latitude countries like Ethiopia.
Wheat cultivar tolerant of high salinity (left) compared with non-tolerant variety
Seedlings in a green house. This is what it looks like when seedlings are growing from plant breeding.
Genetically modified potato plants (left) resist virus diseases that damage unmodified plants (right).
Water pollution in a rural stream due to runoff from farming activity in New Zealand
Farmyard anaerobic digester converts waste plant material and manure from livestock into biogas fuel.
Circular irrigated crop fields in Kansas. Healthy, growing crops of corn and sorghum are green (sorghum may be slightly paler). Wheat is brilliant gold. Fields of brown have been recently harvested and plowed or have lain in fallow for the year.
Spraying a crop with a pesticide
Terraces, conservation tillage and conservation buffers reduce soil erosion and water pollution on this farm in Iowa.
Mechanised agriculture: from the first models in the 1940s, tools like a cotton picker could replace 50 farm workers, at the price of increased use of fossil fuel.
In 19th century Britain, the protectionist Corn Laws led to high prices and widespread protest, such as this 1846 meeting of the Anti-Corn Law League.
An agronomist mapping a plant genome

Excessive fertilization and manure application to cropland, as well as high livestock stocking densities cause nutrient (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) runoff and leaching from agricultural land.