Photographic plate

AGFA photographic plates, 1880
Mimosa Panchroma-Studio-Antihalo Panchromatic glass plates, 9 x 12cm, Mimosa A.-G. Dresden
Negative plate
Image resulting from a glass plate negative showing Devil's Cascade in 1900.

Photographic plates preceded photographic film as a capture medium in photography, and were still used in some communities up until the late 20th century.

- Photographic plate
AGFA photographic plates, 1880

21 related topics

Alpha

Natural color x-ray photogram of a wine scene

X-ray

Penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation.

Penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation.

Natural color x-ray photogram of a wine scene
Example of a Crookes tube, a type of discharge tube that emitted X-rays
Wilhelm Röntgen
Hand mit Ringen (Hand with Rings): print of Wilhelm Röntgen's first "medical" X-ray, of his wife's hand, taken on 22 December 1895 and presented to Ludwig Zehnder of the Physik Institut, University of Freiburg, on 1 January 1896
Taking an X-ray image with early Crookes tube apparatus, late 1800s. The Crookes tube is visible in center. The standing man is viewing his hand with a fluoroscope screen. The seated man is taking a radiograph of his hand by placing it on a photographic plate. No precautions against radiation exposure are taken; its hazards were not known at the time.
Surgical removal of a bullet whose location was diagnosed with X-rays (see inset) in 1897
Images by James Green, from "Sciagraphs of British Batrachians and Reptiles" (1897), featuring (from left) Rana esculenta (now Pelophylax lessonae), Lacerta vivipara (now Zootoca vivipara), and Lacerta agilis
1896 plaque published in "Nouvelle Iconographie de la Salpetrière", a medical journal. In the left a hand deformity, in the right same hand seen using radiography. The authors named the technique Röntgen photography.
A patient being examined with a thoracic fluoroscope in 1940, which displayed continuous moving images. This image was used to argue that radiation exposure during the X-ray procedure would be negligible.
Chandra's image of the galaxy cluster Abell 2125 reveals a complex of several massive multimillion-degree-Celsius gas clouds in the process of merging.
Phase-contrast X-ray image of spider
X-rays are part of the electromagnetic spectrum, with wavelengths shorter than UV light. Different applications use different parts of the X-ray spectrum.
Ionizing radiation hazard symbol
Attenuation length of X-rays in water showing the oxygen absorption edge at 540 eV, the energy−3 dependence of photoabsorption, as well as a leveling off at higher photon energies due to Compton scattering. The attenuation length is about four orders of magnitude longer for hard X-rays (right half) compared to soft X-rays (left half).
Spectrum of the X-rays emitted by an X-ray tube with a rhodium target, operated at 60 kV. The smooth, continuous curve is due to bremsstrahlung, and the spikes are characteristic K lines for rhodium atoms.
Patient undergoing an x-ray exam in a hospital radiology room.
A chest radiograph of a female, demonstrating a hiatal hernia
Plain radiograph of the right knee
Head CT scan (transverse plane) slice – a modern application of medical radiography
Abdominal radiograph of a pregnant woman, a procedure that should be performed only after proper assessment of benefit versus risk
Each dot, called a reflection, in this diffraction pattern forms from the constructive interference of scattered X-rays passing through a crystal. The data can be used to determine the crystalline structure.
Using X-ray for inspection and quality control: the differences in the structures of the die and bond wires reveal the left chip to be counterfeit.
X-ray fine art photography of needlefish by Peter Dazeley

On 3 February 1896, Gilman Frost, professor of medicine at the college, and his brother Edwin Frost, professor of physics, exposed the wrist of Eddie McCarthy, whom Gilman had treated some weeks earlier for a fracture, to the X-rays and collected the resulting image of the broken bone on gelatin photographic plates obtained from Howard Langill, a local photographer also interested in Röntgen's work.

The phosphor plate radiography process

Photostimulated luminescence

Release of stored energy within a phosphor by stimulation with visible light, to produce a luminescent signal.

Release of stored energy within a phosphor by stimulation with visible light, to produce a luminescent signal.

The phosphor plate radiography process
Readout of a PSP plate
CeReO - PSP plate scanner

Creating an image requires illuminating the plate twice: the first exposure, to the radiation of interest, "writes" the image, and a later, second illumination (typically by a visible-wavelength laser) "reads" the image.

Undeveloped 35 mm, ISO 125/22°, black and white negative film

Photographic film

Strip or sheet of transparent film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.

Strip or sheet of transparent film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.

Undeveloped 35 mm, ISO 125/22°, black and white negative film
Layers of 35 mm color film:
Plot of image density (D) vs. log exposure (H), yields a characteristic S-curve (H&D curve) for each type of film to determine its sensitivity. Changing the emulsion properties or the processing parameters will move the curve to the left or right. Changing the exposure will move along the curve, helping to determine what exposure is needed for a given film. Note the non-linear response at the far left ("toe") and right ("shoulder") of the curve.
A roll of 400 speed Kodak 35 mm film.
135 Film Cartridge with DX barcode (top) and DX CAS code on the black and white grid below the barcode. The CAS code shows the ISO, number of exposures, exposure latitude (+3/−1 for print film).
DX film edge barcode
9.5mm film
Mycro 17.5mm film
Kodak Agfa 16 mm film
120 film
35mm film

Although fragile and relatively heavy, the glass used for photographic plates was of better optical quality than early transparent plastics and was, at first, less expensive.

Acquisition of projectional radiography, with an X-ray generator and an imaging detector.

X-ray detector

X-ray detectors are devices used to measure the flux, spatial distribution, spectrum, and/or other properties of X-rays.

X-ray detectors are devices used to measure the flux, spatial distribution, spectrum, and/or other properties of X-rays.

Acquisition of projectional radiography, with an X-ray generator and an imaging detector.
Fish bone pierced in the upper esophagus. Right image without contrast medium, left image during swallowing with contrast medium.
radiograph taken during cholecystectomy
Plot of ion current as function of applied voltage for a wire cylinder gaseous radiation detector.

Detectors can be divided into two major categories: imaging detectors (such as photographic plates and X-ray film (photographic film), now mostly replaced by various digitizing devices like image plates or flat panel detectors) and dose measurement devices (such as ionization chambers, Geiger counters, and dosimeters used to measure the local radiation exposure, dose, and/or dose rate, for example, for verifying that radiation protection equipment and procedures are effective on an ongoing basis).

Illustration of the use of interferometry in the optical wavelength range to determine precise positions of stars. Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

Astrometry

Branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies.

Branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies.

Illustration of the use of interferometry in the optical wavelength range to determine precise positions of stars. Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech
Concept art for the TAU spacecraft, a 1980s era study which would have used an interstellar precursor probe to expand the baseline for calculating stellar parallax in support of Astrometry
Diagram showing how a smaller object (such as an extrasolar planet) orbiting a larger object (such as a star) could produce changes in position and velocity of the latter as they orbit their common center of mass (red cross).
Motion of barycenter of solar system relative to the Sun.

Astrographs using astronomical photographic plates sped the process in the early 20th century.

A modern transmission electron microscope

Electron microscope

Microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

Microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

A modern transmission electron microscope
Diagram of a transmission electron microscope
Electron microscope constructed by Ernst Ruska in 1933
Diagram illustrating the phenomena resulting from the interaction of highly energetic electrons with matter
Image of Bacillus subtilis taken with a 1960s electron microscope
An image of an ant in a scanning electron microscope
An insect coated in gold for viewing with a scanning electron microscope
JEOL transmission and scanning electron microscope made in the mid-1970s

Alternatively, the image can be photographically recorded by exposing a photographic film or plate directly to the electron beam, or a high-resolution phosphor may be coupled by means of a lens optical system or a fibre optic light-guide to the sensor of a digital camera.

The quark structure of the positively charged pion.

Pion

Any of three subatomic particles:, , and.

Any of three subatomic particles:, , and.

The quark structure of the positively charged pion.
An animation of the nuclear force (or residual strong force) interaction. The small colored double disks are gluons. For the choice of anticolors, see.
The same process as in the animation with the individual quark constituents shown, to illustrate how the fundamental strong interaction gives rise to the nuclear force. Straight lines are quarks, while multi-colored loops are gluons (the carriers of the fundamental force). Other gluons, which bind together the proton, neutron, and pion "in-flight", are not shown. The pion contains an anti-quark, shown to travel in the opposite direction, as per the Feynman–Stueckelberg interpretation.
Feynman diagram of the dominant leptonic pion decay.
Anomaly-induced neutral pion decay.

After development, the photographic plates were inspected under a microscope by a team of about a dozen women.

The Seal of the USNO with a quote from the Astronomica by Marcus Manilius, Adde gubernandi studium: Pervenit in astra, et pontum caelo conjunxit [Increase the study of navigation: It arrives in the stars, and marries the sea with heaven.]

United States Naval Observatory

Scientific and military facility that produces geopositioning, navigation and timekeeping data for the United States Navy and the United States Department of Defense.

Scientific and military facility that produces geopositioning, navigation and timekeeping data for the United States Navy and the United States Department of Defense.

The Seal of the USNO with a quote from the Astronomica by Marcus Manilius, Adde gubernandi studium: Pervenit in astra, et pontum caelo conjunxit [Increase the study of navigation: It arrives in the stars, and marries the sea with heaven.]
400x400px
The 26 inch (66 cm) aperture telescope, with which Asaph Hall discovered the moons of Mars in 1877; the telescope is shown here at its new location.
Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station
Number One Observatory Circle, official home of the U.S. vice president.
Atomic clock ensemble at the U.S. Naval Observatory
Navy Precision Optical Interferometer, Flagstaff, Arizona

Relying strongly on photographic methods, the naval observers returned 350 photographic plates in 1874, and 1,380 measurable plates in 1882.

Charon in true color, imaged by New Horizons

Charon (moon)

Largest of the five known natural satellites of the dwarf planet Pluto.

Largest of the five known natural satellites of the dwarf planet Pluto.

Charon in true color, imaged by New Horizons
Charon's discovery at the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station as a time-varying bulge on the image of Pluto (seen near the top at left, but absent on the right). Negative image.
Charon is named after Charon, the ferryman of the dead in Greek mythology, shown in this nineteenth-century painting by Alexander Litovchenko
A simulated view of the Pluto–Charon system showing that Pluto orbits a point outside itself. Also visible is the mutual tidal locking between the two bodies.
Size comparisons: Earth, the Moon, and Charon
The two conflicting theories about Charon's internal structure
Charon in enhanced color to bring out differences in surface composition, showing the so-called Mordor Macula at the top
Organa, the youngest crater of Charon.
Mosaic of best-resolution images of Charon from different angles

On June 22, 1978, he had been examining highly magnified images of Pluto on photographic plates taken with the telescope two months prior.

Two photographs of a single hologram taken from different viewpoints

Holography

Technique that enables a wavefront to be recorded and later re-constructed.

Technique that enables a wavefront to be recorded and later re-constructed.

Two photographs of a single hologram taken from different viewpoints
Horizontal symmetric text, by Dieter Jung
Recording a hologram
Reconstructing a hologram
This is a photograph of a small part of an unbleached transmission hologram viewed through a microscope. The hologram recorded an images of a toy van and car. It is no more possible to discern the subject of the hologram from this pattern than it is to identify what music has been recorded by looking at a CD surface. The holographic information is recorded by the speckle pattern.
Sinusoidal zone plate
Peace Within Reach, a Denisyuk DCG hologram by amateur Dave Battin
Identigram as a security element in a German identity card
Pepper's ghost with a 2D video. The video image displayed on the floor is reflected in an angled sheet of glass.

Various setups may be used, and several types of holograms can be made, but all involve the interaction of light coming from different directions and producing a microscopic interference pattern which a plate, film, or other medium photographically records.