Photoplethysmogram

PhotoplethysmographphotoplethysmographyPPGplethysmographpulsetechnique using light
A photoplethysmogram (PPG) is an optically obtained plethysmogram that can be used to detect blood volume changes in the microvascular bed of tissue.wikipedia
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Vaginal photoplethysmograph

Vaginal photoplethysmographyvaginal plethysmography
Vaginal photoplethysmography (VPG, VPP) is a technique using light to measure the amount of blood in the walls of the vagina.

Plethysmograph

plethysmographybody plethysmographyplethysmogram
A photoplethysmogram (PPG) is an optically obtained plethysmogram that can be used to detect blood volume changes in the microvascular bed of tissue.

Heart rate monitor

heart monitorHeart rate sensorheart rate monitors
PPG (Photoplethysmography) sensors use a light-based technology to measure the blood volume controlled by the heart's pumping action.

Laser Doppler imaging

A refinement of this technique, holographic laser Doppler imaging, enables non-invasive retinal and choroidal blood flow pulse wave monitoring.

Pulse oximetry

pulse oximeteroximetryoximeter
A PPG is often obtained by using a pulse oximeter which illuminates the skin and measures changes in light absorption. While pulse oximeters are a commonly used medical device, the PPG derived from them is rarely displayed and is nominally only processed to determine heart rate.
A pulse oximeter is a medical device that indirectly monitors the oxygen saturation of a patient's blood (as opposed to measuring oxygen saturation directly through a blood sample) and changes in blood volume in the skin, producing a photoplethysmogram that may be further processed into other measurements.

Skin

cutaneousskin cellanimal skin
A PPG is often obtained by using a pulse oximeter which illuminates the skin and measures changes in light absorption.

Cardiac cycle

heartbeatheart beatventricular systole
With each cardiac cycle the heart pumps blood to the periphery.

Light-emitting diode

LEDLEDslight emitting diodes
The change in volume caused by the pressure pulse is detected by illuminating the skin with the light from a light-emitting diode (LED) and then measuring the amount of light either transmitted or reflected to a photodiode.

Hypovolemia

hemorrhagic shockhypovolemic shockvolume depletion
Because blood flow to the skin can be modulated by multiple other physiological systems, the PPG can also be used to monitor breathing, hypovolemia, and other circulatory conditions.

Medical device

medical devicesmedical equipmentmedical instrument
While pulse oximeters are a commonly used medical device, the PPG derived from them is rarely displayed and is nominally only processed to determine heart rate.

Hypothermia

exposurehypothermiclow body temperature
However, in cases of shock, hypothermia, etc. blood flow to the periphery can be reduced, resulting in a PPG without a discernible cardiac pulse.

Nasal septum

septumseptal cartilagecolumella
In this case, a PPG can be obtained from a pulse oximeter on the head, with the most common sites being the ear, nasal septum, and forehead.

Vagina

birth canalvaginalvaginal opening

Clitoris

clitoralclitoral glansglans clitoridis

Esophagus

oesophagusesophageallower esophageal sphincter

Premature ventricular contraction

premature ventricular contractionsextrasystolespremature ventricular beats
As seen in the figure showing premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), the PPG pulse for the cardiac cycle with the PVC results in lower amplitude blood pressure and a PPG.

Blood pressure

systolic blood pressurediastolic blood pressurearterial blood pressure
As seen in the figure showing premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), the PPG pulse for the cardiac cycle with the PVC results in lower amplitude blood pressure and a PPG.

Ventricular tachycardia

polymorphic ventricular tachycardiapulseless ventricular tachycardiamonomorphic ventricular tachycardia
Ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation can also be detected.

Ventricular fibrillation

fibrillationV-fibventricular fibrillation VF
Ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation can also be detected.

Food and Drug Administration

FDAU.S. Food and Drug AdministrationUnited States Food and Drug Administration
The FDA reportedly provided clearance to a photoplethysmography-based cuffless blood pressure monitor in August 2019.

Digital holography

3D digital holographic imagesdigital holograms
Remote photoplethysmography can also be performed by digital holography, which is sensitive to the phase of light waves, and hence very sensitive to sub-micron out-of-plane motion.

Heart rate variability

variabilityheart rate variability trainingHRV
and the pulse wave signal derived from a photoplethysmograph (PPG).