Cross section of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii algae cell, a 3D representation
DIC image of Scenedesmus quadricauda with the pyrenoid (central four circular structures) clearly visible.
PhotorespirationFrom left to right: chloroplast, peroxisome, and mitochondrion
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Oxygenase activity of RuBisCO
Overnight graph of absorbed by a CAM plant
In C2 plants, the mitochondria of mesophyll cells have no glycine decarboxylase (GDC).

Having a CCM favours carboxylation over wasteful oxygenation by RuBisCO.

- Pyrenoid

In nearly all species of eukaryotic algae (Chloromonas being one notable exception), upon induction of the CCM, ~95% of RuBisCO is densely packed into a single subcellular compartment: the pyrenoid.

- Photorespiration

3 related topics

Alpha

Chloroplasts visible in the cells of Bryum capillare, a type of moss

Chloroplast

Type of membrane-bound organelle known as a plastid that conducts photosynthesis mostly in plant and algal cells.

Type of membrane-bound organelle known as a plastid that conducts photosynthesis mostly in plant and algal cells.

Chloroplasts visible in the cells of Bryum capillare, a type of moss
Euglena, a euglenophyte, contains secondary chloroplasts from green algae.
Chlorarachnion reptans is a chlorarachniophyte. Chlorarachniophytes replaced their original red algal endosymbiont with a green alga.
Scanning electron micrograph of Gephyrocapsa oceanica, a haptophyte.
The photosynthetic pigments present in their chloroplasts give diatoms a greenish-brown color.
Ceratium furca, a peridinin-containing dinophyte
Karenia brevis is a fucoxanthin-containing dynophyte responsible for algal blooms called "red tides".
Dinophysis acuminata has chloroplasts taken from a cryptophyte.
Chloroplast DNA replication via multiple D-loop mechanisms. Adapted from Krishnan NM, Rao BJ's paper "A comparative approach to elucidate chloroplast genome replication."
Over time, base changes in the DNA sequence can arise from deamination mutations. When adenine is deaminated, it becomes hypoxanthine, which can pair with cytosine. During replication, the cytosine will pair with guanine, causing an A --> G base change.
Transmission electron microscope image of a chloroplast. Grana of thylakoids and their connecting lamellae are clearly visible.
Instead of an intermembrane space, glaucophyte algae have a peptidoglycan wall between their inner and outer chloroplast membranes.
Granum-stroma assembly structure The prevailing model of the granum-stroma assembly is stacks of granal thylakoids wrapped by right-handed helical stromal thylakoids which are connected to large parallel sheets of stromal thylakoids and adjacent right-handed helices by left-handed helical structures. (Based on ).
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Some contain pyrenoids.

Photorespiration can occur when the oxygen concentration is too high.

Schematic of photosynthesis in plants. The carbohydrates produced are stored in or used by the plant.

Photosynthesis

Process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel the organism's activities.

Process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel the organism's activities.

Schematic of photosynthesis in plants. The carbohydrates produced are stored in or used by the plant.
Composite image showing the global distribution of photosynthesis, including both oceanic phytoplankton and terrestrial vegetation. Dark red and blue-green indicate regions of high photosynthetic activity in the ocean and on land, respectively.
Photosynthesis changes sunlight into chemical energy, splits water to liberate O2, and fixes CO2 into sugar.
Light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis at the thylakoid membrane
The "Z scheme"
Overview of the Calvin cycle and carbon fixation
Overview of C4 carbon fixation
Plant cells with visible chloroplasts (from a moss, Plagiomnium affine)
Portrait of Jan Baptist van Helmont by Mary Beale, c.1674
Melvin Calvin works in his photosynthesis laboratory.
The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants.
Absorbance spectra of free chlorophyll a ( blue ) and b ( red ) in a solvent. The action spectra of chlorophyll molecules are slightly modified in vivo depending on specific pigment–protein interactions.
Photorespiration

Under these conditions, will decrease and oxygen gas, produced by the light reactions of photosynthesis, will increase, causing an increase of photorespiration by the oxygenase activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and decrease in carbon fixation.

Pyrenoids in algae and hornworts also act to concentrate around RuBisCO.

A 3d depiction of the activated RuBisCO from spinach in open form with active site accessible. The active site Lys175 residues are marked in pink, and a close-up of the residue is provided to the right for one of the monomers composing the enzyme.

RuBisCO

Enzyme involved in the first major step of carbon fixation, a process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted by plants and other photosynthetic organisms to energy-rich molecules such as glucose.

Enzyme involved in the first major step of carbon fixation, a process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted by plants and other photosynthetic organisms to energy-rich molecules such as glucose.

A 3d depiction of the activated RuBisCO from spinach in open form with active site accessible. The active site Lys175 residues are marked in pink, and a close-up of the residue is provided to the right for one of the monomers composing the enzyme.
Active site of RuBisCO of Galdieria sulphuraria with CO2: Residues involved in both the active site and stabilizing CO2 for enzyme catalysis are shown in color and labeled. Distances of the hydrogen bonding interactions are shown in angstroms. Mg2+ ion (green sphere) is shown coordinated to CO2, and is followed by three water molecules (red spheres). All other residues are placed in grayscale.
Location of the rbcL gene in the chloroplast genome of Arabidopsis thaliana (positions ca. 55-56.4 kb). rbcL is one of the 21 protein-coding genes involved in photosynthesis (green boxes).
Two main reactions of RuBisCo: CO2 fixation and oxygenation.
A 3D image of the active site of spinach RuBisCO complexed with the inhibitor 2-Carboxyarabinitol-1,5-Bisphosphate, CO2, and Mg2+. (PDB: 1IR1; Ligand View [CAP]501:A)
Overview of the Calvin cycle and carbon fixation.
Figure 3. In this figure, each protein chain in the (LS)2 complex is given its own color for easy identification.

Phosphoglycolate is recycled through a sequence of reactions called photorespiration, which involves enzymes and cytochromes located in the mitochondria and peroxisomes (this is a case of metabolite repair).

Some plants, many algae, and photosynthetic bacteria have overcome this limitation by devising means to increase the concentration of carbon dioxide around the enzyme, including carbon fixation, crassulacean acid metabolism, and the use of pyrenoid.