Phrasal verb

phrasal verbsprepositional verbsparticle verbphrasalphrasal or compound verbprepositional verbverb particle
In English, a phrasal verb is a phrase such as turn down or ran into which combines two or three words from different grammatical categories: a verb and a particle and/or a preposition together form a single semantic unit.wikipedia
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Compound verb

complex predicatecompoundcompound verbs
Phrasal verbs that include a preposition are known as prepositional verbs and phrasal verbs that include a particle are also known as particle verbs. Additional alternative terms for phrasal verb are compound verb, verb-adverb combination, verb-particle construction, two-part word/verb, and three-part word/verb (depending on the number of particles), and multi-word verb.
Another variety of open-compound verb is common in English, German, and some other languages: The phrasal verb is in one in which a verb word and a preposition, particle, or both act together as a unit which does not convey what the words would indicate when taken literally.

English as a second or foreign language

ESLEnglish as a second languageESOL
Literature in English as a second or foreign language ESL/EFL in contrast, tends to employ the term phrasal verb to encompass both prepositional and particle verbs.
Phrasal verbs – Phrasal verbs (also known as multiple-word verbs) in English can cause difficulties for many learners because of their syntactic pattern and because they often have several meanings. There are also a number of phrasal verb differences between American and British English.

Preposition and postposition

prepositionpostpositionprepositions
In English, a phrasal verb is a phrase such as turn down or ran into which combines two or three words from different grammatical categories: a verb and a particle and/or a preposition together form a single semantic unit.
In some contexts (as in the case of some phrasal verbs) the choice of adposition may be determined by another element in the construction or be fixed by the construction as a whole.

Verb

verbsv.verbal morphology
In English, a phrasal verb is a phrase such as turn down or ran into which combines two or three words from different grammatical categories: a verb and a particle and/or a preposition together form a single semantic unit.
Phrasal verb

Phrase

phrasesphrasalword-group
One should consider in this regard that the actual term phrasal verb suggests that such constructions should form phrases.
For example, in the sentence I can't put up with Alex, the words put up with (meaning 'tolerate') may be referred to in common language as a phrase (English expressions like this are frequently called phrasal verbs) but technically they do not form a complete phrase, since they do not include Alex, which is the complement of the preposition with.

Multi-word verb

Phrasal verbs that include a preposition are known as prepositional verbs and phrasal verbs that include a particle are also known as particle verbs. Additional alternative terms for phrasal verb are compound verb, verb-adverb combination, verb-particle construction, two-part word/verb, and three-part word/verb (depending on the number of particles), and multi-word verb.
This term may cover both periphrasis as in combinations involving modal or semi-modal auxiliaries with an additional verbal or other lexeme, e.g. had better, used to, be going to, ought to, phrasal verbs, as in combinations of verbs and particles, and compound verbs as in light-verb constructions, e.g. take a shower, have a meal.

Separable verb

separable affixseparable prefixseparable prefix verbs
The value of this choice and its alternatives (including separable verb for Germanic languages) is debatable.
English has many phrasal or compound verb forms that are somewhat analogous to separable verbs.

Catena (linguistics)

catenacatenae
An analysis of phrasal verbs in terms of catenae (=chains), however, is not challenged by the apparent lack of meaning compositionality.
The idiosyncratic nature of particle verb collocations provide the first group of examples: take after, take in, take on, take over, take up, etc. In its purest form, the verb take means 'seize, grab, possess'.

Collocation

collocationscollocatedcollocate
Collocation
There are about six main types of collocations: adjective+noun, noun+noun (such as collective nouns), verb+noun, adverb+adjective, verbs+prepositional phrase (phrasal verbs), and verb+adverb.

Grammatical particle

particleparticlesgrammatical particles
In English, a phrasal verb is a phrase such as turn down or ran into which combines two or three words from different grammatical categories: a verb and a particle and/or a preposition together form a single semantic unit.
Depending on context, the meaning of the term may overlap with concepts such as morpheme, marker, or even adverb as in English phrasal verbs such as out in get out.

Lexical item

lexical itemslexical unitlexical entry
Lexical unit
3) Phrasal verbs, e.g. put off or get out

Light verb

light verb constructionlight-verbvector verb
Light verb
Phrasal verb

Principle of compositionality

compositionalitycompositionalcompositional semantics
In other words, the meaning is non-compositional and thus unpredictable.

Head (linguistics)

headheadsheaded
When the element is a preposition, it is the head of a full prepositional phrase and the phrasal verb is thus a prepositional phrasal verb. These phrasal verbs can also be thought of as transitive and non-separable; the complement follows the phrasal verb. Shifting occurs between two (or more) sister constituents that appear on the same side of their head.

Complement (linguistics)

complementcomplementscomplemented
When the element is a particle, it can not (or no longer) be construed as a preposition, but rather is a particle because it does not take a complement. These verbs can be transitive or intransitive. If they are transitive, they are separable.

Transitive verb

transitivetransitive verbstransitivity
When a particle phrasal verb is transitive, it can look just like a prepositional phrasal verb.

Dependency grammar

dependentdependencydependency grammars
The following dependency grammar trees illustrate the point:

Constituent (linguistics)

constituentconstituentssyntactic constituents
Shifting occurs between two (or more) sister constituents that appear on the same side of their head.

Compound (linguistics)

compoundcompound wordcompounds
Phrasal verbs are represented in many languages by compound verbs.

Germanic languages

GermanicGermanic languageGerman
As a class, particle phrasal verbs belong to the same category as the separable verbs of other Germanic languages.

Dutch language

DutchDutch-languagenl
For example in Dutch, de lamp aansteken (to light the lamp) becomes, in a principal clause, ik steek de lamp aan (I light the lamp on).

Independent clause

main clausematrix clauseindependent clauses
For example in Dutch, de lamp aansteken (to light the lamp) becomes, in a principal clause, ik steek de lamp aan (I light the lamp on).

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
Similarly, in German, das Licht einschalten (to switch on the light) becomes ich schalte das Licht ein (I switch the light on).

Lombard language

Lombardlocal dialectLombard dialect
A few phrasal verbs exist in some Romance languages such as Lombard due to the influence of ancient Lombardic: example fa foeura (to do in: to eat up; to squander) and dà denter (to trade in; to bump into) in Lombard.