Phrase

phrasesTense phrasephrasalword-groupexpressionphrase or saying (phr.) aspect phrasecomplex phrasegrammatical phrase
In everyday speech, a phrase is any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is synonymous with expression.wikipedia
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Constituent (linguistics)

constituentconstituentssyntactic constituents
In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words (or possibly a single word) that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within a grammatical hierarchy.
Many constituents are phrases.

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words (or possibly a single word) that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within a grammatical hierarchy.
In linguistics, grammar (from Ancient Greek γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases and words in a natural language.

Idiom

idiomsexpressionidiomatic expression
In common usage, a phrase is usually a group of words with some special idiomatic meaning or other significance, such as "all rights reserved", "economical with the truth", "kick the bucket", and the like.
An idiom is a phrase or an expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning.

Sentence (linguistics)

sentencesentencesdeclarative sentence
In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words (or possibly a single word) that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within a grammatical hierarchy.
It may be a simple phrase, but it conveys enough meaning to imply a clause, even if it is not explicit; for example, "Two" as a sentence (in answer to the question "How many were there?") implies the clause "There were two."

Noun phrase

noun phrasesNPnominal phrase
For example, in the sentence Yesterday I saw an orange bird with a white neck, the words an orange bird with a white neck form what is called a noun phrase, or a determiner phrase in some theories, which functions as the object of the sentence. The syntactic category of the head is used to name the category of the phrase; for example, a phrase whose head is a noun is called a noun phrase.
A noun phrase or nominal (phrase) is a phrase that has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head or performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.

Determiner phrase

DPDP hypothesisDPs
For example, in the sentence Yesterday I saw an orange bird with a white neck, the words an orange bird with a white neck form what is called a noun phrase, or a determiner phrase in some theories, which functions as the object of the sentence.
In linguistics, a determiner phrase (DP) is a type of phrase posited by some theories of syntax.

Head (linguistics)

headheadsheaded
In grammatical analysis, most phrases contain a key word that identifies the type and linguistic features of the phrase; this is known as the head-word, or the head.
In linguistics, the head or nucleus of a phrase is the word that determines the syntactic category of that phrase.

Complement (linguistics)

complementcomplementsobject complement
For example, in the sentence I can't put up with Alex, the words put up with (meaning 'tolerate') may be referred to in common language as a phrase (English expressions like this are frequently called phrasal verbs) but technically they do not form a complete phrase, since they do not include Alex, which is the complement of the preposition with.
In grammar, a complement is a word, phrase, or clause that is necessary to complete the meaning of a given expression.

Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words (or possibly a single word) that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within a grammatical hierarchy.

Endocentric and exocentric

exocentricendocentric
A phrase lacking a head is known as exocentric, and phrases with heads are endocentric.
A grammatical construction (for instance, a phrase or compound) is said to be endocentric if it fulfils the same linguistic function as one of its parts, and exocentric if it does not.

Adjective phrase

adjectival phraseadjectivalcompound (phrasal) attributives
An adjective phrase (or adjectival phrase) is a phrase the head of which is an adjective, e.g. fond of steak, very happy, quite upset about it, etc. The adjective can initiate the phrase (e.g. fond of steak), conclude the phrase (e.g. very happy), or appear in a medial position (e.g. quite upset about it).

Phrasal verb

phrasal verbsPrepositional verbprepositional verbs
For example, in the sentence I can't put up with Alex, the words put up with (meaning 'tolerate') may be referred to in common language as a phrase (English expressions like this are frequently called phrasal verbs) but technically they do not form a complete phrase, since they do not include Alex, which is the complement of the preposition with.
One should consider in this regard that the actual term phrasal verb suggests that such constructions should form phrases.

Determiner

determinersDeterminer (linguistics)definite determiner
For example, in some theories, a phrase such as the man is taken to have the determiner the as its head, rather than the noun man – it is then classed as a determiner phrase (DP), rather than a noun phrase (NP).
A determiner, also called a determinative (abbreviated ), is a word, phrase, or affix that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context.

Verb phrase

VPphrasesverb
Most if not all theories of syntax acknowledge verb phrases (VPs), but they can diverge greatly in the types of verb phrases that they posit.
Thus in the sentence A fat man put the money quickly in the box, the words put the money quickly in the box are a verb phrase; it consists of the verb put and its dependents, but not the subject a fat man.

Subordination (linguistics)

subordinationsubordinatorsubordinate clauses
For instance, the subordinator phrase:
An adjective that modifies a noun is subordinate to the noun and the noun is superordinate to the adjective; a noun phrase (NP) that is the complement of a preposition is subordinate to the preposition and the preposition is superordinate to the NP; a prepositional phrase (PP) that modifies a verb phrase (VP) is subordinate to the VP and the VP is superordinate to the PP; etc. The subordinate unit is called the dependent, and the superordinate unit the head.

Inflectional phrase

inflection phraseAgreement phrasetensed I
Another type is the inflectional phrase, where (for example) a finite verb phrase is taken to be the complement of a functional, possibly covert head (denoted INFL) which is supposed to encode the requirements for the verb to inflect – for agreement with its subject (which is the specifier of INFL), for tense and aspect, etc. If these factors are treated separately, then more specific categories may be considered: tense phrase (TP), where the verb phrase is the complement of an abstract "tense" element; aspect phrase; agreement phrase and so on.
In X-bar theory and other grammatical theories that incorporate it, an inflectional phrase or inflection phrase (IP or InflP) is a functional phrase that has inflectional properties (such as tense and agreement).

Fixed expression

expression
It may be a euphemism, a saying or proverb, a fixed expression, a figure of speech, etc.

Specifier (linguistics)

specifierSpec
Another type is the inflectional phrase, where (for example) a finite verb phrase is taken to be the complement of a functional, possibly covert head (denoted INFL) which is supposed to encode the requirements for the verb to inflect – for agreement with its subject (which is the specifier of INFL), for tense and aspect, etc. If these factors are treated separately, then more specific categories may be considered: tense phrase (TP), where the verb phrase is the complement of an abstract "tense" element; aspect phrase; agreement phrase and so on.
The X-bar schema of this phrase structure can be seen in the tree diagram below (where XP corresponds to X″):

Finite verb

finitefinite formsfinite form
Another type is the inflectional phrase, where (for example) a finite verb phrase is taken to be the complement of a functional, possibly covert head (denoted INFL) which is supposed to encode the requirements for the verb to inflect – for agreement with its subject (which is the specifier of INFL), for tense and aspect, etc. If these factors are treated separately, then more specific categories may be considered: tense phrase (TP), where the verb phrase is the complement of an abstract "tense" element; aspect phrase; agreement phrase and so on.
Another type are sentence fragments described as phrases or minor sentences.

Syntactic category

syntactic categoriesfunctional categoriescategories
The syntactic category of the head is used to name the category of the phrase; for example, a phrase whose head is a noun is called a noun phrase.
Many phrasal categories are assumed that do not correspond directly to a specific part of speech, e.g. inflection phrase (IP), tense phrase (TP), agreement phrase (AgrP), focus phrase (FP), etc. (see also Phrase → Functional categories).

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words (or possibly a single word) that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within a grammatical hierarchy.

Clause

clausesfinite clauseclausal
A phrase typically appears within a clause, but it is possible also for a phrase to be a clause or to contain a clause within it.

All rights reserved

ARR
In common usage, a phrase is usually a group of words with some special idiomatic meaning or other significance, such as "all rights reserved", "economical with the truth", "kick the bucket", and the like.

Economical with the truth

In common usage, a phrase is usually a group of words with some special idiomatic meaning or other significance, such as "all rights reserved", "economical with the truth", "kick the bucket", and the like.