Phrasewikipedia
In everyday speech, a phrase may be any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is roughly synonymous with expression.
phrasephrasesphrasalword-grouptense phraseexpressionphrase or sayingPhrase → Functional categoriessubphrasescomplex phrase

Grammar

grammargrammaticalgrammatically
In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words (or possibly a single word) that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within a grammatical hierarchy.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.

Idiom

idiomidiomsexpression
In common usage, a phrase is usually a group of words with some special idiomatic meaning or other significance, such as "all rights reserved", "economical with the truth", "kick the bucket", and the like.
An idiom (idiom, "special property", from, "special feature, special phrasing, a peculiarity", f., "one's own") is a phrase or an expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning.

Constituent (linguistics)

constituentconstituentssyntactic constituents
In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words (or possibly a single word) that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within a grammatical hierarchy.
Many constituents are phrases.

Figure of speech

figure of speechfigures of speechlocution
It may be a euphemism, a saying or proverb, a fixed expression, a figure of speech, etc.
A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is figurative language in the form of a single word or phrase.

Noun phrase

noun phrasenoun phrasesNP
For example, in the sentence Yesterday I saw an orange bird with a white neck, the words an orange bird with a white neck form what is called a noun phrase, or a determiner phrase in some theories, which functions as the object of the sentence. The syntactic category of the head is used to name the category of the phrase; for example, a phrase whose head is a noun is called a noun phrase.
A noun phrase or nominal phrase (abbreviated NP) is a phrase that has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head or performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.

Sentence (linguistics)

sentencesentencesdeclarative sentence
In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words (or possibly a single word) that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within a grammatical hierarchy.
A sentence is a set of words that in principle tells a complete thought (although it may make little sense taken in isolation out of context) It may be a simple phrase, but it conveys enough meaning to imply a clause, even if it is not explicit; for example, "Two" as a sentence (in answer to the question "How many were there?") implies the clause "There were two."

Determiner phrase

determiner phraseDPsubject phrase
For example, in the sentence Yesterday I saw an orange bird with a white neck, the words an orange bird with a white neck form what is called a noun phrase, or a determiner phrase in some theories, which functions as the object of the sentence.
In linguistics, a determiner phrase (DP) is a type of phrase posited by some theories of syntax.

Head (linguistics)

headheadsheaded
In grammatical analysis, most phrases contain a key word that identifies the type and linguistic features of the phrase; this is known as the head-word, or the head.
In linguistics, the head or nucleus of a phrase is the word that determines the syntactic category of that phrase.

Adjective phrase

adjective phraseadjectival phraseadjectival
An adjective phrase (or adjectival phrase) is a phrase the head word of which is an adjective, e.g. fond of steak, very happy, quite upset about it, etc. The adjective can initiate the phrase (e.g. fond of steak), conclude the phrase (e.g. very happy), or appear in a medial position (e.g. quite upset about it).

Endocentric and exocentric

exocentricendocentric
A phrase lacking a head is known as exocentric, and phrases with heads are endocentric.
A grammatical construction (e.g. a phrase or compound word) is said to be endocentric if it fulfils the same linguistic function as one of its parts, and exocentric if it does not.

Complement (linguistics)

complementcomplementscomplemented
For example, in the sentence I can't put up with Alex, the words put up with (meaning 'tolerate') may be referred to in common language as a phrase (English expressions like this are frequently called phrasal verbs) but technically they do not form a complete phrase, since they do not include Alex, which is the complement of the preposition with.
In grammar, a complement is a word, phrase or clause that is necessary to complete the meaning of a given expression.

Determiner

determinerdeterminersdeterminative
For example, in some theories, a phrase such as the man is taken to have the determiner the as its head, rather than the noun man – it is then classed as a determiner phrase (DP), rather than a noun phrase (NP).
A determiner, also called determinative (abbreviated ), is a word, phrase, or affix that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context.

Phrasal verb

phrasal verbphrasal verbsprepositional verbs
For example, in the sentence I can't put up with Alex, the words put up with (meaning 'tolerate') may be referred to in common language as a phrase (English expressions like this are frequently called phrasal verbs) but technically they do not form a complete phrase, since they do not include Alex, which is the complement of the preposition with.
One should consider in this regard that the actual term phrasal verb suggests that such constructions should form phrases.

Verb phrase

verb phraseVPphrases
Most if not all theories of syntax acknowledge verb phrases (VPs), but they can diverge greatly in the types of verb phrases that they posit.
Thus in the sentence A fat man put the money quickly in the box, the words put the money quickly in the box are a verb phrase; it consists of the verb put and its dependents, but not the subject a fat man.

Inflectional phrase

inflectional phraseinflection phrasetensed I
Another type is the inflectional phrase, where (for example) a finite verb phrase is taken to be the complement of a functional, possibly covert head (denoted INFL) which is supposed to encode the requirements for the verb to inflect – for agreement with its subject (which is the specifier of INFL), for tense and aspect, etc. If these factors are treated separately, then more specific categories may be considered: tense phrase (TP), where the verb phrase is the complement of an abstract "tense" element; aspect phrase; agreement phrase and so on.
In X-bar theory and other grammatical theories that incorporate it, an inflectional phrase or inflection phrase (IP or InflP) is a functional phrase that has inflectional properties (such as tense and agreement).

Complementizer

complementizersubordinatorcomplementizer phrase
For instance, the subordinator phrase:
The complementizer is often held to be the syntactic head of a full clause, which is therefore often represented by the abbreviation CP (for complementizer phrase).

Specifier (linguistics)

specifierSpec
Another type is the inflectional phrase, where (for example) a finite verb phrase is taken to be the complement of a functional, possibly covert head (denoted INFL) which is supposed to encode the requirements for the verb to inflect – for agreement with its subject (which is the specifier of INFL), for tense and aspect, etc. If these factors are treated separately, then more specific categories may be considered: tense phrase (TP), where the verb phrase is the complement of an abstract "tense" element; aspect phrase; agreement phrase and so on.
The X-bar schema of this phrase structure can be seen in the tree diagram below (where XP corresponds to X″):

Syntax

syntaxsyntacticsyntactical
In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words (or possibly a single word) that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within a grammatical hierarchy.

Finite verb

finite verbfinitefinite forms
Another type is the inflectional phrase, where (for example) a finite verb phrase is taken to be the complement of a functional, possibly covert head (denoted INFL) which is supposed to encode the requirements for the verb to inflect – for agreement with its subject (which is the specifier of INFL), for tense and aspect, etc. If these factors are treated separately, then more specific categories may be considered: tense phrase (TP), where the verb phrase is the complement of an abstract "tense" element; aspect phrase; agreement phrase and so on.
Another type are sentence fragments described as phrases or minor sentences.

Fixed expression

fixed expressionexpression
It may be a euphemism, a saying or proverb, a fixed expression, a figure of speech, etc.

Syntactic category

syntactic categorysyntactic categoriesfunctional categories
The syntactic category of the head is used to name the category of the phrase; for example, a phrase whose head is a noun is called a noun phrase.
Many phrasal categories are assumed that do not correspond directly to a specific part of speech, e.g. inflection phrase (IP), tense phrase (TP), agreement phrase (AgrP), focus phrase (FP), etc. (see also Phrase → Functional categories).

Personal name

personal namebirth namefull name
A personal name or full name is the set of names by which an individual is known and that can be recited as a word-group, with the understanding that, taken together, they all relate to that one individual.

Brand equity

brand equitybrand valuebrand
'Brand equity' is a phrase used in the marketing industry which describes the value of having a well-known brand name, based on the idea that the owner of a well-known brand name can generate more revenue simply from brand recognition; that is from products with that brand name than from products with a less well known name, as consumers believe that a product with a well-known name is better than products with less well-known names.

Riddle

riddleriddlesenigma
A riddle is a statement or question or phrase having a double or veiled meaning, put forth as a puzzle to be solved.