Location of Phrygia in Anatolia
Gordion archeological site
Zeus Temple in ancient city of Aizanoi belongs to Phrygia. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Theatre complex of Aizanoi in Phrygia
Phrygian soldiers. Detail from a reconstruction of a Phrygian building at Pararli, Turkey, 7th–6th centuries BC.
Ruins of the Lycus
Horseman and griffin, Phrygia, 600–550 BC.
Detail from a reconstruction of a Phrygian building at Pararli, Turkey, 7th–6th centuries BC: Museum of Anatolian Civilisations, Ankara. A griffin, sphinx and two centaurs are shown.
Tomb at Midas City (6th century BC), near Eskişehir
The location of Hellespontine Phrygia, and the provincial capital of Dascylium, in the Achaemenid Empire, c. 500 BC.
The two Phrygian provinces within the Diocese of Asia, c. 400 AD.
The Flaying of Marsyas by Titian, 1570s, with King Midas at right, and the man with a knife in a Phrygian cap
The Polyxena sarcophagus in Çanakkale Archaeological Museum, Turkey.
The Midas Mound Tumulus at Gordion, dated ca. 740 BCE.
Man in Phrygian costume, Hellenistic period (3rd–1st century BC), Cyprus

Kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centered on the Sangarios River.

- Phrygia

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The Early Phrygian East Citadel Gate at Gordion, with the Terrace Building Complex and Megaron buildings behind it
Gordion archeological site
Aerial overview of the Citadel Mound of Gordion
View through the Early Phrygian East Citadel Gate at Gordion looking at Tumulus W (c. 850 BCE)
View of the Citadel Mound at Gordion. Early Phrygian Terrace Building Complex in the foreground with the East Citadel Gate behind it. Tumulus MM in the background to the left.
Overview of the main settlement and cemetery areas at Iron Age Gordion (after Rose and Darbyshire 2011 fig. 0.1, Rose 2017 fig. 9)
The Midas Mound Tumulus at Gordion, dated c. 740 BCE.
Approach road to the South Gate at Gordion
The 8th century BCE burial tumuli, Tumulus MM (left) and Tumulus P (right) at Gordion, Turkey

Gordion (Phrygian: Gordum; Γόρδιον; Gordion or Gordiyon; Gordium) was the capital city of ancient Phrygia.


City in northwestern Turkey and the capital of the Eskişehir Province.

Miniature view of Eskişehir in the 16th century during the Ottoman Empire.
One of Eskişehir's many bridges across the Porsuk River.
Library of the Anadolu University
Ottoman architecture in Odunpazarı, Eskişehir
Streets of Odunpazarı, Eskişehir
Ulus Monument in the city representing Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Shopping Mall in Eskişehir
Eskişehir Modern Glass Art Museum
Odunpazarı Modern Arts Museum by the architect Kengo Kuma.
Odunpazarı Modern Arts Museum Exhibition.

The city is located on the banks of the Porsuk River, 792 m above sea level, where it overlooks the fertile Phrygian Valley.


Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland Izmir.

Map of the Lydian Kingdom in its final period of sovereignty under Croesus, c. 547 BC.
The temple of Artemis in Sardis.
Sardis Synagogue.
Portrait of Croesus, last King of Lydia, Attic red-figure amphora, painted ca. 500–490 BC.
Tripolis on the Meander is an ancient Lydian city in Turkey.
Tripolis on the Meander is an ancient Lydian city in Turkey.
Büyük Menderes River also known as Maeander is river in Lydia.
The Pactolus river, from which Lydia obtained electrum, a combination of silver and gold.
Early 6th century BC Lydian electrum coin (one-third stater denomination).
Gyges tablet, British Museum
Lydian delegation at Apadana, circa 500 BC
Lydia's borders under the reign of Alyattes's son Croesus
Bin Tepe royal funeral tumulus (tomb of Alyattes, father of Croesus), Lydia, 6th century BC.
Tomb of Alyattes.
Croesus at the stake. Side A from an Attic red-figure amphora, ca. 500–490 BC
Lydia, including Ionia, during the Achaemenid Empire.
Xerxes I tomb, Lydian soldier of the Achaemenid army, circa 480 BC
Roman province of Asia
Photo of a 15th-century map showing Lydia
Church of St John, Philadelphia (Alaşehir)

It was bounded first by Mysia, Caria, Phrygia and coastal Ionia.


Region in the northwest of ancient Asia Minor (Anatolia, Asian part of modern Turkey).

Coin of Kyzikos, Mysia. Circa 550–500 BC
Coin of Mysia, 4th century BC
Coin of Orontes as Satrap of Mysia, Adramyteion – c. undefined 357–352 BC
Coinage of Memnon of Rhodes, Mysia. Mid-4th century BC

It was bounded by Bithynia on the east, Phrygia on the southeast, Lydia on the south, Aeolis on the southwest, Troad on the west, and the Propontis on the north.

Büyük Menderes River

Patron deity of this river, see Meander

Map of the river's mouth and the evolution of silting of Miletus Bay during Antiquity.

The river has its sources not far from Celaenae in Phrygia (now Dinar), where it gushed forth in a park of Cyrus.


In the Nathaniel Hawthorne version of the Midas myth, Midas' daughter turns to a golden statue when he touches her (illustration by Walter Crane for the 1893 edition)
The Midas Monument, a Phrygian rock-cut tomb dedicated to Midas (700 BC).
The "Tomb of Midas" in Gordion, dated 740 BC.
Inside the "Tomb of Midas" in Gordion
The judgement of Midas by Abraham Janssens
Reconstruction of the Tumulus MM burial, Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara, Turkey.

Midas is the name of one of at least three members of the royal house of Phrygia.


Ancient Indo-European speaking people, who inhabited central-western Anatolia in antiquity.

Classical regions of Asia Minor/Anatolia
Phrygian soldiers. Detail from a reconstruction of a Phrygian building at Pararli, Turkey, 7th–6th centuries BC.
Tomb at ‘Midas City’, near Eskişehir (sixth century BC)
Map showing where Phrygian inscriptions have been found.
The Phrygian goddess Cybele with her attributes

Phrygia developed an advanced Bronze Age culture.

Laodicea on the Lycus

Ancient city in Asia Minor, now Turkey, on the river Lycus (Çürüksu).

Colonnaded street in Laodicea
Side of West Agora
Western Theatre after restoration in 2021
Temple 'A'
The Church of Laodicea
Inside the Church
Water law inscription
Temple "A"
Roman bridge over the Asopos river near the site
West Baths
Stadium of Laodicea
Baths of the Gymnasium

It was located in the Hellenistic regions of Caria and Lydia, which later became the Roman Province of Phrygia Pacatiana.

Gordian Knot

Alexander the Great cuts the Gordian Knot by Jean-Simon Berthélemy (1743–1811)
Alexander the Great Cutting the Gordian Knot (1767) by Jean-François Godefroy
Alexander the Great Cutting the Gordian Knot by André Castaigne (1898–1899)

The Gordian Knot is an Ancient Greek legend of Phrygian Gordium associated with Alexander the Great.


The Cimmerians ( mat Gimirrāya; Kimmérioi) were a nomadic Indo-European people, who appeared about 1000 BC. Originating in the Pontic-Caspian steppe, the Cimmerians subsequently migrated into Southwest Asia and into Central and Southeast Europe.

Cimmerian invasions of Colchis, Urartu and Assyria 715–713 BC

Around 675 BCE, the Cimmerians in alliance with the Urartian king Rusa II invaded and destroyed the kingdom of Phrygia, whose king Midas committed suicide.