Physical chemistry

physical chemistphysicochemicalphysicalphysico-chemicalphysical chemistsHistory of physical chemistryphysico-chemistrychemistphysico-chemistP. Chem.
Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.wikipedia
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Thermodynamics

thermodynamicthermodynamicallyclassical thermodynamics
Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.
Thermodynamics applies to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, especially physical chemistry, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering, but also in fields as complex as meteorology.

Chemical physics

chemical physicistChemicalchemical physicists
Physical chemistry, in contrast to chemical physics, is predominantly (but not always) a macroscopic or supra-molecular science, as the majority of the principles on which it was founded relate to the bulk rather than the molecular/atomic structure alone (for example, chemical equilibrium and colloids).
While at the interface of physics and chemistry, chemical physics is distinct from physical chemistry in that it focuses more on the characteristic elements and theories of physics.

Electrochemistry

electrochemicalelectrochemistelectrochemical reaction
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.

Reaction rate

raterate of reactionrates
Chemical kinetics is the part of physical chemistry that studies reaction rates.

Spectroscopy

spectroscopiclaser spectroscopyspectroscopist
Spectroscopy is the related sub-discipline of physical chemistry which is specifically concerned with the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter.
Spectroscopy is used in physical and analytical chemistry because atoms and molecules have unique spectra.

Chemistry

chemistchemicalApplied Chemistry
Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.
These include inorganic chemistry, the study of inorganic matter; organic chemistry, the study of organic (carbon-based) matter; biochemistry, the study of substances found in biological organisms; physical chemistry, the study of chemical processes using physical concepts such as thermodynamics and quantum mechanics; and analytical chemistry, the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure.

Josiah Willard Gibbs

Willard GibbsJ. Willard GibbsGibbs
One milestone was the publication in 1876 by Josiah Willard Gibbs of his paper, On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances.
His work on the applications of thermodynamics was instrumental in transforming physical chemistry into a rigorous inductive science.

Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff

Jacobus van 't Hoffvan 't HoffJ. H. van 't Hoff
The first scientific journal specifically in the field of physical chemistry was the German journal, Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, founded in 1887 by Wilhelm Ostwald and Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff.
Jacobus Henricus "Henry" van 't Hoff, Jr. (30 August 1852 – 1 March 1911) was a Dutch physical chemist.

Svante Arrhenius

Svante August ArrheniusArrheniusArrhenius, Svante August
Together with Svante August Arrhenius, these were the leading figures in physical chemistry in the late 19th century and early 20th century.
Originally a physicist, but often referred to as a chemist, Arrhenius was one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry.

On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances

equilibrium to heterogeneous (multicomponent, multiphase) systems
One milestone was the publication in 1876 by Josiah Willard Gibbs of his paper, On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances.
It is one of the founding papers in thermodynamics, along with German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz's 1882 paper "Thermodynamik chemischer Vorgänge." Together they form the foundation of chemical thermodynamics as well as a large part of physical chemistry.

Wilhelm Ostwald

Friedrich Wilhelm OstwaldOstwaldFriedrich Ostwald
The first scientific journal specifically in the field of physical chemistry was the German journal, Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, founded in 1887 by Wilhelm Ostwald and Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff.
Ostwald, Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, Walther Nernst, and Svante Arrhenius are usually credited with being the modern founders of the field of physical chemistry.

Quantum chemistry

quantum chemistquantum chemicalquantum chemical calculations
Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium. Another important step was the development of quantum mechanics into quantum chemistry from the 1930s, where Linus Pauling was one of the leading names.

Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie

The first scientific journal specifically in the field of physical chemistry was the German journal, Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, founded in 1887 by Wilhelm Ostwald and Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff. Some journals that deal with physical chemistry include Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie (1887); Journal of Physical Chemistry A (from 1896 as Journal of Physical Chemistry, renamed in 1997); Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (from 1999, formerly Faraday Transactions with a history dating back to 1905); Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1947); Annual Review of Physical Chemistry (1950); Molecular Physics (1957); Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry (1988); Journal of Physical Chemistry B (1997); ChemPhysChem (2000); Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2007); and Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (from 2010, combined letters previously published in the separate journals)
Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie (English: Journal of Physical Chemistry) is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering physical chemistry that is published by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag.

Linus Pauling

PaulingLinus Carl PaulingLinus C. Pauling
Another important step was the development of quantum mechanics into quantum chemistry from the 1930s, where Linus Pauling was one of the leading names.
He received his PhD in physical chemistry and mathematical physics, summa cum laude, in 1925.

Nuclear chemistry

nuclear chemistHistory of nuclear chemistrynuclear scientist
Further development in physical chemistry may be attributed to discoveries in nuclear chemistry, especially in isotope separation (before and during World War II), more recent discoveries in astrochemistry, as well as the development of calculation algorithms in the field of "additive physicochemical properties" (practically all physicochemical properties, such as boiling point, critical point, surface tension, vapor pressure, etc.—more than 20 in all—can be precisely calculated from chemical structure alone, even if the chemical molecule remains unsynthesized), and herein lies the practical importance of contemporary physical chemistry.
For instance, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is commonly used in synthetic organic chemistry and physical chemistry and for structural analysis in macromolecular chemistry.

Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics

Some journals that deal with physical chemistry include Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie (1887); Journal of Physical Chemistry A (from 1896 as Journal of Physical Chemistry, renamed in 1997); Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (from 1999, formerly Faraday Transactions with a history dating back to 1905); Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1947); Annual Review of Physical Chemistry (1950); Molecular Physics (1957); Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry (1988); Journal of Physical Chemistry B (1997); ChemPhysChem (2000); Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2007); and Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (from 2010, combined letters previously published in the separate journals)
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research and review articles on any aspect of physical chemistry, chemical physics, and biophysical chemistry.

Gas

gasesgaseousgaseous state
This is studied in chemical thermodynamics, which sets limits on quantities like how far a reaction can proceed, or how much energy can be converted into work in an internal combustion engine, and which provides links between properties like the thermal expansion coefficient and rate of change of entropy with pressure for a gas or a liquid.
In physical chemistry, the name given to these intermolecular forces is van der Waals force.

The Journal of Physical Chemistry C

Journal of Physical Chemistry CC
Some journals that deal with physical chemistry include Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie (1887); Journal of Physical Chemistry A (from 1896 as Journal of Physical Chemistry, renamed in 1997); Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (from 1999, formerly Faraday Transactions with a history dating back to 1905); Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1947); Annual Review of Physical Chemistry (1950); Molecular Physics (1957); Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry (1988); Journal of Physical Chemistry B (1997); ChemPhysChem (2000); Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2007); and Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (from 2010, combined letters previously published in the separate journals)
The Journal of Physical Chemistry C publishes scientific articles reporting research on several subdisciplines of physical chemistry:

Physical organic chemistry

physical organic chemistphysical organicphysical organic chemists
Physical organic chemistry, a term coined by Louis Hammett in 1940, refers to a discipline of organic chemistry that focuses on the relationship between chemical structures and reactivity, in particular, applying experimental tools of physical chemistry to the study of organic molecules.

Molecular Physics (journal)

Molecular Physics
Some journals that deal with physical chemistry include Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie (1887); Journal of Physical Chemistry A (from 1896 as Journal of Physical Chemistry, renamed in 1997); Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (from 1999, formerly Faraday Transactions with a history dating back to 1905); Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1947); Annual Review of Physical Chemistry (1950); Molecular Physics (1957); Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry (1988); Journal of Physical Chemistry B (1997); ChemPhysChem (2000); Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2007); and Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (from 2010, combined letters previously published in the separate journals)
Molecular Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the interface between chemistry and physics, in particular chemical physics and physical chemistry.

Annual Review of Physical Chemistry

Some journals that deal with physical chemistry include Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie (1887); Journal of Physical Chemistry A (from 1896 as Journal of Physical Chemistry, renamed in 1997); Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (from 1999, formerly Faraday Transactions with a history dating back to 1905); Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1947); Annual Review of Physical Chemistry (1950); Molecular Physics (1957); Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry (1988); Journal of Physical Chemistry B (1997); ChemPhysChem (2000); Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2007); and Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (from 2010, combined letters previously published in the separate journals)
It covers all topics pertaining to physical chemistry.

Biophysical chemistry

biophysical chemistbiophysicalbiophysical techniques
Biophysical chemistry is a physical science that uses the concepts of physics and physical chemistry for the study of biological systems.

ChemPhysChem

Some journals that deal with physical chemistry include Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie (1887); Journal of Physical Chemistry A (from 1896 as Journal of Physical Chemistry, renamed in 1997); Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (from 1999, formerly Faraday Transactions with a history dating back to 1905); Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1947); Annual Review of Physical Chemistry (1950); Molecular Physics (1957); Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry (1988); Journal of Physical Chemistry B (1997); ChemPhysChem (2000); Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2007); and Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (from 2010, combined letters previously published in the separate journals)
It was established in 2000 and covers all primary and secondary topics in chemical physics and physical chemistry.

Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics

Journal für Makromolekulare Chemie
Some journals that deal with physical chemistry include Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie (1887); Journal of Physical Chemistry A (from 1896 as Journal of Physical Chemistry, renamed in 1997); Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (from 1999, formerly Faraday Transactions with a history dating back to 1905); Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1947); Annual Review of Physical Chemistry (1950); Molecular Physics (1957); Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry (1988); Journal of Physical Chemistry B (1997); ChemPhysChem (2000); Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2007); and Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (from 2010, combined letters previously published in the separate journals)
It publishes Full Papers, Talents, Trends, and Highlights in all areas of polymer science, from chemistry to physical chemistry, physics, and materials science.

Materials science

material sciencematerials engineeringmaterials scientist
Solid-state physics, solid-state chemistry and physical chemistry are also involved in the study of bonding and structure.