Physics

physicistphysicalphysicistsphysical sciencesphysical lawsphysicallyCondensed matter physicsnuclear physicistphysical sciencephysical scientist
Physics (from, from φύσις phýsis 'nature') is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior through space and time, and that studies the related entities of energy and force.wikipedia
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Motion

movementMotion (physics)locomotion
Physics (from, from φύσις phýsis 'nature') is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior through space and time, and that studies the related entities of energy and force.
In physics, motion is the change in the position of an object over time.

Spacetime

space-timespace-time continuumspace and time
Physics (from, from φύσις phýsis 'nature') is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior through space and time, and that studies the related entities of energy and force.
In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model which fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.

Energy

energy transferenergiestotal energy
Physics (from, from φύσις phýsis 'nature') is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior through space and time, and that studies the related entities of energy and force.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

Force

forcesattractiveelastic force
Physics (from, from φύσις phýsis 'nature') is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior through space and time, and that studies the related entities of energy and force.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.

Natural science

natural sciencesnaturalnatural scientist
Physics (from, from φύσις phýsis 'nature') is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior through space and time, and that studies the related entities of energy and force.
Physical science is subdivided into branches, including physics, chemistry, astronomy and Earth science.

Chemistry

chemistchemicalApplied Chemistry
Over much of the past two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics, were a part of natural philosophy, but during the Scientific Revolution in the 17th century these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right.
In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology.

Biophysics

biophysicistbiophysicalbiological physics
Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies approaches and methods traditionally used in physics to study biological phenomena.

Nuclear physics

nuclear physicistnuclearnuclear science
For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism, solid-state physics, and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy.
From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy, medicine, and physics.

Thermodynamics

thermodynamicthermodynamicallyclassical thermodynamics
For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism, solid-state physics, and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics that deals with heat and temperature, and their relation to energy, work, radiation, and properties of matter.

Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest.
For example, the branches of science are commonly referred to as the scientific disciplines, e.g. physics, chemistry, and biology.

Matter

corporealsubstancematerial
Physics (from, from φύσις phýsis 'nature') is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior through space and time, and that studies the related entities of energy and force.
By contrast, mass is not a substance but rather a quantitative property of matter and other substances or systems; various types of mass are defined within physics – including but not limited to rest mass, inertial mass, relativistic mass, mass–energy.

Galileo Galilei

GalileoGalileanGalilei
And so, if the difference in the weights is not considerable, that is, of one is, let us say, double the other, there will be no difference, or else an imperceptible difference, in time, though the difference in weight is by no means negligible, with one body weighing twice as much as the other Philoponus' criticism of Aristotelian principles of physics served as an inspiration for Galileo Galilei ten centuries later, during the Scientific Revolution.
Galileo Galilei (, also, ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath, from Pisa.

Natural philosophy

natural philosophernatural philosophersNatural
Over much of the past two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics, were a part of natural philosophy, but during the Scientific Revolution in the 17th century these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right.
From the mid-19th century, when it became increasingly unusual for scientists to contribute to both physics and chemistry, "natural philosophy" came to mean just physics, and the word is still used in that sense in degree titles at the University of Oxford.

Scientific Revolution

scientificscientific revolutionsscience
Over much of the past two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics, were a part of natural philosophy, but during the Scientific Revolution in the 17th century these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. And so, if the difference in the weights is not considerable, that is, of one is, let us say, double the other, there will be no difference, or else an imperceptible difference, in time, though the difference in weight is by no means negligible, with one body weighing twice as much as the other Philoponus' criticism of Aristotelian principles of physics served as an inspiration for Galileo Galilei ten centuries later, during the Scientific Revolution.
Galileo Galilei has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", the "father of science", and "the Father of Modern Science".

Isaac Newton

NewtonSir Isaac NewtonNewtonian
Many later European scholars and fellow polymaths, from Robert Grosseteste and Leonardo da Vinci to René Descartes, Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton, were in his debt.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, theologian, and author (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

Mathematics

mathematicalmathmathematician
Over much of the past two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics, were a part of natural philosophy, but during the Scientific Revolution in the 17th century these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Areas of mathematics in general are important to this field, such as the study of probabilities and groups.
The apparent plural form in English, like the French plural form les mathématiques (and the less commonly used singular derivative la mathématique), goes back to the Latin neuter plural mathematica (Cicero), based on the Greek plural τὰ μαθηματικά (ta mathēmatiká), used by Aristotle (384–322 BC), and meaning roughly "all things mathematical", although it is plausible that English borrowed only the adjective mathematic(al) and formed the noun mathematics anew, after the pattern of physics and metaphysics, which were inherited from Greek.

Speed of light

clight speedspeed of light in vacuum
Classical mechanics predicted a varying speed of light, which could not be resolved with the constant speed predicted by Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism; this discrepancy was corrected by Einstein's theory of special relativity, which replaced classical mechanics for fast-moving bodies and allowed for a constant speed of light.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted c, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

Special relativity

special theory of relativityrelativisticspecial
Classical mechanics predicted a varying speed of light, which could not be resolved with the constant speed predicted by Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism; this discrepancy was corrected by Einstein's theory of special relativity, which replaced classical mechanics for fast-moving bodies and allowed for a constant speed of light.
In physics, special relativity (also known as the special theory of relativity) is the generally accepted and experimentally confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.

Johannes Kepler

KeplerDioptriceJohan Kepler
Many later European scholars and fellow polymaths, from Robert Grosseteste and Leonardo da Vinci to René Descartes, Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton, were in his debt.
Kepler lived in an era when there was no clear distinction between astronomy and astrology, but there was a strong division between astronomy (a branch of mathematics within the liberal arts) and physics (a branch of natural philosophy).

Calculus

infinitesimal calculusdifferential and integral calculusclassical calculus
For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism, solid-state physics, and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Newton was the first to apply calculus to general physics and Leibniz developed much of the notation used in calculus today.

Photoelectric effect

photoelectricphotoelectronphotoemission
Black-body radiation provided another problem for classical physics, which was corrected when Planck proposed that the excitation of material oscillators is possible only in discrete steps proportional to their frequency; this, along with the photoelectric effect and a complete theory predicting discrete energy levels of electron orbitals, led to the theory of quantum mechanics taking over from classical physics at very small scales.
This phenomenon is commonly studied in electronic physics and in fields of chemistry such as quantum chemistry and electrochemistry.

Max Planck

PlanckMax Karl Ernst Ludwig PlanckPlanck, M.
Modern physics began in the early 20th century with the work of Max Planck in quantum theory and Albert Einstein's theory of relativity.
However, instead of music he chose to study physics.

Space

spatialphysical spacereal space
Study of the philosophical issues surrounding physics, the philosophy of physics, involves issues such as the nature of space and time, determinism, and metaphysical outlooks such as empiricism, naturalism and realism.
Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to be part of a boundless four-dimensional continuum known as spacetime.

Group theory

groupgroup theoreticalgroup-theoretic
Areas of mathematics in general are important to this field, such as the study of probabilities and groups.
Thus group theory and the closely related representation theory have many important applications in physics, chemistry, and materials science.