Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt

PTBPhysikalisch-Technische ReichsanstaltGerman National Metrology Institute Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig/Germany Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt at Berlin-CharlottenburgBerlinBraunschweig LaboratoryGerman Institute of MetrologyGerman National Metrology Institute (PTB) in BraunschweigPhysics-Technical at Bundesanstalt
The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is the national metrology institute of the Federal Republic of Germany, with scientific and technical service tasks.wikipedia
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DCF77

LF Radio DCF77 Mainflingen, DE 77.5 kHz
) By order of PTB, the synchronization of clocks via radio is performed via the time signal transmitter DCF77 operated by Media Broadcast.
DCF77 is controlled by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany's national physics laboratory and transmits in continuous operation (24 hours).

Charlottenburg

Berlin-CharlottenburgAlt-LietzowBerlin Charlottenburg
Other sites are in Berlin-Charlottenburg and Berlin-Adlershof.
"The richest town of Prussia" established a Royal Technical College in 1879 (which later became the Berlin Institute of Technology), followed by the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt and the College of the Fine Arts.

Walther Bothe

Herbert Becker Walther BotheBothe
In its first decades, the PTR succeeded in attracting important scientists and members of the Kuratorium as employees, among them Wilhelm Wien, Friedrich Kohlrausch, Walther Nernst, Emil Warburg, Walther Bothe, Albert Einstein and Max Planck. Employees of PTR and PTB were, among others: Udo Adelsberger, Walther Bothe, Kurt Diebner, Gerhard Wilhelm Becker, Ernst Engelhard, Abraham Esau, Ernst Gehrcke, Hans Geiger, Werner Gitt, Eugen Goldstein, Ernst Carl Adolph Gumlich, Hermann von Helmholtz, Fritz Hennin], Friedrich Georg Houtermans, Max Jakob, Hellmut Keiter, Dieter Kind, Hans Otto Kneser, Friedrich Wilhelm Kohlrausch, Wilhelm Kösters, Bernhard Anton Ernst Kramer, Johannes Kramer, August Kundt, Max von Laue, Carl von Linde, Leopold Loewenherz, Otto Lummer, Walter Meidinger, Walther Meißner, Franz Mylius, Walther Hermann Nernst, Robert Ochsenfeld, Friedrich Paschen, Matthias Scheffler, Adolf Scheibe, Harald Schering, Reinhard Scherm, Johannes Stark, Ulrich Stille, Ida Tacke, Gotthold Richard Vieweg, Richard Wachsmuth, Emil Warburg, Wilhelm Wien.
In 1913, Bothe joined the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt (PTR, Reich Physical and Technical Institute; today, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt), where he stayed until 1930.

Braunschweig

BrunswickBraunschweig (Brunswick)City of Braunschweig
The main site of PTB is in Braunschweig (Lehndorf-Watenbüttel). In 1947, he succeeded in convincing the British authorities to make the former Luftfahrtforschungsanstalt (Aeronautical Research Institute) in Völkenrode near Braunschweig available to the PTR successor.
Today it is known for its University and research institutes, mainly the Johann Heinrich von Thuenen Institute, the Julius Kühn-Institut, and the Institute for Animal Food of the Friedrich Loeffler Institute, until the end of 2007 all part of the Federal Agricultural Research Centre, the German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB).

Walther Meissner

Meissner
Walther Meißner succeeded in liquefying helium, which led him to the discovery of the superconductivity of a series of metals. Employees of PTR and PTB were, among others: Udo Adelsberger, Walther Bothe, Kurt Diebner, Gerhard Wilhelm Becker, Ernst Engelhard, Abraham Esau, Ernst Gehrcke, Hans Geiger, Werner Gitt, Eugen Goldstein, Ernst Carl Adolph Gumlich, Hermann von Helmholtz, Fritz Hennin], Friedrich Georg Houtermans, Max Jakob, Hellmut Keiter, Dieter Kind, Hans Otto Kneser, Friedrich Wilhelm Kohlrausch, Wilhelm Kösters, Bernhard Anton Ernst Kramer, Johannes Kramer, August Kundt, Max von Laue, Carl von Linde, Leopold Loewenherz, Otto Lummer, Walter Meidinger, Walther Meißner, Franz Mylius, Walther Hermann Nernst, Robert Ochsenfeld, Friedrich Paschen, Matthias Scheffler, Adolf Scheibe, Harald Schering, Reinhard Scherm, Johannes Stark, Ulrich Stille, Ida Tacke, Gotthold Richard Vieweg, Richard Wachsmuth, Emil Warburg, Wilhelm Wien.
He then entered the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Berlin.

Johannes Stark

Johannes Stark’sStark, JohannesStarke
With the appointment of Johannes Stark as president on 1 May 1933, the ideology of National Socialism found its way into the PTR. Employees of PTR and PTB were, among others: Udo Adelsberger, Walther Bothe, Kurt Diebner, Gerhard Wilhelm Becker, Ernst Engelhard, Abraham Esau, Ernst Gehrcke, Hans Geiger, Werner Gitt, Eugen Goldstein, Ernst Carl Adolph Gumlich, Hermann von Helmholtz, Fritz Hennin], Friedrich Georg Houtermans, Max Jakob, Hellmut Keiter, Dieter Kind, Hans Otto Kneser, Friedrich Wilhelm Kohlrausch, Wilhelm Kösters, Bernhard Anton Ernst Kramer, Johannes Kramer, August Kundt, Max von Laue, Carl von Linde, Leopold Loewenherz, Otto Lummer, Walter Meidinger, Walther Meißner, Franz Mylius, Walther Hermann Nernst, Robert Ochsenfeld, Friedrich Paschen, Matthias Scheffler, Adolf Scheibe, Harald Schering, Reinhard Scherm, Johannes Stark, Ulrich Stille, Ida Tacke, Gotthold Richard Vieweg, Richard Wachsmuth, Emil Warburg, Wilhelm Wien.
From 1933 until his retirement in 1939, Stark was elected President of the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt, while also President of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

Abraham Esau

Under Stark and – after 1939 – under his successor Abraham Esau, the PTR strongly dedicated itself to armament research. Employees of PTR and PTB were, among others: Udo Adelsberger, Walther Bothe, Kurt Diebner, Gerhard Wilhelm Becker, Ernst Engelhard, Abraham Esau, Ernst Gehrcke, Hans Geiger, Werner Gitt, Eugen Goldstein, Ernst Carl Adolph Gumlich, Hermann von Helmholtz, Fritz Hennin], Friedrich Georg Houtermans, Max Jakob, Hellmut Keiter, Dieter Kind, Hans Otto Kneser, Friedrich Wilhelm Kohlrausch, Wilhelm Kösters, Bernhard Anton Ernst Kramer, Johannes Kramer, August Kundt, Max von Laue, Carl von Linde, Leopold Loewenherz, Otto Lummer, Walter Meidinger, Walther Meißner, Franz Mylius, Walther Hermann Nernst, Robert Ochsenfeld, Friedrich Paschen, Matthias Scheffler, Adolf Scheibe, Harald Schering, Reinhard Scherm, Johannes Stark, Ulrich Stille, Ida Tacke, Gotthold Richard Vieweg, Richard Wachsmuth, Emil Warburg, Wilhelm Wien.
From 1939 to 1945, Esau was ordinarius professor at the University of Berlin and president of the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt (PTR, Reich Physical and Technical Institute; today, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt).

Kurt Diebner

Diebner
Shortly after that, Hermann Göring subordinated the working group under the former PTR physicist Kurt Diebner to Division V for atomic physics at the PTR. Employees of PTR and PTB were, among others: Udo Adelsberger, Walther Bothe, Kurt Diebner, Gerhard Wilhelm Becker, Ernst Engelhard, Abraham Esau, Ernst Gehrcke, Hans Geiger, Werner Gitt, Eugen Goldstein, Ernst Carl Adolph Gumlich, Hermann von Helmholtz, Fritz Hennin], Friedrich Georg Houtermans, Max Jakob, Hellmut Keiter, Dieter Kind, Hans Otto Kneser, Friedrich Wilhelm Kohlrausch, Wilhelm Kösters, Bernhard Anton Ernst Kramer, Johannes Kramer, August Kundt, Max von Laue, Carl von Linde, Leopold Loewenherz, Otto Lummer, Walter Meidinger, Walther Meißner, Franz Mylius, Walther Hermann Nernst, Robert Ochsenfeld, Friedrich Paschen, Matthias Scheffler, Adolf Scheibe, Harald Schering, Reinhard Scherm, Johannes Stark, Ulrich Stille, Ida Tacke, Gotthold Richard Vieweg, Richard Wachsmuth, Emil Warburg, Wilhelm Wien.
From 1934, Diebner was a part-time employee of the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt (PTR, Reich Physical and Technical Institute; today, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt); he was also an advisor to the Reichswehrministerium (RWM, Reich Ministry of Defense; after 1939, the Reichskriegsministerium, RWK, Reich Ministry of War) and the Heereswaffenamt (HWA, Army Ordnance Office) on nuclear physics.

Max von Laue

Lauevon Laue Max von Laue’s
Jewish employees and critics of the NSDAP (such as Max von Laue) were dismissed. Employees of PTR and PTB were, among others: Udo Adelsberger, Walther Bothe, Kurt Diebner, Gerhard Wilhelm Becker, Ernst Engelhard, Abraham Esau, Ernst Gehrcke, Hans Geiger, Werner Gitt, Eugen Goldstein, Ernst Carl Adolph Gumlich, Hermann von Helmholtz, Fritz Hennin], Friedrich Georg Houtermans, Max Jakob, Hellmut Keiter, Dieter Kind, Hans Otto Kneser, Friedrich Wilhelm Kohlrausch, Wilhelm Kösters, Bernhard Anton Ernst Kramer, Johannes Kramer, August Kundt, Max von Laue, Carl von Linde, Leopold Loewenherz, Otto Lummer, Walter Meidinger, Walther Meißner, Franz Mylius, Walther Hermann Nernst, Robert Ochsenfeld, Friedrich Paschen, Matthias Scheffler, Adolf Scheibe, Harald Schering, Reinhard Scherm, Johannes Stark, Ulrich Stille, Ida Tacke, Gotthold Richard Vieweg, Richard Wachsmuth, Emil Warburg, Wilhelm Wien.
As a consultant to the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt (PTR), Laue met Walther Meissner who was working there on superconductivity.

Calibration

calibratedcalibratecalibrating
Not only its scientific metrological profile was extended, but also its palette of services rendered to industry, in particular in the form of calibrations of measuring instruments.
Examples of National Metrology Institutes are NPL in the UK, NIST in the United States, PTB in Germany and many others.

Ernst Gehrcke

Employees of PTR and PTB were, among others: Udo Adelsberger, Walther Bothe, Kurt Diebner, Gerhard Wilhelm Becker, Ernst Engelhard, Abraham Esau, Ernst Gehrcke, Hans Geiger, Werner Gitt, Eugen Goldstein, Ernst Carl Adolph Gumlich, Hermann von Helmholtz, Fritz Hennin], Friedrich Georg Houtermans, Max Jakob, Hellmut Keiter, Dieter Kind, Hans Otto Kneser, Friedrich Wilhelm Kohlrausch, Wilhelm Kösters, Bernhard Anton Ernst Kramer, Johannes Kramer, August Kundt, Max von Laue, Carl von Linde, Leopold Loewenherz, Otto Lummer, Walter Meidinger, Walther Meißner, Franz Mylius, Walther Hermann Nernst, Robert Ochsenfeld, Friedrich Paschen, Matthias Scheffler, Adolf Scheibe, Harald Schering, Reinhard Scherm, Johannes Stark, Ulrich Stille, Ida Tacke, Gotthold Richard Vieweg, Richard Wachsmuth, Emil Warburg, Wilhelm Wien.
In 1901, Gehrcke joined the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt (PTR, Reich Physical and Technical Institute, after 1945 renamed the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt). In 1926, he became the director of the optical department, a position he held until 1946.

Carl von Linde

Dr. Carl von LindeCarl Paul Gottfried von LindeLinde, Karl Paul Gottfried Von
Employees of PTR and PTB were, among others: Udo Adelsberger, Walther Bothe, Kurt Diebner, Gerhard Wilhelm Becker, Ernst Engelhard, Abraham Esau, Ernst Gehrcke, Hans Geiger, Werner Gitt, Eugen Goldstein, Ernst Carl Adolph Gumlich, Hermann von Helmholtz, Fritz Hennin], Friedrich Georg Houtermans, Max Jakob, Hellmut Keiter, Dieter Kind, Hans Otto Kneser, Friedrich Wilhelm Kohlrausch, Wilhelm Kösters, Bernhard Anton Ernst Kramer, Johannes Kramer, August Kundt, Max von Laue, Carl von Linde, Leopold Loewenherz, Otto Lummer, Walter Meidinger, Walther Meißner, Franz Mylius, Walther Hermann Nernst, Robert Ochsenfeld, Friedrich Paschen, Matthias Scheffler, Adolf Scheibe, Harald Schering, Reinhard Scherm, Johannes Stark, Ulrich Stille, Ida Tacke, Gotthold Richard Vieweg, Richard Wachsmuth, Emil Warburg, Wilhelm Wien.
Linde was a member of scientific and engineering associations, including being on the board of trustees of the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt and the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities.

Harald Schering

Employees of PTR and PTB were, among others: Udo Adelsberger, Walther Bothe, Kurt Diebner, Gerhard Wilhelm Becker, Ernst Engelhard, Abraham Esau, Ernst Gehrcke, Hans Geiger, Werner Gitt, Eugen Goldstein, Ernst Carl Adolph Gumlich, Hermann von Helmholtz, Fritz Hennin], Friedrich Georg Houtermans, Max Jakob, Hellmut Keiter, Dieter Kind, Hans Otto Kneser, Friedrich Wilhelm Kohlrausch, Wilhelm Kösters, Bernhard Anton Ernst Kramer, Johannes Kramer, August Kundt, Max von Laue, Carl von Linde, Leopold Loewenherz, Otto Lummer, Walter Meidinger, Walther Meißner, Franz Mylius, Walther Hermann Nernst, Robert Ochsenfeld, Friedrich Paschen, Matthias Scheffler, Adolf Scheibe, Harald Schering, Reinhard Scherm, Johannes Stark, Ulrich Stille, Ida Tacke, Gotthold Richard Vieweg, Richard Wachsmuth, Emil Warburg, Wilhelm Wien.
Beginning in 1905 he was a scientific assistant at the Physics and Technology Institute in Berlin Charlottenburg; today known as the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB).

Max Jakob

Employees of PTR and PTB were, among others: Udo Adelsberger, Walther Bothe, Kurt Diebner, Gerhard Wilhelm Becker, Ernst Engelhard, Abraham Esau, Ernst Gehrcke, Hans Geiger, Werner Gitt, Eugen Goldstein, Ernst Carl Adolph Gumlich, Hermann von Helmholtz, Fritz Hennin], Friedrich Georg Houtermans, Max Jakob, Hellmut Keiter, Dieter Kind, Hans Otto Kneser, Friedrich Wilhelm Kohlrausch, Wilhelm Kösters, Bernhard Anton Ernst Kramer, Johannes Kramer, August Kundt, Max von Laue, Carl von Linde, Leopold Loewenherz, Otto Lummer, Walter Meidinger, Walther Meißner, Franz Mylius, Walther Hermann Nernst, Robert Ochsenfeld, Friedrich Paschen, Matthias Scheffler, Adolf Scheibe, Harald Schering, Reinhard Scherm, Johannes Stark, Ulrich Stille, Ida Tacke, Gotthold Richard Vieweg, Richard Wachsmuth, Emil Warburg, Wilhelm Wien.
In 1910, Jakob embarked on a 25-year career at the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt in Charlottenburg, Berlin.

Robert Ochsenfeld

Ochsenfeld
Employees of PTR and PTB were, among others: Udo Adelsberger, Walther Bothe, Kurt Diebner, Gerhard Wilhelm Becker, Ernst Engelhard, Abraham Esau, Ernst Gehrcke, Hans Geiger, Werner Gitt, Eugen Goldstein, Ernst Carl Adolph Gumlich, Hermann von Helmholtz, Fritz Hennin], Friedrich Georg Houtermans, Max Jakob, Hellmut Keiter, Dieter Kind, Hans Otto Kneser, Friedrich Wilhelm Kohlrausch, Wilhelm Kösters, Bernhard Anton Ernst Kramer, Johannes Kramer, August Kundt, Max von Laue, Carl von Linde, Leopold Loewenherz, Otto Lummer, Walter Meidinger, Walther Meißner, Franz Mylius, Walther Hermann Nernst, Robert Ochsenfeld, Friedrich Paschen, Matthias Scheffler, Adolf Scheibe, Harald Schering, Reinhard Scherm, Johannes Stark, Ulrich Stille, Ida Tacke, Gotthold Richard Vieweg, Richard Wachsmuth, Emil Warburg, Wilhelm Wien. In this connection, he recognized some years later – together with his colleague Robert Ochsenfeld – that superconductors have the property of displacing from their interior a magnetic field which has been applied from the outside – the Meißner-Ochsenfeld Effect.
After the war, he worked until retirement in the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the successor of the PTR with focus on magnetic materials.

Fritz Houtermans

Friedrich Georg HoutermansHoutermansFriedrich G. Houtermans
Employees of PTR and PTB were, among others: Udo Adelsberger, Walther Bothe, Kurt Diebner, Gerhard Wilhelm Becker, Ernst Engelhard, Abraham Esau, Ernst Gehrcke, Hans Geiger, Werner Gitt, Eugen Goldstein, Ernst Carl Adolph Gumlich, Hermann von Helmholtz, Fritz Hennin], Friedrich Georg Houtermans, Max Jakob, Hellmut Keiter, Dieter Kind, Hans Otto Kneser, Friedrich Wilhelm Kohlrausch, Wilhelm Kösters, Bernhard Anton Ernst Kramer, Johannes Kramer, August Kundt, Max von Laue, Carl von Linde, Leopold Loewenherz, Otto Lummer, Walter Meidinger, Walther Meißner, Franz Mylius, Walther Hermann Nernst, Robert Ochsenfeld, Friedrich Paschen, Matthias Scheffler, Adolf Scheibe, Harald Schering, Reinhard Scherm, Johannes Stark, Ulrich Stille, Ida Tacke, Gotthold Richard Vieweg, Richard Wachsmuth, Emil Warburg, Wilhelm Wien.
In 1944, Houtermans took a position as a nuclear physicist at the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt.

Völkenrode

In 1947, he succeeded in convincing the British authorities to make the former Luftfahrtforschungsanstalt (Aeronautical Research Institute) in Völkenrode near Braunschweig available to the PTR successor.
Today, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt and the former Federal Agricultural Research Centre are located on the former LFA site.

Friedrich Paschen

Paschen Friedrich Paschen’sF. Paschen
Employees of PTR and PTB were, among others: Udo Adelsberger, Walther Bothe, Kurt Diebner, Gerhard Wilhelm Becker, Ernst Engelhard, Abraham Esau, Ernst Gehrcke, Hans Geiger, Werner Gitt, Eugen Goldstein, Ernst Carl Adolph Gumlich, Hermann von Helmholtz, Fritz Hennin], Friedrich Georg Houtermans, Max Jakob, Hellmut Keiter, Dieter Kind, Hans Otto Kneser, Friedrich Wilhelm Kohlrausch, Wilhelm Kösters, Bernhard Anton Ernst Kramer, Johannes Kramer, August Kundt, Max von Laue, Carl von Linde, Leopold Loewenherz, Otto Lummer, Walter Meidinger, Walther Meißner, Franz Mylius, Walther Hermann Nernst, Robert Ochsenfeld, Friedrich Paschen, Matthias Scheffler, Adolf Scheibe, Harald Schering, Reinhard Scherm, Johannes Stark, Ulrich Stille, Ida Tacke, Gotthold Richard Vieweg, Richard Wachsmuth, Emil Warburg, Wilhelm Wien. 1924–1933: Friedrich Paschen
He served as president of the Physikalisch-Technischen Reichsanstalt from 1924–33 and an honorary professor of the University of Berlin in 1925.

Ida Noddack

Ida Noddack TackeIda Eva TackeIda Noddack-Tacke
Employees of PTR and PTB were, among others: Udo Adelsberger, Walther Bothe, Kurt Diebner, Gerhard Wilhelm Becker, Ernst Engelhard, Abraham Esau, Ernst Gehrcke, Hans Geiger, Werner Gitt, Eugen Goldstein, Ernst Carl Adolph Gumlich, Hermann von Helmholtz, Fritz Hennin], Friedrich Georg Houtermans, Max Jakob, Hellmut Keiter, Dieter Kind, Hans Otto Kneser, Friedrich Wilhelm Kohlrausch, Wilhelm Kösters, Bernhard Anton Ernst Kramer, Johannes Kramer, August Kundt, Max von Laue, Carl von Linde, Leopold Loewenherz, Otto Lummer, Walter Meidinger, Walther Meißner, Franz Mylius, Walther Hermann Nernst, Robert Ochsenfeld, Friedrich Paschen, Matthias Scheffler, Adolf Scheibe, Harald Schering, Reinhard Scherm, Johannes Stark, Ulrich Stille, Ida Tacke, Gotthold Richard Vieweg, Richard Wachsmuth, Emil Warburg, Wilhelm Wien.
Noddack and her husband-to-be looked for the then still unknown elements 43 and 75 at the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt.

Werner Gitt

Employees of PTR and PTB were, among others: Udo Adelsberger, Walther Bothe, Kurt Diebner, Gerhard Wilhelm Becker, Ernst Engelhard, Abraham Esau, Ernst Gehrcke, Hans Geiger, Werner Gitt, Eugen Goldstein, Ernst Carl Adolph Gumlich, Hermann von Helmholtz, Fritz Hennin], Friedrich Georg Houtermans, Max Jakob, Hellmut Keiter, Dieter Kind, Hans Otto Kneser, Friedrich Wilhelm Kohlrausch, Wilhelm Kösters, Bernhard Anton Ernst Kramer, Johannes Kramer, August Kundt, Max von Laue, Carl von Linde, Leopold Loewenherz, Otto Lummer, Walter Meidinger, Walther Meißner, Franz Mylius, Walther Hermann Nernst, Robert Ochsenfeld, Friedrich Paschen, Matthias Scheffler, Adolf Scheibe, Harald Schering, Reinhard Scherm, Johannes Stark, Ulrich Stille, Ida Tacke, Gotthold Richard Vieweg, Richard Wachsmuth, Emil Warburg, Wilhelm Wien.
Before retirement, he was Head of the Department of Information Technology at the German Federal Institute of Physics and Technology (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt).

Metrology

metrologicalmetrologistlegal metrology
The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is the national metrology institute of the Federal Republic of Germany, with scientific and technical service tasks.

Germany

🇩🇪GermanGER
The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is the national metrology institute of the Federal Republic of Germany, with scientific and technical service tasks.

National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom)

National Physical LaboratoryNPLNational Physical Laboratory (NPL)
Together with NIST in the USA and the NPL in Great Britain, PTB ranks among the leading metrology institutes in the world.

Bundesgesetzblatt (Germany)

BundesgesetzblattBGBl.Bundesgesetzblatt'' (Germany)
The Units and Time Act Bundesgesetzblatt (Federal Law Gazette), volume 2008, part I, No. 28, p. 1185 ff., 11 July 2008] assigns all tasks which are related with the realization and dissemination of the units to PTB.

Daniel K Daniel

Daniel K. Daniel
This spectrum of tasks is supplemented by services such as the German Calibration Service (Deutscher Kalibrierdienst, DKD) and by metrology for the area regulated by law, metrology for industry, and metrology for technology transfer.