Physiognomy

physiognomicphysiognomistphysiognomicalphysiognomiesFace readingphysiognomicallyphysiognomistsphysiognomics64 "canonical grimacesface reader
Physiognomy (from the Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature" and gnomon meaning "judge" or "interpreter") is a practice of assessing a person's character or personality from their outer appearance—especially the face.wikipedia
324 Related Articles

Johann Kaspar Lavater

LavaterJohann Caspar LavaterJK Lavater
It was then revived and popularised by Johann Kaspar Lavater before falling from favour again in the late 19th century.
Johann Kaspar (or Caspar) Lavater (15 November 1741 – 2 January 1801) was a Swiss poet, writer, philosopher, physiognomist and theologian.

Vegetation

vegetativevegetatedvegetative cover
The term can also refer to the general appearance of a person, object, or terrain without reference to its implied characteristics—as in the physiognomy of an individual plant (see plant life-form) or of a plant community (see vegetation).
Other concepts similar to vegetation are "physiognomy of vegetation" (Humboldt, 1805, 1807) and "formation" (Grisebach, 1838, derived from "Vegetationsform", Martius, 1824).

Physiognomonics

PhysiognomicaPhysiognomicsPhysiognomonica
The first systematic physiognomic treatise to survive to the present day is a slim volume, Physiognomonica (English: Physiognomonics), ascribed to Aristotle (but probably of his "school" rather than created by the philosopher himself).
Physiognomonics (Φυσιογνωμονικά; Physiognomonica) is an Ancient Greek treatise on physiognomy casually attributed to Aristotle (and part of the Corpus Aristotelicum) but now believed to be by an author writing approximately 300 BC.

Biological anthropology

physical anthropologyphysical anthropologistbiological anthropologist
Popular in the 19th century, it has been used as a basis for scientific racism, along with physical anthropology.
He also wrote about physiognomy, an idea derived from writings in the Hippocratic Corpus.

Liber physiognomiae

De secretis naturae
Michael Scot, a court scholar for Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, wrote Liber physiognomiae in the early 13th century concerning the subject.
Liber physiognomiae (, ; The Book of Physiognomy) is a work by the Scottish mathematician, philosopher, and scholar Michael Scot concerning physiognomy; the work is also the final book of a trilogy known as the Liber introductorius.

Library of Sir Thomas Browne

his librarylibrary
Della Porta's works are well represented in the Library of Sir Thomas Browne including Of Celestial Physiognomy, in which Porta argued that it was not the stars but a person's temperament that influences their facial appearance and character.
Browne's erudite learning is reflected by the Classics of antiquity as well as history, geography, philology, philosophy, anatomy, theology, cartography, embryology, medicine, cosmography, ornithology, mineralogy, zoology, travel, law, mathematics, geometry, literature, both Continental and English, the latest advances in scientific thinking in astronomy, chemistry as well as esoteric topics such as astrology, alchemy, physiognomy and the Kabbalah are all represented in the Catalogue of his library contents.

Michael Scot

Michael ScotusEscotilloMichael Scott "The Wizard
Michael Scot, a court scholar for Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, wrote Liber physiognomiae in the early 13th century concerning the subject.
Scot was a pioneer in the study of physiognomy.

Giambattista della Porta

Giovanni Battista della PortaDella PortaPorta
Lavater found 'confirmation' of his ideas from the English physician-philosopher Sir Thomas Browne (1605–1682), and the Italian Giambattista Della Porta (1535–1615).
In 1586 della Porta published a work on physiognomy, De humana physiognomonia libri IIII (1586).

Joseph Ducreux

Ducreux
Many European novelists used physiognomy in the descriptions of their characters, notably Balzac, Chaucer and portrait artists, such as Joseph Ducreux.
His less formal portraits reflect his fascination with physiognomy and show an interest in expanding the range of facial expressions beyond those of conventional portraiture.

Face

human facefacialfacial feature
Physiognomy (from the Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature" and gnomon meaning "judge" or "interpreter") is a practice of assessing a person's character or personality from their outer appearance—especially the face.

Leonardo da Vinci

Da VinciLeonardoLéonard de Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci dismissed physiognomy in the early 16th century as "false", a chimera with "no scientific foundation".
Among the qualities that make Leonardo's work unique are his innovative techniques for laying on the paint; his detailed knowledge of anatomy, light, botany and geology; his interest in physiognomy and the way humans register emotion in expression and gesture; his innovative use of the human form in figurative composition; and his use of subtle gradation of tone.

Phrenology

phrenologistphrenologicalcraniology
Phrenology, also considered a form of physiognomy, was created around 1800 by German physician Franz Joseph Gall and Johann Spurzheim, and was widely popular in the 19th century in Europe and the United States.
Phrenology, which focuses on personality and character, is distinct from craniometry, which is the study of skull size, weight and shape, and physiognomy, the study of facial features.

Cesare Lombroso

LombrosoLombroso's theoryLombroso, C
Instead, using concepts drawn from physiognomy, degeneration theory, psychiatry and Social Darwinism, Lombroso's theory of anthropological criminology essentially stated that criminality was inherited, and that someone "born criminal" could be identified by physical (congenital) defects, which confirmed a criminal as savage or atavistic.

Pathognomy

For example, the harshest critic was scientist Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, who said pathognomy, discovering the character by observing the behaviour, was more effective.
Pathognomy is distinguished from physiognomy based on key differences in their features.

Georg Christoph Lichtenberg

LichtenbergGeorg LichtenbergG. C. Lichtenberg
For example, the harshest critic was scientist Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, who said pathognomy, discovering the character by observing the behaviour, was more effective.
His biting wit involved him in many controversies with well-known contemporaries, such as the Swiss physiognomist Johann Kaspar Lavater whose science of physiognomy he ridiculed, and Johann Heinrich Voss, whose views on Greek pronunciation called forth a powerful satire, Über die Pronunciation der Schöpse des alten Griechenlandes.

Johann Spurzheim

Johann Gaspar SpurzheimJohann Caspar SpurzheimSpurzheim
Phrenology, also considered a form of physiognomy, was created around 1800 by German physician Franz Joseph Gall and Johann Spurzheim, and was widely popular in the 19th century in Europe and the United States.
Gall and Spurzheim's physiognomical System'.

Polemon of Laodicea

PolemonMarcus Antonius PolemonPolemo
A treatise on physiognomy is preserved in a 14th-century Arabic translation.

Norwich

Norwich, EnglandNorwich, NorfolkTown Close School
In addition to Thomas Browne, other literary authors associated with Norwich who made physiognomical observations in their writings include the romantic novelist Amelia Opie, and the travelogue author George Borrow.
Browne is also a significant figure in the history of physiognomy.

Anthropological criminology

criminal anthropologyborn criminalcriminal anthropologist
Although similar to physiognomy and phrenology, the term "criminal anthropology" is generally reserved for the works of the Italian school of criminology of the late 19th century (Cesare Lombroso, Enrico Ferri, Raffaele Garofalo and Lorenzo Tenchini).

Anthropometry

anthropometricanthropometricsBertillonage
The history of anthropometry includes and spans various concepts, both scientific and pseudoscientific, such as craniometry, paleoanthropology, biological anthropology, phrenology, physiognomy, forensics, criminology, phylogeography, human origins, and cranio-facial description, as well as correlations between various anthropometrics and personal identity, mental typology, personality, cranial vault and brain size, and other factors.

Edgar Allan Poe

PoeEdgar Allen PoeEdgar Poe
In 19th-century American literature, physiognomy figures prominently in the short stories of Edgar Allan Poe.
To that end, his fiction often included elements of popular pseudosciences, such as phrenology and physiognomy.

Characterology

It claimed to combine physiognomy, reconstructed phrenology and amplified pathognomy, with ethnology, sociology and anthropology.

Caricature

caricaturistcaricaturescaricaturists
Browne also introduced the word caricature into the English language, whence much of physiognomical belief attempted to entrench itself by illustrative means, in particular through visual political satire.

Gaydar

Perceptions of sexual orientation
According to BBC News, "The work has been accused of being dangerous' and 'junk science. In early 2018, researchers, among them two specialists of AI working at Google (one of the two on face recognition), issued a reportedly contradicting study based on a survey of 8,000 Americans using Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform. The survey yielded many traits helping to discriminate between gay and straight respondents with a series of yes/no questions. These traits had actually less to do with morphology than with grooming, presentation, and lifestyle (makeup, facial hair, glasses, angle of pictures taken of self, etc.). For more information of this sexual orientation issue in general, see Gaydar.
Most of the research on this issue can be filed into the field called physiognomy, very popular in the 19th century when it has been used as a basis for scientific racism, along with physical anthropology.

Claudia Schmölders

She did her habilitation at Humboldt University of Berlin with work on physiognomy and from 1998 until 2008 she served as a private docent at the Institute of Cultural Science of Humboldt University.