A report on Physiology

Oil painting depicting Claude Bernard, the father of modern physiology, with his pupils

Scientific study of functions and mechanisms in a living system.

- Physiology
Oil painting depicting Claude Bernard, the father of modern physiology, with his pupils

55 related topics with Alpha

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Diagram of a fly from Robert Hooke's innovative Micrographia, 1665

Biology

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Scientific study of life.

Scientific study of life.

Diagram of a fly from Robert Hooke's innovative Micrographia, 1665
In 1842, Charles Darwin penned his first sketch of On the Origin of Species.
In the Bohr model of an atom, electrons (blue dot) orbit around an atomic nucleus (red-filled circle) in specific atomic orbitals (grey empty circles).
Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water
Organic compounds such as glucose are vital to organisms.
A phospholipid bilayer consists of two adjacent sheets of phospholipids, with the hydrophilic tails facing inwards and the hydrophobic heads facing outwards.
The (a) primary, (b) secondary, (c) tertiary, and (d) quaternary structures of a hemoglobin protein
Structure of an animal cell depicting various organelles
Structure of a plant cell
Example of an enzyme-catalysed exothermic reaction
Respiration in a eukaryotic cell
Photosynthesis changes sunlight into chemical energy, splits water to liberate O2, and fixes CO2 into sugar.
In meiosis, the chromosomes duplicate and the homologous chromosomes exchange genetic information during meiosis I. The daughter cells divide again in meiosis II to form haploid gametes.
Punnett square depicting a cross between two pea plants heterozygous for purple (B) and white (b) blossoms
Bases lie between two spiraling DNA strands.
The extended central dogma of molecular biology includes all the processes involved in the flow of genetic information.
Regulation of various stages of gene expression
Composition of the human genome
Construction of recombinant DNA, in which a foreign DNA fragment is inserted into a plasmid vector
Model of concentration gradient building up; fine yellow-orange outlines are cell boundaries.
Natural selection for darker traits
Comparison of allopatric, peripatric, parapatric and sympatric speciation
Bacteria – Gemmatimonas aurantiaca (-=1 Micrometer)
Archaea – Halobacteria
Diversity of protists
Diversity of plants
Diversity of fungi. Clockwise from top left: Amanita muscaria, a basidiomycete; Sarcoscypha coccinea, an ascomycete; bread covered in mold; chytrid; Aspergillus conidiophore.
Bacteriophages attached to a bacterial cell wall
Root and shoot systems in a eudicot
The xylem (blue) transports water and minerals from the roots upwards whereas the phloem (orange) transports carbohydrates between organs.
Reproduction and development in sporophytes
Negative feedback is necessary for maintaining homeostasis such as keeping body temperature constant.
Diffusion of water and ions in and out of a freshwater fish
Different digestive systems in marine fishes
Respiratory system in a bird
Circulatory systems in arthropods, fish, reptiles, and birds/mammals
Asynchronous muscles power flight in most insects. a: Wings b: Wing joint c: Dorsoventral muscles power upstrokes d: Dorsolongitudinal muscles power downstrokes.
Mouse pyramidal neurons (green) and GABAergic neurons (red)
Sexual reproduction in dragonflies
Cleavage in zebrafish embryo
Processes in the primary immune response
Brood parasites, such as the cuckoo, provide a supernormal stimulus to the parenting species.
Terrestrial biomes are shaped by temperature and precipitation.
Reaching carrying capacity through a logistic growth curve
A (a) trophic pyramid and a (b) simplified food web. The trophic pyramid represents the biomass at each level.
Fast carbon cycle showing the movement of carbon between land, atmosphere, and oceans in billions of tons per year. Yellow numbers are natural fluxes, red are human contributions, white are stored carbon. Effects of the slow carbon cycle, such as volcanic and tectonic activity, are not included.
Efforts are made to preserve the natural characteristics of Hopetoun Falls, Australia, without affecting visitors' access.

Biologists are able to study life at multiple levels of organization, from the molecular biology of a cell to the anatomy and physiology of plants and animals, and evolution of populations.

Statue of Asclepius, the Greek god of medicine, holding the symbolic Rod of Asclepius with its coiled serpent

Medicine

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Science and practice of caring for a patient, managing the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, treatment, palliation of their injury or disease, and promoting their health.

Science and practice of caring for a patient, managing the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, treatment, palliation of their injury or disease, and promoting their health.

Statue of Asclepius, the Greek god of medicine, holding the symbolic Rod of Asclepius with its coiled serpent
The Doctor by Sir Luke Fildes (1891)
Elizabeth Blackwell, the first female physician in the United States graduated from SUNY Upstate (1847)
The Hospital of Santa Maria della Scala, fresco by Domenico di Bartolo, 1441–1442
Modern drug ampoules
Nurses in Kokopo, East New Britain, Papua New Guinea
Drawing by Marguerite Martyn (1918) of a visiting nurse in St. Louis, Missouri, with medicine and babies
Louis Pasteur, as portrayed in his laboratory, 1885 by Albert Edelfelt
Surgeons in an operating room
Gynecologist Michel Akotionga of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Medical students learning about stitches
Headquarters of the Organización Médica Colegial de España, which regulates the medical profession in Spain
A 12th-century Byzantine manuscript of the Hippocratic Oath
Statuette of ancient Egyptian physician Imhotep, the first physician from antiquity known by name
Mosaic on the floor of the Asclepieion of Kos, depicting Hippocrates, with Asklepius in the middle (2nd–3rd century)
A manuscript of Al-Risalah al-Dhahabiah by Ali al-Ridha, the eighth Imam of Shia Muslims. The text says: "Golden dissertation in medicine which is sent by Imam Ali ibn Musa al-Ridha, peace be upon him, to al-Ma'mun."
Siena's Santa Maria della Scala Hospital, one of Europe's oldest hospitals. During the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church established universities to revive the study of sciences, drawing on the learning of Greek and Arab physicians in the study of medicine.
Paul-Louis Simond injecting a plague vaccine in Karachi, 1898
Alexander Fleming's discovery of penicillin in September 1928 marks the start of modern antibiotics.
Packaging of cardiac medicine at the Star pharmaceutical factory in Tampere, Finland in 1953.

Physiology is the study of the normal functioning of the body and the underlying regulatory mechanisms.

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

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Nobel was interested in experimental physiology and set up his own laboratories.
The reverse side of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine
Nobel prize medal for medicine, Sweden, 1945, to Sir Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) who discovered Penicillin. On display at the National Museum of Scotland
Nikolaas Tinbergen (left) and Konrad Lorenz (right) were awarded (with Karl von Frisch) for their discoveries concerning animal behavior.
In 1947, Gerty Cori was the first woman to be awarded the Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Ralph M. Steinman was an inadvertent posthumous recipient of the Prize.
Scandal and controversy resulted from the 2008 award to Harald zur Hausen for the discovery of HPV, and to Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier for discovering HIV.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded yearly by the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute for outstanding discoveries in physiology or medicine.

An 18th century engraving by Georg P. Busch.

Galen

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Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.

Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.

An 18th century engraving by Georg P. Busch.
Galen dissecting a monkey, as imagined by Veloso Salgado in 1906
An interpretation of Galen's human "physiological system"
Modern statue of Galen in his home town, Pergamon
De curandi ratione
A group of physicians in an image from the Vienna Dioscurides; Galen is depicted top center.
De Pulsibus (c.1550), Galen's treatise on the pulse, in Greek and Latin.

Considered to be one of the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic.

Roman copy in marble of a Greek bronze bust of Aristotle by Lysippos, c. 330 BC, with modern alabaster mantle

Aristotle

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Greek philosopher and polymath during the Classical period in Ancient Greece.

Greek philosopher and polymath during the Classical period in Ancient Greece.

Roman copy in marble of a Greek bronze bust of Aristotle by Lysippos, c. 330 BC, with modern alabaster mantle
School of Aristotle in Mieza, Macedonia, Greece
Roman copy of 1st or 2nd century from original bronze by Lysippos. Louvre Museum
Plato (left) and Aristotle in Raphael's 1509 fresco, The School of Athens. Aristotle holds his Nicomachean Ethics and gestures to the earth, representing his view in immanent realism, whilst Plato gestures to the heavens, indicating his Theory of Forms, and holds his Timaeus.
Plato's forms exist as universals, like the ideal form of an apple. For Aristotle, both matter and form belong to the individual thing (hylomorphism).
Aristotle argued that a capability like playing the flute could be acquired – the potential made actual – by learning.
The four classical elements (fire, air, water, earth) of Empedocles and Aristotle illustrated with a burning log. The log releases all four elements as it is destroyed.
Aristotle argued by analogy with woodwork that a thing takes its form from four causes: in the case of a table, the wood used (material cause), its design (formal cause), the tools and techniques used (efficient cause), and its decorative or practical purpose (final cause).
Aristotle noted that the ground level of the Aeolian islands changed before a volcanic eruption.
Among many pioneering zoological observations, Aristotle described the reproductive hectocotyl arm of the octopus (bottom left).
Aristotle inferred growth laws from his observations on animals, including that brood size decreases with body mass, whereas gestation period increases. He was correct in these predictions, at least for mammals: data are shown for mouse and elephant.
Aristotle recorded that the embryo of a dogfish was attached by a cord to a kind of placenta (the yolk sac), like a higher animal; this formed an exception to the linear scale from highest to lowest.
Aristotle proposed a three-part structure for souls of plants, animals, and humans, making humans unique in having all three types of soul.
Senses, perception, memory, dreams, action in Aristotle's psychology. Impressions are stored in the sensorium (the heart), linked by his laws of association (similarity, contrast, and contiguity).
Aristotle's classifications of political constitutions
The Blind Oedipus Commending his Children to the Gods (1784) by Bénigne Gagneraux. In his Poetics, Aristotle uses the tragedy Oedipus Tyrannus by Sophocles as an example of how the perfect tragedy should be structured, with a generally good protagonist who starts the play prosperous, but loses everything through some hamartia (fault).
Frontispiece to a 1644 version of Theophrastus's Historia Plantarum, originally written around 300 BC
Islamic portrayal of Aristotle, c. 1220
Woodcut of Aristotle ridden by Phyllis by Hans Baldung, 1515
William Harvey's De Motu Cordis, 1628, showed that the blood circulated, contrary to classical era thinking.
"That most enduring of romantic images, Aristotle tutoring the future conqueror Alexander". Illustration by, 1866
First page of a 1566 edition of the Nicomachean Ethics in Greek and Latin
Nuremberg Chronicle anachronistically shows Aristotle in a medieval scholar's clothing. Ink and watercolour on paper, 1493
Aristotle by Justus van Gent. Oil on panel, c. 1476
Phyllis and Aristotle by Lucas Cranach the Elder. Oil on panel, 1530
Aristotle by Paolo Veronese, Biblioteka Marciana. Oil on canvas, 1560s
Aristotle and Campaspe,{{efn-ua | Compare the medieval tale of Phyllis and Alexander above.}} Alessandro Turchi (attrib.) Oil on canvas, 1713
Aristotle by Jusepe de Ribera. Oil on canvas, 1637
Aristotle with a Bust of Homer by Rembrandt. Oil on canvas, 1653
Aristotle by Johann Jakob Dorner the Elder. Oil on canvas, by 1813
Aristotle by Francesco Hayez. Oil on canvas, 1811
Roman copy of 117-138 AD of Greek original. Palermo Regional Archeology Museum
Relief of Aristotle and Plato by Luca della Robbia, Florence Cathedral, 1437–1439
Stone statue in niche, Gladstone's Library, Hawarden, Wales, 1899
Bronze statue, University of Freiburg, Germany, 1915

The efficient cause is "the primary source", or that from which the change under consideration proceeds. It identifies 'what makes of what is made and what causes change of what is changed' and so suggests all sorts of agents, non-living or living, acting as the sources of change or movement or rest. Representing the current understanding of causality as the relation of cause and effect, this covers the modern definitions of "cause" as either the agent or agency or particular events or states of affairs. In the case of two dominoes, when the first is knocked over it causes the second also to fall over. In the case of animals, this agency is a combination of how it develops from the egg, and how its body functions.

Life

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Quality that distinguishes matter that has biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from that which does not, and is defined by the capacity for growth, reaction to stimuli, metabolism, energy transformation, and reproduction.

Quality that distinguishes matter that has biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from that which does not, and is defined by the capacity for growth, reaction to stimuli, metabolism, energy transformation, and reproduction.

Adenovirus as seen under an electron microscope
Definition of cellular life according to Budisa, Kubyshkin and Schmidt.
The structure of the souls of plants, animals, and humans, according to Aristotle
Cyanobacteria dramatically changed the composition of life forms on Earth by leading to the near-extinction of oxygen-intolerant organisms.
Deinococcus radiodurans is an extremophile that can resist extremes of cold, dehydration, vacuum, acid, and radiation exposure.
Animal corpses, like this African buffalo, are recycled by the ecosystem, providing energy and nutrients for living creatures

These complex processes, called physiological functions, have underlying physical and chemical bases, as well as signaling and control mechanisms that are essential to maintaining life.

A germination rate experiment

Plant physiology

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A germination rate experiment
Five key areas of study within plant physiology.
Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree.
Space-filling model of the chlorophyll molecule.
Anthocyanin gives these pansies their dark purple pigmentation.
A mutation that stops Arabidopsis thaliana responding to auxin causes abnormal growth (right)
The poinsettia is a short-day plant, requiring two months of long nights prior to blooming.
Phototropism in Arabidopsis thaliana is regulated by blue to UV light.
Powdery mildew on crop leaves
Jan Baptist van Helmont.

Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants.

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Anatomy

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Branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

Branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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A dissected body, lying prone on a table, by Charles Landseer
Stylized cutaway diagram of an animal cell (with flagella)
Hyaline cartilage at high magnification (H&E stain)
Gastric mucosa at low magnification (H&E stain)
Cross section through skeletal muscle and a small nerve at high magnification (H&E stain)
Mouse skull
Cutaway diagram showing various organs of a fish
Skeleton of Surinam horned frog (Ceratophrys cornuta)
Plastic model of a frog
Skeleton of a diamondback rattlesnake
Part of a wing. Albrecht Dürer, c. 1500–1512
Modern anatomic technique showing sagittal sections of the head as seen by an MRI scan
In the human, the development of skilled hand movements and increased brain size is likely to have evolved simultaneously.
Head of a male Daphnia, a planktonic crustacean
Image of early rendition of anatomy findings
An anatomy thangka, part of Desi Sangye Gyatso's The Blue Beryl, 17th century
Surgical instruments were invented for the first time in history by Abulcasis in the 11th century
Anatomy of the eye for the first time in history by Hunayn ibn Ishaq in the 9th century
13th century anatomical illustration
Anatomical study of the arm, by Leonardo da Vinci, (about 1510)
Anatomical chart in Vesalius's Epitome, 1543
Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt – Anatomy lesson of Dr. Willem van der Meer, 1617
An electron microscope from 1973
Anatomical study of the arm, by Leonardo da Vinci, (about 1510)

Anatomy and physiology, which study the structure and function of organisms and their parts respectively, make a natural pair of related disciplines, and are often studied together.

Comparative physiology

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Comparative physiology is a subdiscipline of physiology that studies and exploits the diversity of functional characteristics of various kinds of organisms.

Ibn al-Nafis

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The opening page of one of Ibn al-Nafis' medical works. This is probably a copy made in India during the 17th or 18th century.
A manuscript page from Ibn al-Nafis' Commentary on Avicenna's Canon.

Ala-al-Din abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm (/ Abi-Haram) al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس), was an Arab polymath whose areas of work included medicine, surgery, physiology, anatomy, biology, Islamic studies, jurisprudence, and philosophy.