Physiology

physiologistphysiologicalphysiologicallyphysiologicanimal physiologyphysiologistsphysiological processesPhysiological SciencesphysicalInstitutes of Medicine
Physiology is the scientific study of the functions and mechanisms which work within a living system.wikipedia
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Function (biology)

functionbiological functionfunctions
Physiology is the scientific study of the functions and mechanisms which work within a living system.
In physiology, it is simply what an organ, tissue, cell or molecule does.

Biology

biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
As a sub-discipline of biology, the focus of physiology is on how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and biomolecules carry out the chemical and physical functions that exist in a living system. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution.

Plant physiology

plant physiologistphysiologyplant metabolism
According to the type of investigated organisms, the field can be divided into animal physiology (including that of humans), plant physiology, cellular physiology, and microbial physiology.
Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants.

Life

livinglife on Earthbiota
Physiology is the scientific study of the functions and mechanisms which work within a living system.
These complex processes, called physiological functions, have underlying physical and chemical bases, as well as signaling and control mechanisms that are essential to maintaining life.

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

Nobel PrizeNobel Prize in MedicineMedicine
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to those who make significant achievements in this discipline.
One of five prizes bequested in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, it is an award for scientific progress through laboratory discoveries in experimental physiology.

Anatomy

anatomistanatomicalanatomically
Due to the frequent connection between form and function, physiology and anatomy are intrinsically linked and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.
Anatomy and physiology, which study (respectively) the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a natural pair of related disciplines, and they are often studied together.

Cell biology

cytologycell biologistcellular biology
Closely related fields include plant morphology, plant ecology, phytochemistry, cell biology, genetics, biophysics, and molecular biology.
Cell biology is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, also known as the basic unit of life.

Cell physiology

cellular physiologycardiac cellular electrophysiologycell
According to the type of investigated organisms, the field can be divided into animal physiology (including that of humans), plant physiology, cellular physiology, and microbial physiology.
The term "physiology" refers to all the normal functions that take place in a living organism.

Biophysics

biophysicistbiophysicalbiological physics
Closely related fields include plant morphology, plant ecology, phytochemistry, cell biology, genetics, biophysics, and molecular biology.
Biophysical research shares significant overlap with biochemistry, molecular biology, physical chemistry, physiology, nanotechnology, bioengineering, computational biology, biomechanics, developmental biology and systems biology.

Pathology

pathologistpathologicalpathologies
The physiologic state is the condition occurring from normal body function, while the pathological state is centered on the abnormalities that occur in animal diseases, including humans.
Combined with developments in the understanding of general physiology, by the beginning of the 20th century, the study of pathology had begun to split into a number of rarefied fields and resulting in the development of large number of modern specialties within pathology and related disciplines of diagnostic medicine.

Model organism

animal modelmouse modelanimal models
They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism.
The species chosen will usually meet a determined taxonomic equivalency to humans, so as to react to disease or its treatment in a way that resembles human physiology as needed.

Dormancy

dormantbrumationbrumate
Fundamental processes of plant physiology include photosynthesis, respiration, plant nutrition, tropisms, nastic movements, photoperiodism, photomorphogenesis, circadian rhythms, seed germination, dormancy, and stomata function and transpiration.
During hibernation, the animal undergoes many physiological changes, including decreased heart rate (by as much as 95%) and decreased body temperature.

Galen

Galen of PergamonGalenic medicineGalenus
130–200 AD), known as Galen of Pergamum, was the first to use experiments to probe the functions of the body.
Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic.

William Harvey

HarveyDe GenerationeHarvey, William
Galen, Ibn al-Nafis, Michael Servetus, Realdo Colombo, Amato Lusitano and William Harvey, are credited as making important discoveries in the circulation of the blood.
William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.

Ibn al-Nafis

Ibn NafisIbn an-NafisAl-Nafis
Galen, Ibn al-Nafis, Michael Servetus, Realdo Colombo, Amato Lusitano and William Harvey, are credited as making important discoveries in the circulation of the blood.
As an early anatomist, Ibn al-Nafis also performed several human dissections during the course of his work, making several important discoveries in the fields of physiology and anatomy.

Santorio Santorio

SanctoriusSantorio SanctoriusSantorio Santorii
Santorio Santorio in 1610s was the first to use a device to measure the pulse rate (the pulsilogium), and a thermoscope to measure temperature.
Santorio Santorio (29 March 1561 – 22 February 1636), also called Sanctorio Sanctorio, Santorio Santorii, Sanctorius of Padua, Sanctorio Sanctorius and various combinations of these names, was a Venetian physiologist, physician, and professor, who introduced the quantitative approach into the life sciences and is considered the father of modern quantitative experimentation in medicine.

Charles Bell

Sir Charles BellCharles
In the same year, Charles Bell finished work on what would later become known as the Bell-Magendie law, which compared functional differences between dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal cord.
Sir Charles Bell (12 November 1774 – 28 April 1842) was a Scottish surgeon, anatomist, physiologist, neurologist, artist, and philosophical theologian.

Cell signaling

cell signallingsignallingsignaling pathway
Central to an understanding of physiological functioning is the investigation of the fundamental biophysical and biochemical phenomena, the coordinated homeostatic control mechanisms, and the continuous communication between cells.
The activated receptor must first interact with other proteins inside the cell before the ultimate physiological effect of the ligand on the cell's behavior is produced.

Jean Fernel

FernelFernel, Jean FrançoisFernelius
Jean Fernel (1497–1558), a French physician, introduced the term "physiology".
Jean François Fernel (in Latin, Fernelius) (1497 – 26 April 1558) was a French physician who introduced the term "physiology" to describe the study of the body's function.

Ivan Pavlov

PavlovIvan Petrovich PavlovPavlovian
In 1891, Ivan Pavlov performed research on "conditional responses" that involved dogs' saliva production in response to a bell and visual stimuli.
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (26 September 1849 – 27 February 1936) was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning.

The Physiological Society

Physiological SocietyAnnual Review Lecture of the Physiological Society
The Physiological Society was founded in London in 1876 as a dining club.
The Physiological Society, founded in 1876, is a learned society for physiologists in the United Kingdom.

Pulse

pulse ratepulsationheartbeat
Santorio Santorio in 1610s was the first to use a device to measure the pulse rate (the pulsilogium), and a thermoscope to measure temperature.
Claudius Galen was perhaps the first physiologist to describe the pulse.

Theodor Schwann

SchwannTheodore SchwannTheodor Ambrose Hubert Schwann
In the 19th century, physiological knowledge began to accumulate at a rapid rate, in particular with the 1838 appearance of the Cell theory of Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann.
Theodor Schwann ( 7 December 1810 – 11 January 1882) was a German physician and physiologist.

Hippocrates

HippocraticHippocrates of CosHippocrates of Kos
The study of human physiology as a medical field originates in classical Greece, at the time of Hippocrates (late 5th century BC).
However, Hippocrates did work with many convictions that were based on what is now known to be incorrect anatomy and physiology, such as Humorism.

Walter Bradford Cannon

Walter CannonWalter B. CannonDr. Walter B. Cannon
Claude Bernard's (1813–1878) further discoveries ultimately led to his concept of milieu interieur (internal environment), which would later be taken up and championed as "homeostasis" by American physiologist Walter B. Cannon in 1929.
Walter Bradford Cannon (October 19, 1871 – October 1, 1945) was an American physiologist, professor and chairman of the Department of Physiology at Harvard Medical School.