Physiology

physiologistphysiologicalphysiologicallyphysiologicanimal physiologyphysiologistsphysiological processesPhysiological SciencesphysicalInstitutes of Medicine
Physiology is the scientific study of the functions and mechanisms which work within a living system.wikipedia
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Claude Bernard

Bernard, ClaudeBernardClaude Bernard Award
Claude Bernard's (1813–1878) further discoveries ultimately led to his concept of milieu interieur (internal environment), which would later be taken up and championed as "homeostasis" by American physiologist Walter B. Cannon in 1929.
Claude Bernard (12 July 1813 – 10 February 1878) was a French physiologist.

Michael Foster (physiologist)

Michael FosterSir Michael FosterFoster
Nineteenth century physiologists such as Michael Foster, Max Verworn, and Alfred Binet, based on Haeckel's ideas, elaborated what came to be called "general physiology", a unified science of life based on the cell actions, later renamed in the 20th century as cell biology.
Sir Michael Foster (8 March 1836 – 29 January 1907) was an English physiologist.

Max Verworn

Verworn, Max
Nineteenth century physiologists such as Michael Foster, Max Verworn, and Alfred Binet, based on Haeckel's ideas, elaborated what came to be called "general physiology", a unified science of life based on the cell actions, later renamed in the 20th century as cell biology.
Max Richard Constantin Verworn (4 November 1863 – 23 November 1921) was a German physiologist who was a native of Berlin.

Aristotle

AristotelianAristotelesAristote
The critical thinking of Aristotle and his emphasis on the relationship between structure and function marked the beginning of physiology in Ancient Greece.

Milieu intérieur

milieu interieurinternal environmentMilieu
Claude Bernard's (1813–1878) further discoveries ultimately led to his concept of milieu interieur (internal environment), which would later be taken up and championed as "homeostasis" by American physiologist Walter B. Cannon in 1929.
Milieu intérieur or interior milieu, from the French, milieu intérieur (the internal environment), is a phrase coined by Claude Bernard to refer to the extra-cellular fluid environment, more particularly the interstitial fluid, and its physiological capacity to ensure protective stability for the tissues and organs of multicellular organisms.

Comparative physiology

comparative physiologist
In the 20th century, biologists became interested in how organisms other than human beings function, eventually spawning the fields of comparative physiology and ecophysiology.
Comparative physiology is a subdiscipline of physiology that studies and exploits the diversity of functional characteristics of various kinds of organisms.

Andrew Huxley

Andrew Fielding HuxleySir Andrew HuxleyHuxley
In 1954, Andrew Huxley and Hugh Huxley, alongside their research team, discovered the sliding filaments in skeletal muscle, known today as the sliding filament theory.
Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley (22 November 1917 – 30 May 2012) was an English physiologist and biophysicist.

August Krogh

Schack August Steenberg KroghKrogh, AugustKrogh, Schack August Steenberg
In 1920, August Krogh won the Nobel Prize for discovering how, in capillaries, blood flow is regulated.
Schack August Steenberg Krogh (15 November 1874 – 13 September 1949) was a Danish professor at the department of zoophysiology at the University of Copenhagen from 1916 to 1945.

Evolutionary physiology

Most recently, evolutionary physiology has become a distinct subdiscipline.
It is a subdiscipline of both physiology and evolutionary biology.

Alfred Binet

BinetBinet, Alfred
Nineteenth century physiologists such as Michael Foster, Max Verworn, and Alfred Binet, based on Haeckel's ideas, elaborated what came to be called "general physiology", a unified science of life based on the cell actions, later renamed in the 20th century as cell biology.
He also studied physiology at the Sorbonne.

Immunology

immunologistimmunologicalimmunobiology
If physiology is perhaps less visible nowadays than during the golden age of the 19th century, it is in large part because the field has given birth to some of the most active domains of today's biological sciences, such as neuroscience, endocrinology, and immunology.
Immunology charts, measures, and contextualizes the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and diseases; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (such as autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, and transplant rejection ); and the physical, chemical, and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo.

American Physiological Society

The American Physiological Society
The American Physiological Society (APS) is a nonprofit organization that was founded in 1887.
Of them, 21 were graduates of medical schools, but only 12 had studied in institutions that had a professor of physiology.

John Scott Haldane

J.S. HaldaneHaldanehaldanean
Soon thereafter, in 1913, J.S. Haldane proposed that women be allowed to formally join The Physiological Society, which had been founded in 1876.
John Scott Haldane (2 May 1860 – 14/15 March 1936) was a Scottish physiologist famous for intrepid self-experimentation which led to many important discoveries about the human body and the nature of gases.

Germination

germinategerminatinggerminates
Fundamental processes of plant physiology include photosynthesis, respiration, plant nutrition, tropisms, nastic movements, photoperiodism, photomorphogenesis, circadian rhythms, seed germination, dormancy, and stomata function and transpiration.
Pollen germination is facilitated by hydration on the stigma, as well as by the structure and physiology of the stigma and style.

Bell–Magendie law

Bell-Magendie law
In the same year, Charles Bell finished work on what would later become known as the Bell-Magendie law, which compared functional differences between dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal cord.
The findings were described independently by two professors working in different medical paradigms: by Sir Charles Bell an anatomist and Francois Magendie – a pathophysiology and physiology professor

Ida Henrietta Hyde

Ida Hyde
In 1902, the American Physiological Society elected Ida Hyde as the first female member of the society.
Ida Henrietta Hyde (September 8, 1857 – August 22, 1945) was an American physiologist known for developing a micro-electrode powerful enough to stimulate tissue chemically or electronically, yet small enough to inject or remove tissue from a cell.

César Julien Jean Legallois

In 1811, César Julien Jean Legallois studied respiration in animal dissection and lesions and found the center of respiration in the medulla oblongata.
César Julien Jean (also "Julien Jean César) Legallois" (also Le Gallois;) (1. Februar 1770 at Cherrueix, Bretagne – 10. February 1814 in Paris) was a French physician and physiologist.

Ernst Haeckel

HaeckelErnst Heinrich HaeckelHaeckel, Ernst
Nineteenth century physiologists such as Michael Foster, Max Verworn, and Alfred Binet, based on Haeckel's ideas, elaborated what came to be called "general physiology", a unified science of life based on the cell actions, later renamed in the 20th century as cell biology.
He was one of the first to consider psychology as a branch of physiology.

Cell theory

steady-state membrane pump
In the 19th century, physiological knowledge began to accumulate at a rapid rate, in particular with the 1838 appearance of the Cell theory of Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann.
The term osmosis originated in 1827 and its importance to physiological phenomena realized, but it wasn’t until 1877, when the botanist Pfeffer proposed the membrane theory of cell physiology.

Human body

bodyhuman anatomyhuman physiology
Human physiology seeks to understand the mechanisms that work to keep the human body alive and functioning, through scientific enquiry into the nature of mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed.
The study of the human body involves anatomy, physiology, histology and embryology.

Ecophysiology

physiological ecologyenvironmental physiologyecophysiological
In the 20th century, biologists became interested in how organisms other than human beings function, eventually spawning the fields of comparative physiology and ecophysiology.
Ecophysiology (from Greek οἶκος, oikos, "house(hold)"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia), environmental physiology or physiological ecology is a biological discipline that studies the adaptation of an organism's physiology to environmental conditions.

Exercise physiology

exercise scienceexercise physiologistTraining effect
Exercise physiology is the physiology of physical exercise.

Insect physiology

corpora cardiacainsect flight muscleneural ganglions
Insect physiology includes the physiology and biochemistry of insect organ systems.

Outline of physiology

Physiology
Physiology – scientific study of the normal function in living systems.

Neurophysiology

neurophysiologistneurophysiologicalphysiology
Neurophysiology (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, "nerve"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia, "knowledge") is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the nervous system.