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Infection

infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfections
They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

Hygiene

hygienistpersonal hygienehygienic
They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

Bacterial conjugation

conjugationconjugativeExconjugant
Most microorganisms can reproduce rapidly, and bacteria are also able to freely exchange genes through conjugation, transformation and transduction, even between widely divergent species.

Transformation (genetics)

transformationtransformedgenetic transformation
Most microorganisms can reproduce rapidly, and bacteria are also able to freely exchange genes through conjugation, transformation and transduction, even between widely divergent species.

Transduction (genetics)

transductionspecialized transductiontransduced
Most microorganisms can reproduce rapidly, and bacteria are also able to freely exchange genes through conjugation, transformation and transduction, even between widely divergent species.

Classical Greece

ClassicalClassical periodClassical Greek
The study of human physiology as a medical field originates in classical Greece, at the time of Hippocrates (late 5th century BC).

Ancient Greece

Greekancient Greekancient Greeks
The critical thinking of Aristotle and his emphasis on the relationship between structure and function marked the beginning of physiology in Ancient Greece.

Michael Servetus

ServetusMiguel ServetMiguel Serveto
Galen, Ibn al-Nafis, Michael Servetus, Realdo Colombo, Amato Lusitano and William Harvey, are credited as making important discoveries in the circulation of the blood.

Realdo Colombo

De Re AnatomicaRenaldus ColumbusRealdo Columbo
Galen, Ibn al-Nafis, Michael Servetus, Realdo Colombo, Amato Lusitano and William Harvey, are credited as making important discoveries in the circulation of the blood.

Amato Lusitano

Amatus LusitanusJoão Rodrigues de Castelo BrancoLusitanus
Galen, Ibn al-Nafis, Michael Servetus, Realdo Colombo, Amato Lusitano and William Harvey, are credited as making important discoveries in the circulation of the blood.

Circulatory system

cardiovascularcirculationcardiovascular system
Galen, Ibn al-Nafis, Michael Servetus, Realdo Colombo, Amato Lusitano and William Harvey, are credited as making important discoveries in the circulation of the blood.

Thermoscope

indication of whether the temperature was rising or falling
Santorio Santorio in 1610s was the first to use a device to measure the pulse rate (the pulsilogium), and a thermoscope to measure temperature.

Luigi Galvani

GalvaniGalvani, LuigiAloysius Galvani
In 1791 Luigi Galvani described the role of electricity in nerves of dissected frogs.

Medulla oblongata

medullabulbarmedullary
In 1811, César Julien Jean Legallois studied respiration in animal dissection and lesions and found the center of respiration in the medulla oblongata.

Spinal cord

medulla spinalisspinethoracic segment
In the same year, Charles Bell finished work on what would later become known as the Bell-Magendie law, which compared functional differences between dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal cord.

Sense of balance

balanceequilibrioceptionequilibrium
In 1824, François Magendie described the sensory roots and produced the first evidence of the cerebellum's role in equilibration to complete the Bell-Magendie law.

Henri Milne-Edwards

Milne-EdwardsH. Milne-EdwardsH. Milne Edwards
In the 1820s, the French physiologist Henri Milne-Edwards introduced the notion of physiological division of labor, which allowed to "compare and study living things as if they were machines created by the industry of man."

Adam Smith

SmithA SmithAdam Smith’s
Inspired in the work of Adam Smith, Milne-Edwards wrote that the "body of all living beings, whether animal or plant, resembles a factory ... where the organs, comparable to workers, work incessantly to produce the phenomena that constitute the life of the individual."

Biological system

biological systemsbody systemsorgan system
In more differentiated organisms, the functional labor could be apportioned between different instruments or systems (called by him as appareils).

Joseph Lister

Joseph Lister, 1st Baron ListerListerLord Lister
In 1858, Joseph Lister studied the cause of blood coagulation and inflammation that resulted after previous injuries and surgical wounds.

Antiseptic

antisepsisantisepticsgermicide
He later discovered and implemented antiseptics in the operating room, and as a result decreased death rate from surgery by a substantial amount.

Matthias Jakob Schleiden

Matthias SchleidenSchleidenMatthias Jacob Schleiden
In the 19th century, physiological knowledge began to accumulate at a rapid rate, in particular with the 1838 appearance of the Cell theory of Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann.

Knut Schmidt-Nielsen

Professor Knut Schmidt-Nielsen
Major figures in these fields include Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew.

George A. Bartholomew

George BartholomewGeorge Bartholomew (biologist)
Major figures in these fields include Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew.

Skeletal muscle

skeletal musclesskeletalmuscle
In 1954, Andrew Huxley and Hugh Huxley, alongside their research team, discovered the sliding filaments in skeletal muscle, known today as the sliding filament theory.