Piano pedals

pedalspedalpiano pedalpedallingsostenuto pedalcelestepedal markspedalingTurkish stop
Piano pedals are foot-operated levers at the base of a piano that change the instrument's sound in various ways.wikipedia
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Soft pedal

una cordaDue cordesoft-pedal
Modern pianos usually have three pedals, from left to right, the soft pedal (or una corda), the sostenuto pedal, and the sustaining pedal (or damper pedal). The soft pedal, or una corda pedal, was invented by Bartolomeo Cristofori.
The soft pedal (or una corda pedal, ) is one of the standard pedals on a piano, generally placed leftmost among the pedals.

Steinway & Sons

SteinwaySteinway ArtistSteinway piano
He began to advertise it publicly in 1876, and soon the Steinway company was including it on all of their grands and their high-end uprights.
It has 164 keys and 4 pedals.

Sostenuto

sostenuto pedal
The last pedal added to the modern grand was the middle pedal, the sostenuto, which was inspired by the French.
On a modern grand piano with three pedals, the middle pedal is usually a sostenuto pedal.

Sustain pedal

damper pedalpedaldampers
Modern pianos usually have three pedals, from left to right, the soft pedal (or una corda), the sostenuto pedal, and the sustaining pedal (or damper pedal).
A sustain pedal or sustaining pedal (also called damper pedal, loud pedal, or open pedal ) is the most commonly used pedal in a modern piano.

Americus Backers

Among those who re-located to England were Johannes Zumpe, Americus Backers, and Adam Beyer.
Unlike the eleven other ex-apprentices of Silbermann who followed him to England and built square pianos with his action, Backers developed Silbermann's action (copied from Cristofori) into a reliable, powerful and responsive form that he built into a grand harpsichord case and added two tonal effects – una corda and damper lift – activated by pedals built into the dedicated trestle stand, again his original innovation.

Piano

grand pianopianistacoustic piano
Piano pedals are foot-operated levers at the base of a piano that change the instrument's sound in various ways.
Notes can be sustained, even when the keys are released by the fingers and thumbs, by the use of pedals at the base of the instrument.

Turkish music (style)

Turkish styleTurkish musiccompositions
During the late 18th century, Europeans developed a love for Turkish band music, and the Turkish music style was an outgrowth of this.
Around the turn of the 19th century, "Turkish" music was so popular that piano manufacturers made special pianos with a "Turkish stop," also called the "military" or "Janissary" stop.

Lever

fulcrumpivotlevers
Piano pedals are foot-operated levers at the base of a piano that change the instrument's sound in various ways.

Sympathetic string

sympathetic stringssympatheticallysympathetic
In effect, the damper pedal makes every string on the piano a sympathetic string, creating a rich tonal quality.

Bartolomeo Cristofori

CristoforiBartolommeo Cristofori
The soft pedal, or una corda pedal, was invented by Bartolomeo Cristofori.

Timbre

timbraltonetimbres
The una corda primarily modifies the timbre, not just the volume of the piano.

Piano Concerto No. 4 (Beethoven)

Piano Concerto No. 4Fourth Piano ConcertoPiano Concerto No. 4 in G major
In his Piano Concerto No. 4, Beethoven specifies the use of una corda, due corde, and tre corde.

Piano Sonata No. 29 (Beethoven)

Hammerklavier'' SonataHammerklavierHammerklavier Sonata
He calls for una corda, then "poco a poco due ed allora tutte le corde", gradually two and then all strings, in Sonata Op. 106.

French Industrial Exposition of 1844

Paris ExpositionCentral National ExhibitionExposition of 1844
The sostenuto was first shown at the French Industrial Exposition of 1844 in Paris, by Boisselot & Fils, a Marseille company.

Boisselot & Fils

Boisselot brothers
The sostenuto was first shown at the French Industrial Exposition of 1844 in Paris, by Boisselot & Fils, a Marseille company.

Alexandre Debain

Alexandre François DebainAlexandre-François DebainDebain
French piano builders Alexandre François Debain and Claude Montal built sostenuto mechanisms in 1860 and 1862, respectively.

Claude Montal

French piano builders Alexandre François Debain and Claude Montal built sostenuto mechanisms in 1860 and 1862, respectively.

Contemporary classical music

contemporary musiccontemporary classicalcontemporary
Uses for the sostenuto pedal include playing transcriptions of organ music (where the selective sustaining of notes can substitute for the organ's held notes in its pedals), or in much contemporary music, especially spectral music.

Spectral music

spectralismspectralspectralist
Uses for the sostenuto pedal include playing transcriptions of organ music (where the selective sustaining of notes can substitute for the organ's held notes in its pedals), or in much contemporary music, especially spectral music.

Silent piano

mute pedalPractice RailSilent grand
Some pianos omit the sostenuto pedal, or have a middle pedal with a different purpose such as a muting function also known as silent piano.

Digital piano

digital pianosweighted keysdigital
They are more common on digital pianos as the effect is straightforward to mimic in software.

Bassoon

bassoonsbassoonistfagotto
Among other pedals sometimes found on early pianos are the lute stop, moderator or celeste, bassoon, buff, cembalo, and swell.

Lute

lutenistluteslutanist
The lute pedal created a pizzicato-type sound.

Harpsichord

cembaloharpsichordsclavecin
The cembalo stop pressed leather weights on the strings and modified the sound to make it resemble that of the harpsichord.

Expression pedal

volume pedalswell pedalswell
Among other pedals sometimes found on early pianos are the lute stop, moderator or celeste, bassoon, buff, cembalo, and swell.