Picunche

Distribution of pre-Hispanic people of Chile

The Picunche (a Mapudungun word meaning "North People"), also referred to as picones by the Spanish, were a Mapudungun-speaking people living to the north of the Mapuches or Araucanians (a name given to those Mapuche living between the Itata and Toltén rivers) and south of the Choapa River and the Diaguitas.

- Picunche
Distribution of pre-Hispanic people of Chile

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Itata River

The Itata River flows in the Ñuble Region, southern Chile.

The Itata River flows in the Ñuble Region, southern Chile.

Until the Conquest of Chile, the Itata was the natural limit between the Mapuche, located to the south, and Picunche, to the north.

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.

Mapuche

The Mapuche ( (Mapuche & Spanish: )) are a group of indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

The Mapuche ( (Mapuche & Spanish: )) are a group of indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.
Map of Mapuche territories according to Miguel Melin, Pablo Mansilla and Manuela Royo in MAPU CHILLKANTUKUN ZUGU: Descolonizando el Mapa del Wallmapu, Construyendo Cartografía Cultural en Territorio Mapuche.
Euler diagram of Mapuche ethicities. Historical denominations no longer in use are shown with white fields. Groups that adopted Mapuche language and culture or that have partial Mapuche descent are shown in the periphery of the main magenta-coloured field.
Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture of the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)
Painting El joven Lautaro of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of his people.
Caupolican by Nicanor Plaza
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in meeting with the main lonkos of Araucania in 1869
Ancient flag of the Mapuche on the Arauco War.
Mapuche activists killed in confrontations with the Chilean police in the 2000s.
Wenufoye flag created in 1992 by the indigenist organization "Consejo de Todas las Tierras".
Familia Mapuche, by Claudio Gay, 1848.
A council of Araucanian philosophers, 1904
The daughter of lonko Quilapán
Height of a chemamull (Mapuche funeral statue) compared to a person.
Traditional Mapuche poncho exhibited in Museo Artesanía Chilena.
Monument in the form of a gigantic clava mere okewa, located in Avenida Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, Cañete, Chile
Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece.
Painting by Raymond Monvoisin showing Elisa Bravo Jaramillo who was said to have survived the 1849 wreck of Joven Daniel to be then kidnapped by Mapuches.
Flag of Argentinian Tehuelche-Mapuche

Mapuche in the Spanish-ruled areas, especially the Picunche, mingled with Spanish during the colonial period, forming a mestizo population that lost its indigenous identity.

Tools used by Promaucaes, found in Pichilemu in 1908.

Promaucae

Indigenous pre-Columbian Mapuche tribal group that lived in the present territory of Chile, south of the Maipo River basin of Santiago, Chile and the Itata River.

Indigenous pre-Columbian Mapuche tribal group that lived in the present territory of Chile, south of the Maipo River basin of Santiago, Chile and the Itata River.

Tools used by Promaucaes, found in Pichilemu in 1908.

Those to the north were called Quillotanes and Mapochoes by the Spanish colonists).

Cerro Grande de La Compañía hosting one of the southernmost fortresses of the Inca Empire.

Incas in Central Chile

Brief; it lasted from the 1470s to the 1530s when the Inca Empire was absorbed by Spain.

Brief; it lasted from the 1470s to the 1530s when the Inca Empire was absorbed by Spain.

Cerro Grande de La Compañía hosting one of the southernmost fortresses of the Inca Empire.
Huamán Poma de Ayala's drawing of the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right).
Synthesis map of the Inca Empires area of control and influence in central and south-central Chile.
View of an Inca archaeological site at Cerro El Plomo, a mountain and Inca ceremonial centre in Central Chile.

The Picunche people, who inhabited this last region south of Maipo Valley up to the Itata River, refused to submit to the rule of the Inca and called on their allies south of the Maule; the Antalli, Pincu, and Cauqui to join in opposing these invaders.

The Egyptian name Km.t appearing on the Luxor Obelisk in the Place de la Concorde, Paris.

List of country-name etymologies

This list covers English-language country names with their etymologies.

This list covers English-language country names with their etymologies.

The Egyptian name Km.t appearing on the Luxor Obelisk in the Place de la Concorde, Paris.
The first issue of the Perno Postimees in 1857 popularized the Estonian loaned endonym Eesti. The first sentence reads Terre, armas Eesti rahwas! ("Hello, dear people of Estonia!")
Ahura Mazda and Ardashir I - Iranshar (Ērānshahr or Īrānshahr) the Sasanian Empire
"Malaysia" used as a label for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a U.S. atlas

Etymology unknown. The name dates to the "men of Chilli", the survivors of the first Spanish expedition into the region in 1535 under Diego de Almagro. Almagro applied the name to the Mapocho valley, but its further etymology is debated. The 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales derived it from the Quechua Chili, a toponym for the Aconcagua valley, which he considered a corruption of Tili, the name of a Picunche chief who ruled the area at the time of its conquest by the Inca. Modern theories derive it from the similarly named Incan settlement and valley of Chili in Peru's Casma Valley, the Quechua chiri ("cold"), the Aymara tchili ("snow" or "depths" ), the Mapuche chilli ("where the land ends" or "runs out"), or the Mapuche cheele-cheele ("yellow-winged blackbird").

The Americas, Western Hemisphere

Classification of Indigenous peoples of the Americas

Based upon cultural regions, geography, and linguistics.

Based upon cultural regions, geography, and linguistics.

The Americas, Western Hemisphere
Cultural regions of North American people at the time of contact
Early Indigenous languages in the US
Inuktitut dialect map
Early Indigenous languages in Alaska
Aridoamerica region of North America
Map of Mesoamerica
The Guianas in northern South America
The position of the Guianas in the Neotropical realm in northern South America
The Tawantinsuyu, or fullest extent of the Inca Empire, which includes much of the Andean cultural region
Approximate region of the Gran Chaco
Patagonian languages at the time of European/African contact

Picunche, formerly Chile

Santiago Province, Chile

One of the six provinces of the Santiago Metropolitan Region (RM) of central Chile.

One of the six provinces of the Santiago Metropolitan Region (RM) of central Chile.

Forest surroundings of the Province
Santiago at night
The financial district in Santiago de Chile
Metropolitan communes by Human Development Index
Santiago de Chile
View of Palacio de La Moneda
East Santiago
East Santiago
Typical middle-class neighbourhood
View of the region's rural part
One of the region's ski centres
Polo national team with ex-president Michelle Bachelet after winning Polo's World Cup

Before the Iberian conquest, the central zone of Chile was sparsely inhabited by an indigenous population of Picunches, the northern branch of the Mapuches.

Bust of Lautaro

Lautaro

Lautaro (Englished as 'Levtaru') ( "swift hawk") (1534?

Lautaro (Englished as 'Levtaru') ( "swift hawk") (1534?

Bust of Lautaro
Picture "El joven Lautaro" of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of his people.

The Spanish forces met in the field, and from a member of the local ethnos, the Picunche, they learned the disposition of Lautaro's camp.

Rancagua

City and commune in central Chile and part of the Rancagua conurbation.

City and commune in central Chile and part of the Rancagua conurbation.

The Battle of Rancagua during the Chilean War of Independence, by Pedro Subercaseaux.
Rancagua train station.
People of Rancagua in the Stations of the Cross ceremony.
The Estadio El Teniente hosted the 2015 Copa América.
Los Heroes Square
Bernardo O'Higgins Monument
Rancagua cathedral at night
Paseo Independencia, Rancagua
O'Higgins Region former Intendencia
Cachapoal province government's building (currently the Regional Presidential Delegation)
Medialuna de Rancagua

The Rancagua Valley was occupied by the local Picunche.

Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture about the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)

Battle of the Maule

Fought between a coalition of Mapuche people of Chile and the Inca Empire of Peru.

Fought between a coalition of Mapuche people of Chile and the Inca Empire of Peru.

Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture about the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)

The territory of the Picunche people inhabiting this last region south of Maipo Valley extended further to the south to the Itata River, and these people south of the Maipo Valley had refused to submit to the rule of the Inca and called on their allies south of the Maule; the Antalli, Pincu, and Cauqui to join in opposing these invaders.