Piedmont

A Montferrat landscape, with the distant Alps in the background.
The Kingdom of Sardinia in 1856.
Maserati Levante
The campus of the Polytechnic University of Turin.
Rice fields between Novara and Vercelli.
Provinces of Piedmont.
The Juventus Stadium in Turin is the home of Juventus F.C., throughout the years the most successful Serie A club.
The Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi, in Nichelino, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Sacra di San Michele, a symbol of Piedmont
Excavator New Holland E 215B
Telescopic Handler Merlo Roto
Robot Comau Aura
High-speed train Alstom AGV
Eurofighter Typhoon
Alenia C27J Spartan
AMX
Vega C
Scouring
Carding
Combing
Weaving
Bulgari factory in Valenza
Cartier: Bismarck sapphire necklace
Cartier: Mackay emerald and diamond necklac
Vermouth Martini
Chocolate Gianduiotto
Nutella
White Truffles from Alba
Risotto ai funghi porcini

Region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.

- Piedmont

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Langhe

Serralunga d’Alba and its vineyards.
A Cabernet Sauvignon/Barbera blend from the Langhe DOC

The Langhe (Langa is from old dialect Mons Langa et Bassa Langa) is a hilly area to the south and east of the river Tanaro in the province of Cuneo and in the province of Asti in Piedmont, northern Italy.

Kingdom of Sardinia

State in Southern Europe from the early 14th until the mid-19th century.

Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in 1848.
The flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia at the funeral ceremony of Charles V
Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in 1848.
The Kingdom of Sardinia in a 16th-century map
Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in 1848.
The Savoyards' Italian possessions in the early 18th century.
19th-century coat of arms of the Kingdom of Sardinia under the Savoy dynasty
A map of the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1856, after the fusion of all its provinces into a single jurisdiction
Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour
King Victor Emmanuel II meets Garibaldi in Teano (26 October 1860)
Middle Ages
Imperial Eagle of Roman Holy Emperor Charles V with the four Moors of the Kingdom of Sardinia (16th century)
(1720–1815)
(1815–1831)
(1831–1848)
(1848–1861)
Flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1568
Royal Standard of the Savoyard kings of Sardinia of Savoy dynasty (1720-1848) and State Flag of the Savoyard States (late 16th - late 18th century)
State Flag and War Ensign (1816–1848): Civil Flag "crowned"
State and war flag (1848–1851)
State flag and war ensign (1851–1861)
Merchant Flag (c.1799–1802)
War Ensign of the Royal Sardinian Navy (1785–1802)
Merchant Flag (1802–1814)
War Ensign (1802–1814)
Merchant Flag and War Ensign (1814–1816)
War Ensign of the Kingdom of Sardinia (1816–1848) aspect ratio 31:76
Civil and merchant flag (1851–1861), the Italian tricolore with the coat of arms of Savoy as an inescutcheon
(1848–1861) and Kingdom of Italy (1861–1880)
Crown Prince (1848–1861) and Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1880)
The political situation in Sardinia after 1324 when the Aragonese conquered the Pisan territories of Sardinia, which included the defunct Judicate of Cagliari and Gallura.
The Kingdom of Sardinia from 1368 to 1388 and 1392 to 1409, after the wars with Arborea, consisted of only the cities of Cagliari and Alghero.
The Kingdom of Sardinia from 1410 to 1420, after the defeat of the Arborean Judicate in the Battle of Sanluri (1409).
The Kingdom of Sardinia from 1448 to 1720; the Maddalena archipelago was conquered in 1767–69.
1796
1859: {{legend|#ff8040|Kingdom of Sardinia}} {{legend|#0000ff|Kingdom Lombardy–Venetia}} {{legend|#00ff00|Duchies Parma–Modena-Tuscany}} {{legend|#fd0000|Papal States}} {{legend|#ffff00|Kingdom of the Two Sicilies}}
1860: {{legend|#ff8040|Kingdom of Sardinia}} {{legend|#0000ff|Kingdom Lombardy–Venetia}} {{legend|#fd0000|Papal States}} {{legend|#ffff00|Kingdom of the Two Sicilies}} After the annexation of Lombardy, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Emilian Duchies and Pope's Romagna.
1861: {{legend|#ff8040|Kingdom of Sardinia}} {{legend|#0000ff|Kingdom Lombardy–Venetia}} {{legend|#d8241c|Papal States}} After the Expedition of the Thousand.
maximum expansion of the Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1860

The Savoyards united it with their historical possessions on the Italian mainland, and the Kingdom came to be progressively identified with the Mainland states, which included, besides Savoy and Aosta, dynastic possessions like the Principality of Piedmont and the County of Nice, over both of which the Savoyards had been exercising their control since the 13th century and 1388, respectively.

Aosta Valley

Mountainous autonomous region in northwestern Italy.

A view from refuge Champillon, Valpelline
View of Aosta
The Astronomical Observatory of the Aosta Valley, in Saint-Barthélemy (Nus).
Châtel-Argent
The Saint-Pierre Castle.
The Fénis Castle, 13th century
Mont Blanc
Blue Lake<ref>Lovevda.it</ref> and the Matterhorn
Mount Castor
The prehistoric site near Chenal castle, Montjovet, rich in petroglyphs
A view from refuge Albert Deffeyes, La Thuile
Male Alpine Ibex in Gran Paradiso National Park
Alpine marmot in Gran Paradiso National Park

It is bordered by Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France, to the west, Valais, Switzerland, to the north, and by Piedmont, Italy, to the south and east.

Turin

City and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.

The Roman Palatine Towers
Turin in 1701
A view of Turin in the late 19th century. In the background, the Mole Antonelliana under construction
Fiat Lingotto factory in 1928
Liberation parade in Turin, May 6, 1945
Turin from space (north is on the left)
Administrative map of Turin
Via Roma
Piazza San Carlo and the Caval 'd Brons (Bronze Horse in Piedmontese language) equestrian monument to Emmanuel Philibert
Piazza Castello with Palazzo Reale (Royal Palace) in the background
Porta Nuova main railway station
Piazza Vittorio Veneto square
Baroque façade of Palazzo Carignano, the Museum of the Risorgimento
Mole Antonelliana some years ago
Dome of Turin Cathedral
Palatine Towers
Borgo Medioevale
Castello del Valentino in Parco del Valentino
Monumento a Vittorio Emanuele II
The Polytechnic University of Turin.
The Spina Centrale is a new under-construction boulevard built over the undergrounded railway. It is already completed in Crocetta.
The Piazza Carlo Alberto
A typical Italian Aperitivo
Casa della Vittoria (1918-1920) is an example of Turin's neo-gothic architecture.
Intesa Sanpaolo banking group headquarters
Chiesa di Nostra Signora del Suffragio e Santa Zita
The Torre Littoria
Tiny streets of Borgo Dora
Santuario di Maria Ausiliatrice
Lavazza, famous Turin coffee brand
Piedmont Region Headquarters (209 m), one of the tallest skyscrapers in Italy
Fetta Di Polenta, northern side
Campus Luigi Einaudi
Turin Cathedral featuring the Chapel of the Holy Shroud
Basilica of Superga
The medieval village in Valentino Park
La Mandria Regional Park
The Lingotto building in Via Nizza, the world headquarters of Fiat
The royal hunting lodge of Stupinigi.
The inside of the Egyptian Museum of Turin. It is the world's second largest after the Museum of Cairo.
Teatro Regio opera house.
Street posters promoting the Eurovision Song Contest 2022.
National Library.
Juventus Stadium, home of Juventus F.C.
The Stadio Olimpico Grande Torino, home of Torino F.C.
Mole Antonelliana
The iconic gianduiotto chocolate
Bicerin chocolate drink served in its trademark rounded glass
Hall of the Rectorate Palace of the University of Turin
Porta Susa railway station
Turin Massaua metro station
Turin Caselle International Airport
City tram, bus can be seen behind

It is the capital city of Piedmont and of the Metropolitan City of Turin, and was the first Italian capital from 1861 to 1865.

Liguria

Region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa.

A view of Cinque Terre
Map of Roman Liguria, between the River Var and Magra
Map of ancient Liguria, between the river Var and Magra. Cannes was annexed by France in Middle Ages.
County of Nice western part of Liguria annexed by France in 1860
The Roman amphitheatre of Luni (1st century AD)
Simonetta Vespucci, a native Ligurian who was a famous beauty during the Renaissance, may have been the model for Botticelli's The Birth of Venus
Territories of the Republic of Genoa (shown in purple)
Posthumous portrait of Christopher Columbus, by Sebastiano del Piombo
Reparation faite à Louis XIV par le Doge de Gênes.15 mai 1685 by Claude Guy Halle
Giuseppe Mazzini was a patriot, philosopher and politician of the 19th century.
Apricale with Monte Bignone in the background
The port of Genoa is the busiest in Italy.
Moneglia
Sanremo casino
View of Portovenere
Provinces of Liguria
Pasta with pesto is a traditional Ligurian recipe.

Liguria is bordered by France (Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur) to the west, Piedmont to the north, and Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany to the east.

Emilia-Romagna

One of the 20 administrative regions of Italy, situated in the north of the country, comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna.

Castle Estense in Ferrara
Relief map of Emilia-Romagna
Lagoons along the Po delta
Seat of the Regional Assembly of Emilia-Romagna in Bologna
Piazza del Popolo in Cesena
View of Bologna
Arch of Augustus in Rimini
350px
Wheat fields in Province of Reggio Emilia
Ferrari 458 Spider.The provinces of Modena and Bologna are well known for their sport car industry
Bernardo Bertolucci's star on Hollywood Walk of Fame
Barrels of traditional balsamic vinegar
Wheels of Parmigiano Reggiano
Val Trebbia, near Piacenza
Badlands of Canossa
Cimone Mount, in the Apennines
Hills around Bologna
Casentinesi Forests
Delta of the Po river

All the rivers rise locally in the Apennines except for the Po, which has its source in the Alps in Piedmont.

Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

One of the eighteen administrative regions of France, the far southeastern on the mainland.

Marseille
Nice
Aix-en-Provence
Avignon
Cannes
Regional council logo
The Calanque de Sugiton in the 9th arrondissement of Marseille, part of Calanques National Park, a major tourist attraction in the region.
The Verdon Gorge on the border between Alpes-de-Haute-Provence and Var
Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat, renowned resort near Nice, known for its Villa Ephrussi de Rothschild
Cassis, typical Provençal seaside village, popular vacation destination
Nice Côte d'Azur Airport
TGV on the LGV Méditerranée
A TER Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur train at Sausset-les-Pins station
Regional service making a stop at Le Rove station

It borders Italy (Liguria and Piedmont) to the east, Monaco (Fontvieille, La Colle, La Rousse, Larvotto, Les Moneghetti, Les Révoires, Saint Michel) in the south-east, and the French regions of Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes to the north and Occitanie to the west.

House of Savoy

Royal dynasty that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region.

Hautecombe Abbey, where many of the dukes are buried.
A map of Italy in 1494.
A map of Italy in 1796.
A map of Italy in 1843.
A map of the Kingdom of Sardinia.

Piedmont was later joined with Sabaudia, and the name evolved into "Savoy" (Savoia).

Novara

Roman walls in Novara.
The Ossuary of Bicocca, in memory of the Battle of Novara
View of Novara
Church of San Nazzaro della Costa
Rice fields around the city
Novara seen from the S11 trunk road
The cupola of the Basilica of San Gaudenzio, symbol of Novara, is {{convert|121|m|ft}} high.
Novara Cathedral
The Broletto

Novara (Nuàra in the local Lombard dialect) is the capital city of the province of Novara in the Piedmont region in northwest Italy, to the west of Milan.

Occitan language

Romance language spoken in Southern France, Monaco, Italy's Occitan Valleys, as well as Spain's Val d'Aran; collectively, these regions are sometimes referred to as Occitània.

Linguistic evolution in southwest Europe from 1000 to 2000 C.E.
This bilingual street sign in Toulouse, like many such signs found in Toulouse's historical districts, is maintained primarily for its antique charm, and is typical of what little remains of the lenga d'òc in southern French cities.
Aranese signage in Bossòst, Val d'Aran, Spain
Occitan dialects according to Pierre Bec
Supradialectal classification of Occitan according to Bec
Supradialectal classification of Occitan according to Sumien
According to the testimony of Bernadette Soubirous, the Virgin Mary spoke to her (Lourdes, 25 March 1858) in Gascon saying: Que soy era Immaculada Councepciou ("I am the Immaculate Conception", the phrase is reproduced under this statue in the Lourdes grotto with a Mistralian/Febusian spelling), confirming the proclamation of this Catholic dogma four years earlier.
Inscription in Occitan in the Abbey of Saint-Jean de Sorde, Sorde-l'Abbaye: "Blessed are those who die in the Lord."

In Italy, Occitan is also spoken in the Occitan Valleys (Alps) in Piedmont. An Occitan-speaking enclave also has existed at Guardia Piemontese (Calabria) since the 14th century. Italy adopted in 1999 a Linguistic Minorities Protection Law, or "Law 482", which includes Occitan; however, Italian is the dominant language. The Piedmontese language is extremely close to Occitan.