Pierre Gassendi

GassendiGassendi, PierreGASSENDI, PETERGrassendi
Pierre Gassendi (also Pierre Gassend, Petrus Gassendi; 22 January 1592 – 24 October 1655) was a French philosopher, priest, astronomer, and mathematician.wikipedia
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Gassendi (crater)

GassendiGassendi crater
The lunar crater Gassendi is named after him.
It was named after French astronomer Pierre Gassendi.

Transit of Mercury

Mercurytransits of MercuryMercury transit
He was also an active observational scientist, publishing the first data on the transit of Mercury in 1631.
The first observation of a transit of Mercury was on November 7, 1631 by Pierre Gassendi.

Skepticism

skepticskepticalscepticism
He wrote numerous philosophical works, and some of the positions he worked out are considered significant, finding a way between skepticism and dogmatism.
1550–1623), Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592), Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655), and Marin Mersenne (1588–1648) deployed ancient skeptical arguments to defend moderate forms of skepticism and to argue that faith, rather than reason, must be the primary guide to truth.

Empiricism

empiricistempiricalempirically
Richard Popkin indicates that Gassendi was one of the first thinkers to formulate the modern "scientific outlook", of moderated skepticism and empiricism.
Significantly, an empirical metaphysical system was developed by the Italian philosopher Bernardino Telesio which had an enormous impact on the development of later Italian thinkers, including Telesio's students Antonio Persio and Sertorio Quattromani, his contemporaries Thomas Campanella and Giordano Bruno, and later British philosophers such as Francis Bacon, who regarded Telesio as "the first of the moderns.” Telesio's influence can also be seen on the French philosophers René Descartes and Pierre Gassendi.

Marin Mersenne

MersenneMersenne, MarinFather Mersenne
During this time he wrote some works, at the insistence of Marin Mersenne.
In 1643–1644 Mersenne also corresponded with the German Socinian Marcin Ruar concerning the Copernican ideas of Pierre Gassendi, finding Ruar already a supporter of Gassendi's position.

Atomism

atomistsatomistatomistic
His best known intellectual project attempted to reconcile Epicurean atomism with Christianity.
According to historian of atomism Joshua Gregory, there was no serious work done with atomism from the time of Galen until Gassendi and Descartes resurrected it in the 17th century; "the gap between these two 'modern naturalists' and the ancient Atomists marked "the exile of the atom" and "it is universally admitted that the Middle Ages had abandoned Atomism, and virtually lost it."

Robert Fludd

Fludd, Robert
They included his examination of the mystical philosophy of Robert Fludd, an essay on parhelia, and some observations on the transit of Mercury. The first two comprise entirely his Syntagma philosophicum; the third contains his critical writings on Epicurus, Aristotle, Descartes, Robert Fludd and Herbert of Cherbury, with some occasional pieces on certain problems of physics; the fourth, his Institutio astronomica, and his Commentarii de rebus celestibus; the fifth, his commentary on the tenth book of Diogenes Laërtius, the biographies of Epicurus, Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, Tycho Brahe, Nicolaus Copernicus, Georg von Peuerbach, and Regiomontanus, with some tracts on the value of ancient money, on the Roman calendar, and on the theory of music, with an appended large and prolix piece entitled Notitia ecclesiae Diniensis; the sixth volume contains his correspondence.
In succession he defended the Rosicrucians against Andreas Libavius, debated with Kepler, argued against French natural philosophers including Gassendi, and engaged in the discussion of the weapon-salve.

François Bernier

Francois BernierF. Bernier
He travelled in the south of France, in the company of his protégé, aide and secretary François Bernier, another pupil from Paris.
Bernier abridged and translated the philosophical writings of his friend Pierre Gassendi from Latin into French.

Speed of sound

subsonicsound speedsound velocity
During the 17th century there were several attempts to measure the speed of sound accurately, including attempts by Marin Mersenne in 1630 (1,380 Parisian feet per second), Pierre Gassendi in 1635 (1,473 Parisian feet per second) and Robert Boyle (1,125 Parisian feet per second).

Jean-Baptiste Morin (mathematician)

Jean-Baptiste MorinJean Baptiste MorinusMorin
Jean-Baptiste Morin attacked his De motu impresso a motore translato (1642).
He worked with Pierre Gassendi on observational astronomy.

Epicurus

EpicureanEpicurean paradoxEpicurean doctrine
The first two comprise entirely his Syntagma philosophicum; the third contains his critical writings on Epicurus, Aristotle, Descartes, Robert Fludd and Herbert of Cherbury, with some occasional pieces on certain problems of physics; the fourth, his Institutio astronomica, and his Commentarii de rebus celestibus; the fifth, his commentary on the tenth book of Diogenes Laërtius, the biographies of Epicurus, Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, Tycho Brahe, Nicolaus Copernicus, Georg von Peuerbach, and Regiomontanus, with some tracts on the value of ancient money, on the Roman calendar, and on the theory of music, with an appended large and prolix piece entitled Notitia ecclesiae Diniensis; the sixth volume contains his correspondence.
His teachings gradually became more widely known in the fifteenth century with the rediscovery of important texts, but his ideas did not become acceptable until the seventeenth century, when the French Catholic priest Pierre Gassendi revived a modified version of them, which was promoted by other writers, including Walter Charleton and Robert Boyle.

Digne-les-Bains

DigneDigne les BainsDigne-les-Bains-2
Gassendi was born at Champtercier, near Digne, in France to Antoine Gassend and Françoise Fabry.

Isaac Beeckman

BeeckmanIsaac Beeckman’s
After 1628 Gassendi travelled in Flanders and in Holland where he encountered Isaac Beeckman and François Luillier.
For example, he had deeply impressed Mersenne, despite their opposing religious views, as well as Gassendi, who apparently had been turned by Beeckman to the philosophy of Epicurus (atomism).

Cyrano de Bergerac

CyranoSavinien Cyrano de Bergeraca French philosopher
He gave some informal philosophy classes, gaining pupils or disciples; according to the biographer Grimarest, these included Molière, Cyrano de Bergerac (whose participation in classes is disputed), Jean Hesnault and Claude-Emmanuel Chapelle, son of Lullier.
Cyrano was a pupil of French polymath Pierre Gassendi, a canon of the Catholic Church who tried to reconcile Epicurean atomism with Christianity.

Mercury (planet)

MercuryMercurioplanet Mercury
They included his examination of the mystical philosophy of Robert Fludd, an essay on parhelia, and some observations on the transit of Mercury.
In 1631, Pierre Gassendi made the first telescopic observations of the transit of a planet across the Sun when he saw a transit of Mercury predicted by Johannes Kepler.

Henri Louis Habert de Montmor

MontmorMontmor AcademyHenri-Louis
In 1653 he returned to Paris and resumed his literary work, living in the house of Montmor, publishing in that year lives of Copernicus and of Tycho Brahe.
He was a friend of Mersenne, who dedicated his Harmonie Universelle to Montmor, and a great friend of Pierre Gassendi, who dedicated to him his Life of Tycho Brahe.

Tycho Brahe

BraheTychoTyge Brahe
The first two comprise entirely his Syntagma philosophicum; the third contains his critical writings on Epicurus, Aristotle, Descartes, Robert Fludd and Herbert of Cherbury, with some occasional pieces on certain problems of physics; the fourth, his Institutio astronomica, and his Commentarii de rebus celestibus; the fifth, his commentary on the tenth book of Diogenes Laërtius, the biographies of Epicurus, Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, Tycho Brahe, Nicolaus Copernicus, Georg von Peuerbach, and Regiomontanus, with some tracts on the value of ancient money, on the Roman calendar, and on the theory of music, with an appended large and prolix piece entitled Notitia ecclesiae Diniensis; the sixth volume contains his correspondence. In 1653 he returned to Paris and resumed his literary work, living in the house of Montmor, publishing in that year lives of Copernicus and of Tycho Brahe.
Pierre Gassendi wrote that Tycho also had a tame elk (moose) and that his mentor the Landgrave Wilhelm of Hesse-Kassel (Hesse-Cassel) asked whether there was an animal faster than a deer.

List of Catholic clergy scientists

List of Roman Catholic scientist-clericsList of Jesuit scientistsList of Roman Catholic cleric-scientists
These churchmen-scientists include Nicolaus Copernicus, Gregor Mendel, Georges Lemaître, Albertus Magnus, Roger Bacon, Pierre Gassendi, Roger Joseph Boscovich, Marin Mersenne, Bernard Bolzano, Francesco Maria Grimaldi, Nicole Oresme, Jean Buridan, Robert Grosseteste, Christopher Clavius, Nicolas Steno, Athanasius Kircher, Giovanni Battista Riccioli, William of Ockham, and others listed below.

Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc

PeirescNicolas Claude Fabri de PeirescFabri de Peiresc
The first two comprise entirely his Syntagma philosophicum; the third contains his critical writings on Epicurus, Aristotle, Descartes, Robert Fludd and Herbert of Cherbury, with some occasional pieces on certain problems of physics; the fourth, his Institutio astronomica, and his Commentarii de rebus celestibus; the fifth, his commentary on the tenth book of Diogenes Laërtius, the biographies of Epicurus, Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, Tycho Brahe, Nicolaus Copernicus, Georg von Peuerbach, and Regiomontanus, with some tracts on the value of ancient money, on the Roman calendar, and on the theory of music, with an appended large and prolix piece entitled Notitia ecclesiae Diniensis; the sixth volume contains his correspondence. He spent some time with his patron Nicolas Peiresc.
He became a patron of science and art, studied fossils, and supported the astronomer Pierre Gassendi from 1634 to 1637.

Johannes Kepler

KeplerDioptriceJohan Kepler
He lectured principally on the Aristotelian philosophy, conforming as far as possible to the traditional methods while he also followed with interest the discoveries of Galileo and Kepler.
Pierre Gassendi observed the transit on the date predicted, a confirmation of Kepler's prediction.

Regiomontanus

Johannes RegiomontanusJohannes MüllerJohann Müller of Königsberg
The first two comprise entirely his Syntagma philosophicum; the third contains his critical writings on Epicurus, Aristotle, Descartes, Robert Fludd and Herbert of Cherbury, with some occasional pieces on certain problems of physics; the fourth, his Institutio astronomica, and his Commentarii de rebus celestibus; the fifth, his commentary on the tenth book of Diogenes Laërtius, the biographies of Epicurus, Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, Tycho Brahe, Nicolaus Copernicus, Georg von Peuerbach, and Regiomontanus, with some tracts on the value of ancient money, on the Roman calendar, and on the theory of music, with an appended large and prolix piece entitled Notitia ecclesiae Diniensis; the sixth volume contains his correspondence.
According to a rumor repeated by Gassendi in his Regiomontanus biography, he was poisoned by relatives of George of Trebizond whom he had criticized in his writing; it is however considered more likely that he died from the plague.

Corpuscularianism

corpusclescorpuscularcorpuscle
The theory became important in the seventeenth century; amongst the leading corpuscularians were Thomas Hobbes, René Descartes, Pierre Gassendi, Robert Boyle, Isaac Newton, and John Locke.

Samuel de Sorbiere

Samuel de SorbièreSamuel SorbièreSamuel Sorbiere
Samuel Sorbière, a disciple, recounts Gassendi's life in the first collected edition of the works, by Joseph Bougerel, Vie de Gassendi (1737; 2nd ed., 1770); as does Damiron, Mémoire sur Gassendi (1839).
Samuel (de) Sorbière (1615–1670) was a French physician and man of letters, a philosopher and translator, who is best known for his promotion of the works of Thomas Hobbes and Pierre Gassendi, in whose view of physics he placed his support, though unable to refute René Descartes, but who developed a reputation in his own day for a truculent and disputatious nature.

Epicureanism

EpicureanEpicureansEpicurean philosophy
His best known intellectual project attempted to reconcile Epicurean atomism with Christianity.
In the 17th century, the French Franciscan priest, scientist and philosopher Pierre Gassendi wrote two books forcefully reviving Epicureanism.

Rudolphine Tables

1627Tabulae Rudolphinae
In addition to this he did work on determining longitude via eclipses of the moon and on improving the Rudolphine Tables.
The tables were sufficiently accurate to predict a transit of Mercury observed by Pierre Gassendi in 1631 and a transit of Venus observed by Jeremiah Horrox in 1639.