Pigment

pigmentspigmentationnatural pigmentsynthetic pigmentart pigmentcolorcolor variationcolouring pigmentsdry pigmentslight-absorbing
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.wikipedia
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Ink

printing inkinksindelible ink
Pigments are used for coloring paint, ink, plastic, fabric, cosmetics, food, and other materials.
Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design.

Lake pigment

lakelakescoloured lakes
The resulting pigment is called a lake pigment.
A lake pigment is a pigment made by precipitating a dye with an inert binder, or "mordant", usually a metallic salt.

Inorganic chemistry

inorganicinorganic chemistinorganic compounds
In 2006, around 7.4 million tons of inorganic, organic and special pigments were marketed worldwide.
It has applications in every aspect of the chemical industry, including catalysis, materials science, pigments, surfactants, coatings, medications, fuels, and agriculture.

Fugitive pigment

fugitivefugitive colorfugitive colour
Pigments that are not permanent are called fugitive.
Fugitive pigments are impermanent pigments that lighten, darken, or otherwise change in appearance or physicality over time when exposed to environmental conditions, such as light, temperature, humidity, or pollution.

Visual arts

visual artistvisual artvisual
Most pigments used in manufacturing and the visual arts are dry colorants, usually ground into a fine powder.
Painting taken literally is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a carrier (or medium) and a binding agent (a glue) to a surface (support) such as paper, canvas or a wall.

Azo dye

azo dyesdiazo dyeazo pigments
Organic pigments such as diazo or phthalocyanine compounds feature conjugated systems of double bonds.
Chemically related to azo dyes are azo pigments, which are insoluble in water and other solvents.

Precipitation (chemistry)

precipitateprecipitationprecipitates
In some cases, a pigment can be manufactured from a dye by precipitating a soluble dye with a metallic salt.
Precipitation reactions can be used for making pigments, removing salts from water in water treatment, and in classical qualitative inorganic analysis.

Ultramarine

ultramarine blue Ultramarineartificial ultramarine
The only way to achieve a deep rich blue was by using a semi-precious stone, lapis lazuli, to produce a pigment known as ultramarine. By the early 19th century, synthetic and metallic blue pigments had been added to the range of blues, including French ultramarine, a synthetic form of lapis lazuli, and the various forms of Cobalt and Cerulean blue.
Ultramarine is a deep blue color pigment which was originally made by grinding lapis lazuli into a powder.

Blue

Dark BlueRoyal BlueLight blue
Blue and purple came to be associated with royalty because of their rarity.
Blue pigments were made from minerals, especially lapis lazuli and azurite (.

Iron oxide

iron oxidesiron hydroxideferruginous
Naturally occurring pigments such as ochres and iron oxides have been used as colorants since prehistoric times.
They are used as iron ores, pigments, catalysts, and in thermite, and occur in hemoglobin.

Carmine

crimson lakecochineal dyecochineal
Carmine—a dye and pigment derived from a parasitic insect found in Central and South America—attained great status and value in Europe.
Carmine ( or ), also called cochineal, cochineal extract, crimson lake or carmine lake, natural red 4, C.I. 75470, or E120, is a pigment of a bright-red color obtained from the aluminium salt of carminic acid; it is also a general term for a particularly deep-red color.

Fluorescence

fluorescentfluorescefluoresces
This physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light.
This study suggests that the fluorescent plumage of parrots is not simply a by-product of pigmentation, but instead an adapted sexual signal.

Johannes Vermeer

VermeerJan VermeerVermeer, Johannes
The 17th-century Dutch master Johannes Vermeer often made lavish use of lapis lazuli, along with carmine and Indian yellow, in his vibrant paintings.
Vermeer worked slowly and with great care, and frequently used very expensive pigments.

Indian yellow

euxanthin
The 17th-century Dutch master Johannes Vermeer often made lavish use of lapis lazuli, along with carmine and Indian yellow, in his vibrant paintings.
Indian yellow is a complex pigment consisting primarily of euxanthic acid salts (magnesium euxanthate and calcium euxanthate), euxanthone and sulphonated euxanthone.

Prussian blue

Radiogardaseferric ferrocyanideTurnbull's blue
Prussian blue was the first modern synthetic pigment, discovered by accident in 1704.
Prussian blue is a dark blue pigment produced by oxidation of ferrous ferrocyanide salts.

Lead-tin-yellow

lead-tin yellow
These pigments were used as early as the second millennium BCE Later premodern additions to the range of synthetic pigments included vermilion, verdigris and lead-tin-yellow.
Lead-tin-yellow is a yellow pigment, of historical importance in oil painting, sometimes called the "Yellow of the Old Masters" because of the frequency with which it was used by those famous painters.

Lapis lazuli

lapislapis-lazulilapislazuli
The only way to achieve a deep rich blue was by using a semi-precious stone, lapis lazuli, to produce a pigment known as ultramarine. The 17th-century Dutch master Johannes Vermeer often made lavish use of lapis lazuli, along with carmine and Indian yellow, in his vibrant paintings. By the early 19th century, synthetic and metallic blue pigments had been added to the range of blues, including French ultramarine, a synthetic form of lapis lazuli, and the various forms of Cobalt and Cerulean blue.
By the end of the Middle Ages, lapis lazuli began to be exported to Europe, where it was ground into powder and made into ultramarine, the finest and most expensive of all blue pigments.

Cobalt blue

cobaltcobalt oxidecobalt(II) aluminate
By the early 19th century, synthetic and metallic blue pigments had been added to the range of blues, including French ultramarine, a synthetic form of lapis lazuli, and the various forms of Cobalt and Cerulean blue.
Cobalt blue is a blue pigment made by sintering cobalt(II) oxide with alumina at 1200 °C.

Verdigris

aerugoaerūgōcopper resinate
These pigments were used as early as the second millennium BCE Later premodern additions to the range of synthetic pigments included vermilion, verdigris and lead-tin-yellow.
Verdigris is the common name for a green pigment obtained through the application of acetic acid to copper plates or the natural patina formed when copper, brass or bronze is weathered and exposed to air or seawater over time.

Tints and shades

tintshadeshades
A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors.
When we mix colorants, such as the pigments in paint mixtures, a color is produced which is always darker and lower in chroma, or saturation, than the parent colors.

Colourant

colorantcolorantsA colorant
Most pigments used in manufacturing and the visual arts are dry colorants, usually ground into a fine powder.
Most colourants can be classified as dyes or pigments, or containing some combination of these.

Cobalt glass

smaltcobalt blue glassblue glass
Artists without wealthy patrons were forced to seek less expensive replacement pigments, both mineral (azurite, smalt) and biological (indigo).
Moderately ground cobalt glass (potassium cobalt silicate)—called "smalt"—has been historically important as a pigment in glassmaking, painting, pottery, for surface decoration of other types of glass and ceramics, and other media.

Dye

dyesdyestuffsynthetic dyes
A distinction is usually made between a pigment, which is insoluble in its vehicle (resulting in a suspension), and a dye, which either is itself a liquid or is soluble in its vehicle (resulting in a solution).
Dyes are usually soluble in water whereas pigments are insoluble.

Cerulean

cerulean bluepale cerulean
By the early 19th century, synthetic and metallic blue pigments had been added to the range of blues, including French ultramarine, a synthetic form of lapis lazuli, and the various forms of Cobalt and Cerulean blue.
"Cerulean blue" is the name of a pigment.

Biological pigment

pigmentpigmentspigmentation
The term biological pigment is used for all colored substances independent of their solubility.
*Anthocyanins (literally "flower blue") are water-soluble flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH.