Pill millipede

OniscomorphaAmynilyspedidapill-millipedepill-millipedes
Pill millipedes are any members of two living (and one extinct) orders of millipedes, often grouped together into a single superorder, Oniscomorpha.wikipedia
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Millipede

DiplopodamillipedesChilognatha
Pill millipedes are any members of two living (and one extinct) orders of millipedes, often grouped together into a single superorder, Oniscomorpha. They can also exude a noxious liquid, which may be both caustic and toxic, to repel predators. They have from eleven to twelve body segments, and possess dorsal ozopores (openings of the repugnatorial glands) rather than the lateral ozopores found on many other millipedes.
Most millipedes have very elongated cylindrical or flattened bodies with more than 20 segments, while pill millipedes are shorter and can roll into a ball.

Woodlouse

woodliceOniscideasowbug
The name Oniscomorpha refers to the millipedes' resemblance to certain woodlice (Oniscidea), also called pillbugs or "roly-polies".
Pillbugs (woodlice of the family Armadillidiidae, also known as pill woodlice) can be confused with pill millipedes of the order Glomerida.

Glomerida

The order Glomerida is predominantly found in the Northern Hemisphere and includes species such as Glomeris marginata, the common European pill millipede.
Glomerida is an order of pill-millipedes found primarily in the Northern Hemisphere.

Glomeris marginata

Common European pill millipede
The order Glomerida is predominantly found in the Northern Hemisphere and includes species such as Glomeris marginata, the common European pill millipede.
Glomeris marginata is a common European species of pill millipede.

Myriapoda

myriapodmyriapodsMyriopoda
However, millipedes and woodlice are not closely related (belonging to the subphyla Myriapoda and Crustacea, respectively); rather, this is a case of convergent evolution.
Pill millipedes are much shorter, and are capable of rolling up into a ball, like pillbugs.

Procyliosoma

Procyliosomatidae
Five species, all in the genus Procyliosoma are present in New Zealand, and around thirty species are present in Australia.
Procyliosoma is a genus of pill millipede found in Australia and New Zealand.

Amynilyspes

The order contains the genus Amynilyspes with unique spines on the tergites, as well as Glomeropsis, Archiscudderia, and Palaeosphaeridium.
Amynilyspes is an extinct genus of pill millipedes characterized by fourteen tergites, large eyes, and prominent spines.

Order (biology)

ordersuborderorders
Pill millipedes are any members of two living (and one extinct) orders of millipedes, often grouped together into a single superorder, Oniscomorpha.

Subphylum

subdivisionsubphylasubdivisio
However, millipedes and woodlice are not closely related (belonging to the subphyla Myriapoda and Crustacea, respectively); rather, this is a case of convergent evolution.

Crustacean

Crustaceacrustaceanscarcinology
However, millipedes and woodlice are not closely related (belonging to the subphyla Myriapoda and Crustacea, respectively); rather, this is a case of convergent evolution.

Convergent evolution

convergentconvergenceanalogous
However, millipedes and woodlice are not closely related (belonging to the subphyla Myriapoda and Crustacea, respectively); rather, this is a case of convergent evolution. This ability evolved separately in each of the two orders, making it a case of convergent evolution, rather than homology.

Segmentation (biology)

segmentssegmentsegmentation
Pill millipedes are relatively short-bodied compared to most other millipedes, with only eleven to thirteen body segments, and are capable of rolling into a ball when disturbed, as a defense against predators.

Anti-predator adaptation

antipredator adaptationdefense mechanismpredator avoidance
Pill millipedes are relatively short-bodied compared to most other millipedes, with only eleven to thirteen body segments, and are capable of rolling into a ball when disturbed, as a defense against predators.

Evolution

evolvedtheory of evolutionevolutionary
This ability evolved separately in each of the two orders, making it a case of convergent evolution, rather than homology.

Homology (biology)

homologoushomologyhomolog
This ability evolved separately in each of the two orders, making it a case of convergent evolution, rather than homology.

Corrosive substance

corrosivecausticcaustics
They can also exude a noxious liquid, which may be both caustic and toxic, to repel predators.

Toxin

toxinstoxicbiotoxin
They can also exude a noxious liquid, which may be both caustic and toxic, to repel predators.

Detritivore

detritivoresdeposit feederdeposit feeders
Pill millipedes are detritivorous, feeding on decomposing plant matter, usually in woodlands.

Woodland

woodswoodedwood
Pill millipedes are detritivorous, feeding on decomposing plant matter, usually in woodlands.

Northern Hemisphere

NorthernNorth HemisphereNorthern Hemispheric
The order Glomerida is predominantly found in the Northern Hemisphere and includes species such as Glomeris marginata, the common European pill millipede.

Ozopore

ozadeneozoporesrepugnatorial
They have from eleven to twelve body segments, and possess dorsal ozopores (openings of the repugnatorial glands) rather than the lateral ozopores found on many other millipedes.

Americas

Americathe AmericasAmerican
The order contains approximately 450 species found in Europe, South-east Asia and the Americas from California to Guatemala.

California

CAState of CaliforniaCalifornia, USA
The order contains approximately 450 species found in Europe, South-east Asia and the Americas from California to Guatemala.

Guatemala

GuatemalanRepublic of GuatemalaGTM
The order contains approximately 450 species found in Europe, South-east Asia and the Americas from California to Guatemala.

British Isles

BritainBritishThe British Isles
Four species are present in the British Isles.