Pindar

PindaricPindarusancient Greek poetPind.Pindaric OdePindaric odesPindaros
Pindar ( Pindaros, ; Pindarus; c. 518 – 438 BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes.wikipedia
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Bacchylides

Bac.BaccchylidesBakkhylides
Some scholars in the modern age also found his poetry perplexing, at least until the 1896 discovery of some poems by his rival Bacchylides; comparisons of their work showed that many of Pindar's idiosyncrasies are typical of archaic genres rather than of only the poet himself. For example, Olympian 2 and Pythian 2, composed in honour of the Sicilian tyrants Theron and Hieron following his visit to their courts in 476–75 BC, refer respectively to ravens and an ape, apparently signifying rivals who were engaged in a campaign of smears against him – possibly the poets Simonides and his nephew Bacchylides.
He has often been compared unfavourably with his contemporary, Pindar, as "a kind of Boccherini to Pindar's Haydn".

Epinikion

victory odesvictory odeepinikia
Like other poets of the Archaic Age, he has a profound sense of the vicissitudes of life, but he also articulates a passionate faith in what men can achieve by the grace of the gods, most famously expressed in the conclusion to one of his Victory Odes:
Major poets in the genre are Simonides, Bacchylides, and Pindar.

Corinna

Corinna of Tanagrathe c. sixth century BC Greek female poet
He studied the art of lyric poetry in Athens, where his tutor was Lasos of Hermione, and he is also said to have received some helpful criticism from Corinna.
Although ancient testimonia portray her as a contemporary of Pindar (who lived between about 522 and 443 BC), not all modern scholars accept the accuracy of this tradition, and some claim that she is more likely to have lived in the Hellenistic period of 323 to 31 BC.

Horace

Quintus Horatius FlaccusHoratiusHoratian
Quintilian wrote, "Of the nine lyric poets, Pindar is by far the greatest, in virtue of his inspired magnificence, the beauty of his thoughts and figures, the rich exuberance of his language and matter, and his rolling flood of eloquence, characteristics which, as Horace rightly held, make him inimitable."
Occasionally poems had had some resemblance to letters, including an elegiac poem from Solon to Mimnermus and some lyrical poems from Pindar to Hieron of Syracuse.

Typhon

TyphoeusTyphaonArima, couch of Typhoeus
For example, the victory ode mentioned above (Pythian 8) describes the downfall of the giants Porphyrion and Typhon and this might be Pindar's way of covertly celebrating a recent defeat of Athens by Thebes at the Battle of Coronea (447 BC).
The poet Pindar (c.

Thomas Magister

Thomas Magistros
He also wrote scholia on Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides (with a life), and three of the comedies of Aristophanes; the scholia on Pindar, attributed to him in two manuscripts, are now assigned to Demetrius Triclinius.

Heracles

HeraklesHerculesAlcides
The Theban hero Heracles was a favourite subject but in one poem he is depicted as small in order to be compared with a small Theban patron who had won the pankration at the Isthmian Games: a unique example of Pindar's readiness to shape traditional myths to fit the occasion, even if not always flattering to the mythical hero.
Heracles was both hero and god, as Pindar says heros theos; at the same festival sacrifice was made to him, first as a hero, with a chthonic libation, and then as a god, upon an altar: thus he embodies the closest Greek approach to a "demi-god".

Simonides of Ceos

SimonidesSimonides of Keoscompassionate ethics
For example, Olympian 2 and Pythian 2, composed in honour of the Sicilian tyrants Theron and Hieron following his visit to their courts in 476–75 BC, refer respectively to ravens and an ape, apparently signifying rivals who were engaged in a campaign of smears against him – possibly the poets Simonides and his nephew Bacchylides.
Included on this list was Bacchylides, his nephew, and Pindar, reputedly a bitter rival, both of whom benefited from his innovative approach to lyric poetry.

Stesichorus

StesichorosSteischorusStes
In terms of meter, the odes fall roughly into two categories – about half are in dactylo-epitrites (a meter found for example in the works of Stesichorus, Simonides and Bacchylides) and the other half are in Aeolic metres based on iambs and choriambs.
Recent discoveries, recorded on Egyptian papyrus (notably and controversially, the Lille Stesichorus), have led to some improvements in our understanding of his work, confirming his role as a link between Homer's epic narrative and the lyric narrative of poets like Pindar.

Greek lyric

Greek lyric poetlyric poetGreek lyric poetry
Pindar ( Pindaros, ; Pindarus; c. 518 – 438 BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes.
In the 3rd century BC, the encyclopedic movement at Alexandria produced a canon of the nine melic poets: Alcaeus, Alcman, Anacreon, Bacchylides, Ibycus, Pindar, Sappho, Simonides, and Stesichorus.

Pythia

Delphic OracleOracle of DelphiOracle at Delphi
As the god of the Delphic oracle, Apollo is all-knowing, yet in keeping with his anthropomorphic nature he seeks information about the nymph from a third party, in this case the centaur Chiron.
Authors who mention the oracle include Aeschylus, Aristotle, Clement of Alexandria, Diodorus, Diogenes, Euripides, Herodotus, Julian, Justin, Livy, Lucan, Nepos, Ovid, Pausanias, Pindar, Plato, Plutarch, Sophocles, Strabo, Thucydides and Xenophon.

Cyrene (mythology)

CyreneKyrene
A subtle example of Pindar's approach can be found in his treatment of the myth of Apollo's rape of the nymph Cyrene.
As recorded in Pindar's ninth Pythian ode, Cyrene was the daughter of Hypseus, king of the Lapiths, although some myths state that her father was actually the river-god Peneus and she was a nymph rather than a mortal.

Alcmaeon (mythology)

Alcmaeon
One of his last odes (Pythian 8) indicates that he lived near a shrine to the oracle Alcmaeon and that he stored some of his wealth there.
Pindar's eighth Pythian ode relates a prophecy by Amphiaraus that the Epigoni will conquer Thebes, and that Alcmaeon will be the first through the gates.

Paean

paeonicpæanessongs of praise
Possibly he was responding to anger among Aeginetans and/or Molossians over his portrayal of Neoptolemus in an earlier poem, Paean 6, which had been commissioned by the priests at Delphi and which depicted the hero's death in traditional terms, as divine retribution for his crimes.
The most famous paeans are those of Bacchylides and Pindar.

Pythian Games

PythianPythiaDelphic Games
His choice of residence during the earlier invasion in 490 BC is not known, but he was able to attend the Pythian Games for that year, where he first met the Sicilian prince, Thrasybulus, nephew of Theron of Acragas. His victory odes are grouped into four books named after the Olympian, Pythian, Isthmian, and Nemean Games – Panhellenic festivals held respectively at Olympia, Delphi, Corinth and Nemea.
(ref: Pindar) The other athletic contests took place in the Stadium.

Hyperborea

HyperboreansHyperboreanArctic continent
However, it is also possible that Hyperborea had no real physical location at all, for according to the classical Greek poet Pindar,

Archaic Greece

ArchaicArchaic periodArchaic Greek
His poetry illustrates the beliefs and values of Archaic Greece at the dawn of the classical period.
Sappho and Alcaeus, for instance, were from Lesbos, while Pindar came from Thebes, and Alcman from Sparta.

Nine Lyric Poets

lyric poetLyric poetsnine melic poets
Of the canonical nine lyric poets of ancient Greece, his work is the best preserved.

Nemean Games

NemeanNemea
His victory odes are grouped into four books named after the Olympian, Pythian, Isthmian, and Nemean Games – Panhellenic festivals held respectively at Olympia, Delphi, Corinth and Nemea.
The various legends concerning its origin are related in the argumenta of the Scholiasts to the Nemea of Pindar, with which may be compared Pausanias, and Apollodorus.

Delphi

PythoDelphic oracleOracle at Delphi
His victory odes are grouped into four books named after the Olympian, Pythian, Isthmian, and Nemean Games – Panhellenic festivals held respectively at Olympia, Delphi, Corinth and Nemea. According to tradition, Neoptolemus died disgracefully in a fight with priests at the temple in Delphi over their share of some sacrificial meat.
The hippodrome where these events took place was referred to by Pindar, and this monument was sought by archaeologists for over two centuries.

Chamaeleon (philosopher)

ChamaeleonChamaeleon of HeracleaChamaeleon)

Pindar's First Olympian Ode

First Olympian OdeOlympian Ode Olympian 1
The Greek lyric poet Pindar composed odes to celebrate victories at all four Panhellenic Games.

Theron of Acragas

Theron
His choice of residence during the earlier invasion in 490 BC is not known, but he was able to attend the Pythian Games for that year, where he first met the Sicilian prince, Thrasybulus, nephew of Theron of Acragas.
Pindar dedicates two Olympian odes, 2 & 3, to Theron, both for the same victory in the chariot race at the Olympic Games of 476 B.C. The poet Simonides of Ceos was also active at Theron's court.

Thebes, Greece

ThebesThebanThebans
Pindar ( Pindaros, ; Pindarus; c. 518 – 438 BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes.
Philip was content to deprive Thebes of its dominion over Boeotia; but an unsuccessful revolt in 335 BC against his son Alexander the Great while he was campaigning in the north was punished by Alexander and his Greek allies with the destruction of the city, except, according to tradition, the house of the poet Pindar and the temples, its territory divided between the other Boeotian cities.