Pinyin

pHanyu PinyinPīnyīnPronunciation of Chinese names in Englishpinyin romanizationromanizationChinese PinyinpyMandarin Pinyinromanized
Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.wikipedia
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Standard Chinese

MandarinChineseMandarin Chinese
Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters.
Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters (plus Hanyu Pinyin romanization for teaching), and Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters (plus Zhuyin for teaching).

Diacritic

diacriticsdiacritical markdiacritical marks
The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, and the diacritic markings from zhuyin (bopomofo).
In the Hanyu Pinyin official romanization system for Chinese, diacritics are used to mark the tones of the syllables in which the marked vowels occur.

Zhou Youguang

The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese.
Zhou Youguang (13 January 1906 – 14 January 2017) was a Chinese economist, banker, linguist, sinologist, publisher, and supercentenarian, known as the "father of Pinyin", a system for the writing of Mandarin Chinese in Roman script, or romanization, which was officially adopted by the government of the People's Republic of China in 1958, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1982, and the United Nations in 1986.

Chinese language romanization in Taiwan

romanizationromanization systemsromanization systems in Taiwan
But "some cities, businesses, and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
After a long debate, Hanyu Pinyin, the official romanization system used in the People's Republic of China, was planned to be the nationwide standard in Taiwan for 2009.

Gwoyeu Romatzyh

Guoyu LuomaziGwoRo
Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, and the diacritic markings from zhuyin (bopomofo).
Gwoyeu Romatzyh (pinyin: Guóyǔ Luómǎzì, literally "National Language Romanization"), abbreviated GR, is a system for writing Mandarin Chinese in the Latin alphabet.

A Chinese–English Dictionary

Chinese–English Dictionary
The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, and further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892.
They are renowned for developing what was later called the Wade-Giles romanization system of Chinese, which Giles' A Chinese-English Dictionary firmly established as the standard in the Western world until the 1958 official international pinyin system (Wilkinson 2000: 93).

Chinese postal romanization

postalformerlypostal romanization
Pinyin superseded older romanization systems such as Wade–Giles (1859; modified 1892) and postal romanization, and replaced zhuyin as the method of Chinese phonetic instruction in mainland China.
The system was in common use until the 1980s, when it was largely replaced by hanyu pinyin.

Wade–Giles

formerlyformerly romanizedw
Pinyin superseded older romanization systems such as Wade–Giles (1859; modified 1892) and postal romanization, and replaced zhuyin as the method of Chinese phonetic instruction in mainland China.
In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hànyǔ Pīnyīn system approved in 1958.

Romanization of Chinese

romanizationromanizedromanizations
The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese. Pinyin superseded older romanization systems such as Wade–Giles (1859; modified 1892) and postal romanization, and replaced zhuyin as the method of Chinese phonetic instruction in mainland China.
The dominant international standard for Putonghua since about 1982 has been Hanyu Pinyin.

Romanization

romanizedromanizeromanisation
Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
ALA-LC: Used to be similar to Wade–Giles, but converted to Hanyu Pinyin in 2000

Chinese name

Family nameAncestral nameChinese
Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.
In mainland China, Chinese names have been romanized using the Hanyu Pinyin system since 1958.

Arabic diacritics

harakatdiacriticssukun
Pinyin's role in teaching pronunciation to foreigners and children is similar in some respects to furigana-based books (with hiragana letters written above or next to kanji, directly analogous to zhuyin) in Japanese or fully vocalised texts in Arabic ("vocalised Arabic").
It serves the same purpose as furigana (also called "ruby") in Japanese or pinyin or zhuyin in Mandarin Chinese for children who are learning to read or foreign learners.

Bopomofo

zhuyinZhuyin FuhaoMandarin Phonetic Symbols
Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, and the diacritic markings from zhuyin (bopomofo). Pinyin superseded older romanization systems such as Wade–Giles (1859; modified 1892) and postal romanization, and replaced zhuyin as the method of Chinese phonetic instruction in mainland China. Pinyin's role in teaching pronunciation to foreigners and children is similar in some respects to furigana-based books (with hiragana letters written above or next to kanji, directly analogous to zhuyin) in Japanese or fully vocalised texts in Arabic ("vocalised Arabic"). Pinyin has also become the dominant method for entering Chinese text into computers in Mainland China, in contrast to Taiwan; where Bopomofo is most commonly used.
The Wade system was replaced by Hanyu Pinyin in 1958 by the Government of the People's Republic of China, and at the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1982.

Tone (linguistics)

tonetonal languagetones
The system includes four diacritics denoting tones.
1) A high level tone: /á/ (pinyin )

List of Latin-script digraphs

ngnjrr
From s, z, c come the digraphs sh, zh, ch by analogy with English sh, ch.
is used in Pinyin for in languages such as Yi, where b stands for.

Latinxua Sin Wenz

Sin Wenzwriting system based on the Latin alphabet
Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, and the diacritic markings from zhuyin (bopomofo). This Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese.
Much of Sin Wenz is similar to Pinyin in its orthography.

Chinese input methods for computers

Chinese input methodsinput methodinput methods
Pinyin has also become the dominant method for entering Chinese text into computers in Mainland China, in contrast to Taiwan; where Bopomofo is most commonly used.
Phonetic methods are mainly based on standard pinyin, Zhuyin/Bopomofo, and Jyutping in China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, respectively.

Education in China

educationChinaCompulsory education law
Since 1958, pinyin has been actively used in adult education as well, making it easier for formerly illiterate people to continue with self-study after a short period of pinyin literacy instruction.
Putonghua (common spoken language) was taught in regular schools and pinyin romanization in lower grades and kindergarten.

Xi'an

XianChang'anXi'an, Shaanxi
This usage is done to remove ambiguity that could arise, as in Xi'an, which consists of the two syllables xi an, compared to such words as xian .
"Xi'an" is the atonal pinyin romanization of the Mandarin pronunciation of its name undefined, which means "Western Peace".

Pinyin table

See the pinyin table article for a summary of possible pinyin syllables (not including tones).
This pinyin table is a complete listing of all Hanyu Pinyin syllables used in Standard Chinese.

Ch (digraph)

chdigraph chCh ch
From s, z, c come the digraphs sh, zh, ch by analogy with English sh, ch.
In Mandarin Chinese ch is used in Pinyin to represent an aspirated voiceless retroflex affricate.

Latin alphabet

LatinRomanLatin letters
Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.
Pinyin

Beijing

PekingBeijing, ChinaBeiping
17) Geographical names of China: Běijīng Shì (, city of Beijing), Héběi Shěng (, province of Hebei), Yālù Jiāng (, Yalu River), Tài Shān (, Mount Tai), Dòngtíng Hú (, Dongting Lake), Táiwān Hǎixiá (, Taiwan Strait)
The English spelling is based on the pinyin romanization of the two characters as they are pronounced in Standard Mandarin.

Chinese characters

ChineseChinese:characters
It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters.
Recently, however, more Chinese schools now use both simplified characters and pinyin.