Pipe organ

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The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air (called wind) through the organ pipes selected from a keyboard.wikipedia
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Organ pipe

pipesorgan pipespipe
The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air (called wind) through the organ pipes selected from a keyboard.
An organ pipe is a sound-producing element of the pipe organ that resonates at a specific pitch when pressurized air (commonly referred to as wind) is driven through it.

Organ stop

stopsstoporgan stops
Most organs have many ranks of pipes of differing timbre, pitch, and volume that the player can employ singly or in combination through the use of controls called stops.
An organ stop (or just stop) is a component of a pipe organ that admits pressurized air (known as wind) to a set of organ pipes.

Pedal keyboard

pedalboardpedalpedals
A pipe organ has one or more keyboards (called manuals) played by the hands, and a pedalboard played by the feet; each keyboard controls its own division, or group of stops.
Pedalboards are found at the base of the console of most pipe organs, theatre organs, and electronic organs.

List of pipe organs

historic organslargest pipe organsList of notable pipe organs
A list of some of the most notable and largest pipe organs in the world can be viewed at List of pipe organs.
This is a list and brief description of notable pipe organs in the world, with links to corresponding articles about them.

Organ console

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The keyboard(s), pedalboard, and stops are housed in the organ's console.
The pipe organ is played from an area called the console or keydesk, which holds the manuals (keyboards), pedals, and stop controls.

Harpsichord

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The organ's continuous supply of wind allows it to sustain notes for as long as the corresponding keys are pressed, unlike the piano and harpsichord whose sound begins to dissipate immediately after a key is depressed.
Like a pipe organ, a harpsichord may have more than one keyboard manual and harpsichords may have stop buttons which add or remove additional octaves.

Piano

grand pianopianistacoustic piano
The organ's continuous supply of wind allows it to sustain notes for as long as the corresponding keys are pressed, unlike the piano and harpsichord whose sound begins to dissipate immediately after a key is depressed.
Unlike the pipe organ and harpsichord, two major keyboard instruments widely used before the piano, the piano allows gradations of volume and tone according to how forcefully a performer presses or strikes the keys.

Musical keyboard

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The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air (called wind) through the organ pipes selected from a keyboard.
Depressing a key on the keyboard makes the instrument produce sounds—either by mechanically striking a string or tine (acoustic and electric piano, clavichord), plucking a string (harpsichord), causing air to flow through a pipe organ, striking a bell (carillon), or, on electric and electronic keyboards, completing a circuit (Hammond organ, digital piano, synthesizer).

Manual (music)

manualmanualsmanual keyboards
A pipe organ has one or more keyboards (called manuals) played by the hands, and a pedalboard played by the feet; each keyboard controls its own division, or group of stops.
A manual is a musical keyboard designed to be played with the hands, on an instrument such as a pipe organ, harpsichord, clavichord, electronic organ, melodica, or synthesizer.

Theatre organ

theater organorgancinema organist
In the early 20th century, pipe organs were installed in theaters to accompany the screening of films during the silent movie era; in municipal auditoria, where orchestral transcriptions were popular; and in the homes of the wealthy.
A theatre organ (also known as a theater organ, or [especially in the U.K.] a cinema organ) is a distinct type of pipe organ originally developed to provide music and sound effects to accompany silent films during the first 3 decades of the 20th century.

Organ repertoire

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The organ boasts a substantial repertoire, which spans over 500 years.
Because of the organ's (or pipe organ's) prominence in worship in Western Europe from the Middle Ages on, a significant portion of organ repertoire is sacred in nature.

Water organ

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The origins of the pipe organ can be traced back to the hydraulis in Ancient Greece, in the 3rd century BC, in which the wind supply was created by the weight of displaced water in an airtight container.
The water organ or hydraulic organ (early types are sometimes called hydraulos, hydraulus or hydraula) is a type of pipe organ blown by air, where the power source pushing the air is derived by water from a natural source (e.g. by a waterfall) or by a manual pump.

Portative organ

portable organportativeportative pipe organ
The word organ is derived from the Greek όργανον (organon), a generic term for an instrument or a tool, via the Latin organum, an instrument similar to a portative organ used in ancient Roman circus games. Portable organs (the portative and the positive organ) were invented in the Middle Ages.
A portative organ (portatif organ, portativ organ, or simply portative, portatif, or portativ) (from the Latin verb portare, "to carry"), also known during Italian Trecento as the organetto, is a small pipe organ that consists of one rank of flue pipes, sometimes arranged in two rows, to be played while strapped to the performer at a right angle.

Positive organ

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Portable organs (the portative and the positive organ) were invented in the Middle Ages.
A positive organ (also positiv organ, positif organ, portable organ, chair organ, or simply positive, positiv, positif, or chair) (from the Latin verb ponere, "to place") is a small, usually one-manual, pipe organ that is built to be more or less mobile.

Vox humana

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A list consisting the ranking of the largest organs in the world - based on the criterion constructed by Michał Szostak, i.e. 'the number of ranks and additional equipment managed from a single console - can be found in 'The Organ' and in 'The Vox Humana'.
The Vox humana (Latin for "human voice;" also "voz humana" in Spanish and Portuguese, "voix humaine" in French and "voce umana" in Italian, although "voce umana" is also a term for a celeste stop, q.v.) is a short-resonator reed stop on the pipe organ, so named because of its supposed resemblance to the human voice.

Halberstadt

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Large organs such as the one installed in 1361 in Halberstadt, Germany, the first documented permanent organ installation, likely prompted Guillaume de Machaut to describe the organ as "the king of instruments", a characterization still frequently applied.
Halberstadt is the site of the first documented large, permanent pipe organ installation in 1361.

Henry Willis & Sons

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New technologies and the work of organ builders such as Eberhard Friedrich Walcker, Aristide Cavaillé-Coll, and Henry Willis made it possible to build larger organs with more stops, more variation in sound and timbre, and more divisions.
Henry Willis & Sons is a British firm of pipe organ builders founded in 1845.

Classical music

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They are used in the performance of classical music, sacred music, secular music, and popular music.
Simple pipe organs existed, but were largely confined to churches, although there were portable varieties.

Organ reform movement

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This became known as the Organ reform movement.
The Organ Reform Movement or Orgelbewegung (also called the Organ Revival Movement) was a mid-20th-century trend in pipe organ building, originating in Germany.

Electric organ

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The electronic organ developed throughout the 20th century.

Dom Bédos de Celles

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It was elaborately described by Dom Bédos de Celles in his treatise L'art du facteur d'orgues (The Art of Organ Building).
François Lamathe Bédos de Celles de Salelles, known as Dom Bédos de Celles (24 January 1709 – 25 November 1779), was a Benedictine monk best known for being a master pipe organ builder.

Organ building

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The timbre and volume of the sound produced by a pipe depends on the volume of air delivered to the pipe and the manner in which it is constructed and voiced, the latter adjusted by the builder to produce the desired tone and volume.
Organ building is the profession of designing, building, restoring and maintaining pipe organs.

Tracker action

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A key action which physically connects the keys and the windchests is a mechanical or tracker action.
Tracker action is a term used in reference to pipe organs and steam calliopes to indicate a mechanical linkage between keys or pedals pressed by the organist and the valve that allows air to flow into pipe(s) of the corresponding note.

Baroque music

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During the Renaissance and Baroque periods, the organ's tonal colors became more varied.
With figured bass, numbers, accidentals or symbols were placed above the bassline that was read by keyboard instrument players such as harpsichord players or pipe organists (or lutenists).

Electro-pneumatic action

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Electricity may control the action indirectly through air pressure valves (pneumatics), in which case the action is electro-pneumatic.
The electro-pneumatic action is a control system by the mean of air pressure for pipe organs, whereby air pressure, controlled by an electric current and operated by the keys of an organ console, opens and closes valves within wind chests, allowing the pipes to speak.