Pipil language

PipilNahuatNawatNicaraoPipil (Nawat)NahuanNahuat languagePipil or NawatPipil-speakingppl
Pipil (natively Nawat) is a Uto-Toltec or Uto-Nahuan language of the Uto-Aztecan family, which stretches from Utah in the United States down through El Salvador to Nicaragua in Central America.wikipedia
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Uto-Aztecan languages

Uto-AztecanUto-Aztecan languageUto-Aztecan language family
Pipil (natively Nawat) is a Uto-Toltec or Uto-Nahuan language of the Uto-Aztecan family, which stretches from Utah in the United States down through El Salvador to Nicaragua in Central America.
The northernmost Uto-Aztecan language is Shoshoni, which is spoken as far north as Salmon, Idaho, while the southernmost is the Pipil language of El Salvador.

Nicarao people

Nicarao
The name of the language family was created to show that it includes the greatest extent perimeter from the Ute language of Utah, to the former Toltec predecessor and the expanse margin Pipil-Nicarao successors, which was spoken in several parts of present-day Central America before the Spanish conquest.
The Nicarao people were a Nahuat-speaking Mesoamerican people that migrated from central and southern Mexico over the course of several centuries from approximately 700 AD onwards.

Nicaragua

🇳🇮NicaraguanRepublic of Nicaragua
Pipil (natively Nawat) is a Uto-Toltec or Uto-Nahuan language of the Uto-Aztecan family, which stretches from Utah in the United States down through El Salvador to Nicaragua in Central America.
The Pipil-Nicarao people were a branch of Nahuas who spoke the Nahuat dialect, and like the Chorotegas, they too had come from Chiapas to Nicaragua in approximately 1200 CE. Prior to that, the Pipil-Nicaraos had been associated with the Toltec civilization.

El Salvador

🇸🇻SalvadoranSalvador
Pipil (natively Nawat) is a Uto-Toltec or Uto-Nahuan language of the Uto-Aztecan family, which stretches from Utah in the United States down through El Salvador to Nicaragua in Central America.
They called their territory Kuskatan, a Pipil word meaning The Place of Precious Jewels, backformed into Classical Nahuatl Cōzcatlān, and Hispanicized as Cuzcatlán.

Nahuatl

náhuatlNahuaAztec
The name Pipil for this language is used by the international scholarly community, chiefly to differentiate it more clearly from Nahuatl.
Sometimes the label also is used to include the Pipil language (Nawat) of El Salvador.

Alan R. King

KingKing, Alan R.
Pipil specialists (Campbell, Fidias Jiménez, Geoffroy Rivas, King, Lemus, and Schultze, inter alia) generally treat Pipil/Nawat as a separate language, at least in practice.
Alan Roy King (born 24 October 1954) is a British linguist notable for his work on Basque and Nawat.

Izalco

Villa Izalco
Izalco (in Nawat: Itzalku) is a municipality in the Sonsonate department of El Salvador.

Alagüilac language

AlagüilacAlaguilac
The genetic position of San Agustín Acasaguastlán Mejicano is still uncertain (see Alagüilac language). However, Nahuan languages are currently no longer spoken in Guatemala.
Brinton (1892) considered Alaguilac to be a dialect of Pipil.

Cuzcatlan

Cuzcatlán
Cuzcatlan
Cuzcatlan (Nawat: Kuskatan) was a pre-Columbian Nahua state of the postclassical period that extended from the Paz river to the Lempa river (covering most of the western and central zones of the present Republic of El Salvador), this was the nation that Spanish chroniclers came to call the Pipils/Cuzcatlecs.

Pipil language (typological overview)

typological overview
Pipil language (typological overview)
This rather technical article provides a typological sketch of the Pipil language (also known as Nawat).

Pipil grammar

Pipil grammar
This article provides a grammar sketch of the Nawat or Pipil language, an endangered language spoken by the Pipils of western El Salvador, belonging to the Nahua group within the Uto-Aztecan language family.

1932 Salvadoran peasant massacre

1932 Salvadoran peasant uprisingLa MatanzaMatanza
The exact number of speakers has been difficult to determine because persecution of Pipil speakers throughout the 20th century (massacres after suppression of the 1932 Salvadoran peasant uprising, laws that made speaking Nawat illegal) made them conceal their use of the language.
The events brought about the extermination of the majority of the Pipil-speaking population, which led to a near total loss of the spoken language in El Salvador.

Pipil people

PipilPipil-NicaraoPipils
Pipil people
Their language is called Nahuat or Pipil, related to the Toltec people of the Nahuatl Nation.

Nahuan languages

Aztecan (Nahuan)NahuaNahuatl
Nahuan languages include not just varieties known as Nahuatl, but also Pipil and the extinct Pochutec language.

Eastern Peripheral Nahuatl

EasternEastern PeripheralEastern Periphery
Eastern Peripheral Nahuatl is a group of Nahuatl languages, including the Pipil language of El Salvador and the Nahuatl dialects of the Sierra Norte de Puebla, southern Veracruz, and Tabasco (Isthmus dialects):

Grammatical number

numbersingularnumbers
The obligatory marking of number extends in Pipil to almost all plural noun phrases (regardless of animacy), which will contain at least one plural form, most commonly marked by reduplication.
Pipil: kumit "pot" (singular) – kuj-kumit "pots" (plural); similar to Indonesian, reduplication is omitted when plurality is marked elsewhere or not emphasized.

Toltec

TulaTollanToltec Empire
Pipil (natively Nawat) is a Uto-Toltec or Uto-Nahuan language of the Uto-Aztecan family, which stretches from Utah in the United States down through El Salvador to Nicaragua in Central America. The name of the language family was created to show that it includes the greatest extent perimeter from the Ute language of Utah, to the former Toltec predecessor and the expanse margin Pipil-Nicarao successors, which was spoken in several parts of present-day Central America before the Spanish conquest.

Utah

UTState of UtahUtah, U.S.
Pipil (natively Nawat) is a Uto-Toltec or Uto-Nahuan language of the Uto-Aztecan family, which stretches from Utah in the United States down through El Salvador to Nicaragua in Central America. The name of the language family was created to show that it includes the greatest extent perimeter from the Ute language of Utah, to the former Toltec predecessor and the expanse margin Pipil-Nicarao successors, which was spoken in several parts of present-day Central America before the Spanish conquest.

United States

American🇺🇸U.S.
Pipil (natively Nawat) is a Uto-Toltec or Uto-Nahuan language of the Uto-Aztecan family, which stretches from Utah in the United States down through El Salvador to Nicaragua in Central America.

Central America

CentralCentral AmericanCentral-
Pipil (natively Nawat) is a Uto-Toltec or Uto-Nahuan language of the Uto-Aztecan family, which stretches from Utah in the United States down through El Salvador to Nicaragua in Central America.

Colorado River Numic language

Colorado River NumicSouthern PaiutePaiute
The name of the language family was created to show that it includes the greatest extent perimeter from the Ute language of Utah, to the former Toltec predecessor and the expanse margin Pipil-Nicarao successors, which was spoken in several parts of present-day Central America before the Spanish conquest.

Spanish colonization of the Americas

SpanishSpanish conquestSpanish colonization
The name of the language family was created to show that it includes the greatest extent perimeter from the Ute language of Utah, to the former Toltec predecessor and the expanse margin Pipil-Nicarao successors, which was spoken in several parts of present-day Central America before the Spanish conquest.

Veracruz

Vera CruzVeracruz, MexicoVER
However, Nawat (along with the synonymous Eastern Nahuatl) has also been used to refer to Nahuatl language varieties in southern Veracruz, Tabasco, and Chiapas, states in the south of Mexico, that like Pipil have reduced the earlier /t͡ɬ/ consonant (a lateral affricate) to a /t/.

Tabasco

state of TabascoTabascan4th district of Tabasco
However, Nawat (along with the synonymous Eastern Nahuatl) has also been used to refer to Nahuatl language varieties in southern Veracruz, Tabasco, and Chiapas, states in the south of Mexico, that like Pipil have reduced the earlier /t͡ɬ/ consonant (a lateral affricate) to a /t/.

Chiapas

Chiapas, MexicoChiapanState of Chiapas
However, Nawat (along with the synonymous Eastern Nahuatl) has also been used to refer to Nahuatl language varieties in southern Veracruz, Tabasco, and Chiapas, states in the south of Mexico, that like Pipil have reduced the earlier /t͡ɬ/ consonant (a lateral affricate) to a /t/.