Pisa

Pisa, ItalyPisanPisansPisaehistory of Pisa [map] eponymous cityhistoryMontefoscoliMugahid
Pisa (, or ) is a city and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.wikipedia
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University of Pisa

PisaPisa UniversityUniversità di Pisa
The city is also home of the University of Pisa, which has a history going back to the 12th century and also has the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, founded by Napoleon in 1810, and its offshoot, the Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, as the best-sanctioned Superior Graduate Schools in Italy.
The University of Pisa (Università di Pisa, UniPi) is an Italian public research university located in Pisa, Italy.

Province of Pisa

PisaPIPisa Province
It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa.
Its capital is the city of Pisa.

Leaning Tower of Pisa

Tower of PisaLeaning TowerCampanile
Although Pisa is known worldwide for its leaning tower (the bell tower of the city's cathedral), the city of over 91,104 residents (around 200,000 with the metropolitan area) contains more than 20 other historic churches, several medieval palaces, and various bridges across the Arno.
The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply the Tower of Pisa (Torre di Pisa ) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its nearly four-degree lean, the result of an unstable foundation.

Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa

Scuola Normale SuperioreScuola Normale di PisaScuola Normale
The city is also home of the University of Pisa, which has a history going back to the 12th century and also has the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, founded by Napoleon in 1810, and its offshoot, the Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, as the best-sanctioned Superior Graduate Schools in Italy.
The Scuola Normale Superiore (commonly known in Italy as "la Normale") is a university institution of higher education based in Pisa and Florence, currently attended by about 600 undergraduate and postgraduate (PhD) students.

Baths of Nero (Pisa)

baths complexRoman baths
In the 90s AD, a baths complex was built in the city.
The Baths of Nero (Italian - Bagni di Nerone) are an archaeological site near the Porta a Lucca in Pisa, then the Roman city of Colonia Pisana.

Tuscany

TuscanToscanaTuscany, Italy
Pisa (, or ) is a city and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
Tuscany is a popular destination in Italy; the main tourist spots are Florence, Pisa, Lucca, Siena, Versilia, Maremma and Chianti.

Arno

Arno RiverRiver ArnoArno valley
Pisa (, or ) is a city and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
The river turns to the west near Arezzo passing through Florence, Empoli and Pisa, flowing into the Tyrrhenian Sea at Marina di Pisa.

Corsica

CorseCorsicanCyrnus
Pisa began in this way its rise to the role of main port of the Upper Tyrrhenian Sea and became the main trading centre between Tuscany and Corsica, Sardinia, and the southern coasts of France and Spain.
In the first quarter of the 11th century, Pisa and Genoa together freed the island from the threat of Arab invasion.

Sardinia

SardegnaSardinia, ItalySardinian
Pisa began in this way its rise to the role of main port of the Upper Tyrrhenian Sea and became the main trading centre between Tuscany and Corsica, Sardinia, and the southern coasts of France and Spain.
The history of the four Judicates would be defined by the contest for influence between the two Italian maritime powers of Genoa and Pisa, and later the ambitions of the Kingdom of Aragon.

Piazza dei Miracoli

cathedral of PisaPiazza del DuomoDuomo
Though the Almoravides soon reconquered the island, the booty taken helped the Pisans in their magnificent programme of buildings, especially the cathedral, and Pisa gained a role of pre-eminence in the Western Mediterranean.
The Piazza dei Miracoli (Square of Miracles), formally known as Piazza del Duomo (Cathedral Square), is a walled 8.87-hectare area located in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy, recognized as an important centre of European medieval art and one of the finest architectural complexes in the world.

Pisa, Greece

PisaPisatisArchaia Pisa
While the origin of the city had remained unknown for centuries, the Pelasgi, the Greeks, the Etruscans, and the Ligurians had variously been proposed as founders of the city (for example, a colony of the ancient city of Pisa, Greece).
The Virgilian commentator Servius wrote that the Teuti, or Pelops, the king of the Pisatans, arrived on the Tyrrhenian coast after the Trojan War and founded the Italian (and more famous) Pisa in the 13th century BCE.

First Crusade

CrusadersFirstCrusader
A Pisan fleet of 120 ships also took part in the First Crusade, and the Pisans were instrumental in the taking of Jerusalem in 1099.
Pisa, Genoa, and the Principality of Catalonia began to battle various Muslim kingdoms for control of the Mediterranean Basin, exemplified by the Mahdia campaign of 1087 and battles at Majorca and Sardinia.

Venice

VenetianVenice, ItalyVenezia
For some years of that century, Pisa was the most prominent merchant and military ally of the Byzantine Empire, overcoming Venice itself.
From the 9th to the 12th century, Venice developed into a city state (an Italian thalassocracy or repubblica marinara; there were three others: Genoa, Pisa, and Amalfi).

Björn Ironside

Bjorn IronsideBarrow of Björn IronsideBjorn
In 860, Pisa was captured by vikings led by Björn Ironside.
After raiding down the Iberian coast and fighting their way through Gibraltar, the Norsemen pillaged the south of France, where the fleet stayed over winter, before landing in Italy where they captured the city of Pisa.

Ligures

LigurianLiguriansLiguri
While the origin of the city had remained unknown for centuries, the Pelasgi, the Greeks, the Etruscans, and the Ligurians had variously been proposed as founders of the city (for example, a colony of the ancient city of Pisa, Greece).
Even in this case, the Ligurian opposition prevented the Etruscans from going further; indeed, although traditionally the border between the Ligurian and Etruscan areas is considered the Magra river, it is testified that the Etruscan settlements north of the Arno (for example Pisa) were periodically attacked and plundered by the Ligurian tribes of the mountains.

Florence

FlorentineFlorence, ItalyFirenze
They marked the apex of Pisa's power, but also spurred the resentment of cities such as Lucca, Massa, Volterra, and Florence, which saw their aim to expand towards the sea thwarted.
This period also saw the eclipse of Florence's formerly powerful rival Pisa (defeated by Genoa in 1284 and subjugated by Florence in 1406), and the exercise of power by the mercantile elite following an anti-aristocratic movement, led by Giano della Bella, that resulted in a set of laws called the Ordinances of Justice (1293).

Bell tower

belfrycampaniletower
Although Pisa is known worldwide for its leaning tower (the bell tower of the city's cathedral), the city of over 91,104 residents (around 200,000 with the metropolitan area) contains more than 20 other historic churches, several medieval palaces, and various bridges across the Arno.
Perhaps the most famous European free-standing bell tower, however, is the so-called "Leaning Tower of Pisa", which is the campanile of the Duomo di Pisa in Pisa, Italy.

Guelphs and Ghibellines

GhibellineGuelphGhibellines
In the following years, Pisa was one of the staunchest supporters of the Ghibelline party.
Pisa maintained a staunch Ghibelline stance against her fiercest rivals, the Guelph Republic of Genoa and Florence.

Galileo Galilei

GalileoGalileanGalilei
Pisa was the birthplace of the important early physicist Galileo Galilei.
Galileo Galilei (, also, ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath, from Pisa.

Pula

PolaPula, CroatiaPietas Julia
Pisa signed trade and political pacts with Ancona, Pula, Zara, Split, and Brindisi; in 1195, a Pisan fleet reached Pola to defend its independence from Venice, but the Serenissima managed soon to reconquer the rebel sea town.
It was conquered by the Pisans in 1192 but soon reconquered by the Venetians.

Mahdia

MahdiyaMehdiaal-Mahdiyya
Pisa sacked the Tunisian city of Mahdia in 1088.
In 1087, the town was attacked by raiding ships from Genoa and Pisa who burned the Muslim fleet in the harbor.

Council of Pisa

PisanCouncilPisa
In 1409, Pisa was the seat of a council trying to set the question of the Great Schism.
Then, on 2 and 5 July 1408, the cardinals at Livorno addressed an encyclical letter to the princes and prelates of the Christian world, summoning them to a general council at Pisa, which was to begin on 25 March 1409.

Amalfi

Maritime Republic of AmalfiAmalfi lemonAmalfi Republic
Amalfi, one of the maritime republics (though already declining under Norman rule), was conquered on August 6, 1136; the Pisans destroyed the ships in the port, assaulted the castles in the surrounding areas, and drove back an army sent by Roger from Aversa.
An independent republic from the 7th century until 1075, Amalfi extracted itself from Byzantine vassalage in 839 and first elected a duke in 958; it rivalled Pisa and Genoa in its domestic prosperity and maritime importance before the rise of the Republic of Venice.

Pisa Baptistery

Pisa BaptistryBaptistryBaptistery
The Piazza del Duomo also houses the Duomo (the Cathedral), the Baptistry and the Campo Santo (the monumental cemetery).
The Pisa Baptistery of St. John (Battistero di San Giovanni) is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical building in Pisa, Italy.

Pope Innocent II

Innocent IIGregorio PapareschiGregory of San Angelo
In June 1135, Bernard of Clairvaux took a leading part in the Council of Pisa, asserting the claims of Pope Innocent II against those of Pope Anacletus II, who had been elected pope in 1130 with Norman support, but was not recognised outside Rome.
Anacletus had control of Rome, so Innocent II took ship for Pisa, and thence sailed by way of Genoa to France, where the influence of Bernard of Clairvaux readily secured his cordial recognition by the clergy and the court.