Pituitary gland

pituitaryhypophysishypophysis cerebripituitary glandsanterior pituitary glandpituitary hormonespituitary lobesanterior lobe of the pituitary glandhypophysehypophysial
In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland, about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 g in humans.wikipedia
679 Related Articles

Endocrine gland

endocrine glandsductless glandendocrine
In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland, about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 g in humans.
The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands.

Hypothalamus

hypothalamicanterior hypothalamushypothalamic hormones
It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence via a small tube called the pituitary stalk (also called the infundibular stalk or the infundibulum). *Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), is released under the influence of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and is inhibited by somatostatin.
One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

Sphenoid bone

sphenoidbasisphenoidpresphenoid
The hypophysis rests upon the hypophysial fossa of the sphenoid bone in the center of the middle cranial fossa and is surrounded by a small bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (diaphragma sellae).

Posterior pituitary

posterior pituitary glandneurohypophysisHypothalamic–neurohypophyseal system
The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence via a small tube called the pituitary stalk (also called the infundibular stalk or the infundibulum).
The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland which is part of the endocrine system.

Middle cranial fossa

middle fossamiddlecranial fossa, middle
The hypophysis rests upon the hypophysial fossa of the sphenoid bone in the center of the middle cranial fossa and is surrounded by a small bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (diaphragma sellae).
It houses the temporal lobes of the brain and the pituitary gland.

Diaphragma sellae

diaphragma sellasellar diaphragm
The hypophysis rests upon the hypophysial fossa of the sphenoid bone in the center of the middle cranial fossa and is surrounded by a small bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (diaphragma sellae).
It retains the pituitary gland beneath it in the fossa hypophyseos as it almost completely roofs the fossa hypophyseos of the sella turcica, a part of the sphenoid bone.

Sella turcica

suprasellarhypophyseal fossafossa hypophyseos
The hypophysis rests upon the hypophysial fossa of the sphenoid bone in the center of the middle cranial fossa and is surrounded by a small bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (diaphragma sellae).
The pituitary gland or hypophysis is located within the most inferior aspect of the sella turcica, the hypophyseal fossa.

Pars intermedia

intermediate lobeintermediate
The intermediate lobe synthesizes and secretes melanocyte-stimulating hormone.
Pars intermedia is the boundary between the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary.

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

melanocyte stimulating hormonealpha-mshmelanocyte-stimulating hormones
The intermediate lobe synthesizes and secretes melanocyte-stimulating hormone. *Cleaved from the precursor proopiomelanocortin protein, and include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and beta-endorphin, and melanocyte-stimulating hormone are released under the influence of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
Some neurons in arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus make and secrete α-MSH in response to leptin; α-MSH is also made and secreted in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.

Anterior pituitary

anterior pituitary glandanterior lobeanterior lobe of the pituitary gland
The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that regulates several physiological processes (including stress, growth, reproduction, and lactation).
A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe (posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland (hypophysis).

Thyroid

thyroid glandthyroid folliclethyroid function
Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland help to control growth, blood pressure, energy management, all functions of the sex organs, thyroid glands and metabolism as well as some aspects of pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding, water/salt concentration at the kidneys, temperature regulation and pain relief.
The fetal hypothalamus and pituitary start to secrete thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).

Releasing and inhibiting hormones

releasing hormonehormone releaseinhibited
Diffusing out of the second capillary bed, the hypothalamic releasing hormones then bind to anterior pituitary endocrine cells, upregulating or downregulating their release of hormones.
The examples are hypothalamic-pituitary hormones that can be classified from several viewpoints: they are hypothalamic hormones (originating in the hypothalamus), they are hypophysiotropic hormones (affecting the hypophysis, that is, the pituitary gland), and they are tropic hormones (having other endocrine glands as their target).

Lactation

lactatinglactatenurse
The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that regulates several physiological processes (including stress, growth, reproduction, and lactation).
Suckling by the baby stimulates the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nucleus in the hypothalamus, which signals to the posterior pituitary gland to produce oxytocin.

Prolactin

PRLlactationprolactin secretion
*Prolactin (PRL), whose release is inconsistently stimulated by hypothalamic TRH, oxytocin, vasopressin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, angiotensin II, neuropeptide Y, galanin, substance P, bombesin-like peptides (gastrin-releasing peptide, neuromedin B and C), and neurotensin, and inhibited by hypothalamic dopamine.
Prolactin is secreted from the pituitary gland in response to eating, mating, estrogen treatment, ovulation and nursing.

Endocrine system

endocrineendocrinologicalendocrine organ
Endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary are controlled by regulatory hormones released by parvocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamic capillaries leading to infundibular blood vessels, which in turn lead to a second capillary bed in the anterior pituitary.
The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands.

Brain

brain functionmammalian braincerebral
It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain.
Some of the outputs also go to the pituitary gland, a tiny gland attached to the brain directly underneath the hypothalamus.

Proopiomelanocortin

pro-opiomelanocortinPOMCPOMC neurons
*Cleaved from the precursor proopiomelanocortin protein, and include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and beta-endorphin, and melanocyte-stimulating hormone are released under the influence of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
The encoded protein is synthesized mainly in corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary, where four cleavage sites are used; adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH), essential for normal steroidogenesis and the maintenance of normal adrenal weight, and β-lipotropin are the major end-products.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

ACTHcorticotropinadrenocorticotrophic hormone
*Cleaved from the precursor proopiomelanocortin protein, and include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and beta-endorphin, and melanocyte-stimulating hormone are released under the influence of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
Deficiency of ACTH is a sign of secondary adrenal insufficiency (suppressed production of ACTH due to an impairment of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus, cf.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

TSHthyroid stimulating hormonethyrotropin
*Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), is released under the influence of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and is inhibited by somatostatin.
TRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to produce TSH.

Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axisHPA axishypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal
The pituitary gland is important for mediating the stress response, via the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis) Critically, pituitary gland growth during adolescence can be altered by early life stress such as childhood maltreatment or maternal dysphoric behavior.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).

Osmoregulation

osmoregulatoryosmotic balanceosmoregulator
Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland help to control growth, blood pressure, energy management, all functions of the sex organs, thyroid glands and metabolism as well as some aspects of pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding, water/salt concentration at the kidneys, temperature regulation and pain relief.
For example, a decrease in water potential is detected by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus, which stimulates ADH release from the pituitary gland to increase the permeability of the walls of the collecting ducts in the kidneys.

Oxytocin

oxytocicsfirst synthesis of a polypeptide hormoneBonding in mammals
It is then released into the blood from the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis) of the pituitary gland.

Hypopituitarism

panhypopituitarismHypothalamic dysfunctionHypothalamic suppression
Hypopituitarism is the decreased (hypo) secretion of one or more of the eight hormones normally produced by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain.

Acromegaly

acromegalicgrowth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomaacromegalia
Acromegaly is usually caused by the pituitary gland producing excess growth hormone.

Pituitary adenoma

pituitary tumorpituitary adenomaspituitary tumour
Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland.