Plains Cree

CreePlains Cree languageNêhiyawêwincrkNēhiyawēwinPlainsPlains Cree (nēhiyawēwin)Plains Cree / ''PaskwāwiyiniwakPlains-Cree
Plains Cree (endonym: ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ nēhiyawēwin) is a dialect of the Algonquian language, Cree, which is the most populous Canadian indigenous language.wikipedia
219 Related Articles

Cree language

Creelanguagecre
Plains Cree (endonym: ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ nēhiyawēwin) is a dialect of the Algonquian language, Cree, which is the most populous Canadian indigenous language.
A traditional view among 20th century anthropologists and historians of the fur trade posits that the Western Woods Cree and the Plains Cree (and therefore their dialects) did not diverge from other Cree peoples before 1670, when the Cree expanded out of their homeland near James Bay because of access to European firearms.

Alberta

Alberta, CanadaABAlberta Transportation
Out of the 116,500 thousand speakers of the Cree language, the Plains Cree dialect is spoken by about 34,000 people primarily in Saskatchewan and Alberta but also in Manitoba and Montana.
Over time they differentiated into various First Nations peoples, including the Plains Indian tribes of southern Alberta such as those of the Blackfoot Confederacy and the Plains Cree, who generally lived by hunting buffalo, and the more northerly tribes such as the Woodland Cree and Chipewyan who hunted, trapped, and fished for a living.

Algonquian languages

AlgonquianAlgonquian languageAlgonquin
Plains Cree (endonym: ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ nēhiyawēwin) is a dialect of the Algonquian language, Cree, which is the most populous Canadian indigenous language.
Ex: (Menominee) paehtāwāēwesew "He is heard by higher powers" (paeht- 'hear', -āwāē- 'spirit', -wese- passivizer, -w third-person subject) or (Plains Cree) kāstāhikoyahk "it frightens us".

Leonard Bloomfield

BloomfieldBloomfield, LeonardBloomfieldian
It was recorded in the word ēhaʔ “yes" (transcribed ähaʔ) by Leonard Bloomfield, who stated that the sound occurred only in this word. In a collaborative online dictionary, Cree speakers have contributed several variants of this word, including ᐁᐦᐊ ēha (written eha and êha), ᐁᐦᐁ ēhē (written êhê), and ᐄᐦᐃ īhi (written îhi). None of these forms includes a final glottal stop. However, there is no way of writing a glottal stop in the standard Latin alphabet or in Cree syllabics. Wolfart's grammar contains a text sample which includes this word without a glottal stop, and in his synopsis of Plains Cree sounds no mention of this sound is made. The same word also occurs in Michif, a language derived in part from Plains Cree. There it appears with a final consonant (and nasalized vowels), as aenhenk “yes".
During the summer of 1925 Bloomfield worked as Assistant Ethnologist with the Geological Survey of Canada in the Canadian Department of Mines, undertaking linguistic field work on Plains Cree; this position was arranged by Edward Sapir, who was then Chief of the Division of Anthropology, Victoria Museum, Geological Survey of Canada, Canadian Department of Mines.

Michif

Michif languagecrgFrench Cree
It was recorded in the word ēhaʔ “yes" (transcribed ähaʔ) by Leonard Bloomfield, who stated that the sound occurred only in this word. In a collaborative online dictionary, Cree speakers have contributed several variants of this word, including ᐁᐦᐊ ēha (written eha and êha), ᐁᐦᐁ ēhē (written êhê), and ᐄᐦᐃ īhi (written îhi). None of these forms includes a final glottal stop. However, there is no way of writing a glottal stop in the standard Latin alphabet or in Cree syllabics. Wolfart's grammar contains a text sample which includes this word without a glottal stop, and in his synopsis of Plains Cree sounds no mention of this sound is made. The same word also occurs in Michif, a language derived in part from Plains Cree. There it appears with a final consonant (and nasalized vowels), as aenhenk “yes".
In general, Michif noun phrase phonology, lexicon, morphology, and syntax are derived from Métis French, while verb phrase phonology, lexicon, morphology, and syntax are from a southern variety of Plains Cree.

H. C. Wolfart

H.C. WolfartWolfart
It was recorded in the word ēhaʔ “yes" (transcribed ähaʔ) by Leonard Bloomfield, who stated that the sound occurred only in this word. In a collaborative online dictionary, Cree speakers have contributed several variants of this word, including ᐁᐦᐊ ēha (written eha and êha), ᐁᐦᐁ ēhē (written êhê), and ᐄᐦᐃ īhi (written îhi). None of these forms includes a final glottal stop. However, there is no way of writing a glottal stop in the standard Latin alphabet or in Cree syllabics. Wolfart's grammar contains a text sample which includes this word without a glottal stop, and in his synopsis of Plains Cree sounds no mention of this sound is made. The same word also occurs in Michif, a language derived in part from Plains Cree. There it appears with a final consonant (and nasalized vowels), as aenhenk “yes".
Wolfart was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1995, and his 1973 thesis is still considered the definitive work of Plains Cree grammar.

Western Cree syllabics

Western Creewestern Cree usage
Plains Cree follows the western Cree usage of Canadian Aboriginal syllabics.
Western Cree syllabics are a variant of Canadian Aboriginal syllabics used to write Plains Cree, Woods Cree and the western dialects of Swampy Cree.

Canadian Aboriginal syllabics

syllabicsCanadian syllabicsUnified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics
Plains Cree follows the western Cree usage of Canadian Aboriginal syllabics.
Canadian syllabics are currently used to write all of the Cree languages from Naskapi (spoken in Quebec) to the Rocky Mountains, including Eastern Cree, Woods Cree, Swampy Cree and Plains Cree.

Exonym and endonym

exonymendonymautonym
Plains Cree (endonym: ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ nēhiyawēwin) is a dialect of the Algonquian language, Cree, which is the most populous Canadian indigenous language.

Canadians

CanadianCanadian citizensCanada
Plains Cree (endonym: ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ nēhiyawēwin) is a dialect of the Algonquian language, Cree, which is the most populous Canadian indigenous language.

Indigenous language

indigenousindigenous languagesautochthonous
Plains Cree (endonym: ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ nēhiyawēwin) is a dialect of the Algonquian language, Cree, which is the most populous Canadian indigenous language.

Dialect

dialectsregiolectdialectal
Although no single dialect of Cree is favored over another, Plains Cree is the one that is the most widely used.

Saskatchewan

SKSaskatchewan, CanadaProvince of Saskatchewan
Out of the 116,500 thousand speakers of the Cree language, the Plains Cree dialect is spoken by about 34,000 people primarily in Saskatchewan and Alberta but also in Manitoba and Montana.

Manitoba

MBManitoba, CanadaProvince of Manitoba
Out of the 116,500 thousand speakers of the Cree language, the Plains Cree dialect is spoken by about 34,000 people primarily in Saskatchewan and Alberta but also in Manitoba and Montana.

Montana

MTState of MontanaMontana, USA
Out of the 116,500 thousand speakers of the Cree language, the Plains Cree dialect is spoken by about 34,000 people primarily in Saskatchewan and Alberta but also in Manitoba and Montana.

Consonant

consonantsCconsonantal
The consonant inventory of Plains Cree contains 10 or 11 sounds.

Semivowel

glideglidessemi-vowel
This includes the semi-vowels and, which are glides that act like and often follow consonants.

International Phonetic Alphabet

IPAPronunciationInternational Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
The consonants of Plains Cree in the two standard writing systems, Cree syllabics and the Cree Latin alphabet, are listed in the following table (with IPA phonemic notation within slashes).

Phoneme

phonemicphonemesphonemically
The consonants of Plains Cree in the two standard writing systems, Cree syllabics and the Cree Latin alphabet, are listed in the following table (with IPA phonemic notation within slashes).

Glottal stop

ʔGlottalglottal stops
The status of the glottal stop, as a phoneme in Plains Cree is uncertain.

Voicelessness

voicelessvoiceless consonantunvoiced
Voicing of the stops and the affricate is not contrastive in Plain Cree, which is to say that the phonemes ᑊ p, ᐟ t, ᐠ k, ᐨ c have voiceless allophones,,, and voiced allophones,,,.

Allophone

allophonicallophonesallophony
Voicing of the stops and the affricate is not contrastive in Plain Cree, which is to say that the phonemes ᑊ p, ᐟ t, ᐠ k, ᐨ c have voiceless allophones,,, and voiced allophones,,,.

Voice (phonetics)

voiced voiced voicing
Voicing of the stops and the affricate is not contrastive in Plain Cree, which is to say that the phonemes ᑊ p, ᐟ t, ᐠ k, ᐨ c have voiceless allophones,,, and voiced allophones,,,.

Syncope (phonology)

syncopesyncopatedsyncopation
These cases all involve syncope of vowel i that results in a cluster of nasal consonant plus stop, affricate or sibilant.