Plant

plantsfloraplant kingdomplant lifeplantaeKingdom Plantaevegetationflowering plantGreen plantsphyto
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.wikipedia
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Fungus

fungifungalnecrotrophic
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants.
These organisms are classified as a kingdom, fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals.

Photosynthesis

photosyntheticphotosynthesizephotosynthesizing
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. All of these plants have eukaryotic cells with cell walls composed of cellulose, and most obtain their energy through photosynthesis, using light, water and carbon dioxide to synthesize food.
Most plants, most algae, and cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis; such organisms are called photoautotrophs.

Parasitic plant

hemiparasiticparasitichemiparasite
Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and may lose the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize.
A parasitic plant is a plant that derives some or all of its nutritional requirement from another living plant.

Kingdom (biology)

kingdomkingdomsbiological kingdom
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants.
Traditionally, some textbooks from the United States used a system of six kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Archaea/Archaebacteria, and Bacteria/Eubacteria) while textbooks in countries like Great Britain, India, Greece, Australia, Latin America and other countries used five kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista and Monera).

Alternation of generations

alternation of generationalternatingdiplohaplontic
Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common.
Alternation of generations (also known as metagenesis) is the type of life cycle that occurs in those plants and algae in the Archaeplastida and the Heterokontophyta that have distinct sexual haploid and asexual diploid stages.

Spermatophyte

seed plantseed plantsphanerogam
There are about 320 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants (see the table below).
The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants. They are a subset of the embryophytes or land plants.

Chlorophyll

chlorophyllschlorophyll ''aachlorophyllous
Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common; primary chloroplasts derived from cyanobacteria containing chlorophylls a and b, cell walls containing cellulose, and food stores in the form of starch contained within the plastids.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.

Botany

botanistbotanicalplant biology
The scientific study of plants is known as botany, a branch of biology.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialeubacteria
However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria).
Once regarded as plants constituting the class Schizomycetes, bacteria are now classified as prokaryotes.

Asexual reproduction

asexualasexuallyreproduce asexually
Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common.
Many plants and fungi sometimes reproduce asexually.

Chloroplast

chloroplastschloroplast stromagreen algal derived chloroplast
Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common; primary chloroplasts derived from cyanobacteria containing chlorophylls a and b, cell walls containing cellulose, and food stores in the form of starch contained within the plastids.
Chloroplasts are only found in plants, algae, and the amoeboid Paulinella chromatophora.

Embryophyte

land plantsland plantembryophytes
The plants that are likely most familiar to us are the multicellular land plants, called embryophytes.
The Embryophyta, or land plants, are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth.

Moss

mossesBryophytafirst terrestrial plants
On one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin name for "green plants"), a group that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns and their allies, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.

Mycotroph

mycotrophicholomycotrophicmycotrophic plants
Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and may lose the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize.
A mycotroph is a plant that gets all or part of its carbon, water, or nutrient supply through symbiotic association with fungi.

Green algae

green algagreengreen algal
On one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin name for "green plants"), a group that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns and their allies, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the brown, red and green algae.
The clade that includes both green algae and embryophytes is monophyletic and is referred to as the clade Viridiplantae and as the kingdom Plantae.

Archaeplastida

archaeplastidangreen and red algae
They appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastida, whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event.
The Archaeplastida (or kingdom Plantae sensu lato) are a major group of eukaryotes, comprising the red algae (Rhodophyta), the green algae, and the land plants, together with a small group of freshwater unicellular algae called glaucophytes.

Cell wall

cell wallsplant cell wallprimary cell wall
All of these plants have eukaryotic cells with cell walls composed of cellulose, and most obtain their energy through photosynthesis, using light, water and carbon dioxide to synthesize food.
Cell walls are present in most prokaryotes (except mycoplasma bacteria), in algae, plants and fungi but rarely in other eukaryotes including animals.

Sexual reproduction

sexuallysexualreproduce sexually
Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common.
Cell division mitosis then initiates the development of a new individual organism in multicellular organisms, including animals and plants, for the vast majority of whom this is the primary method of reproduction.

Viridiplantae

green plantsgreen plantchloroplastidan
On one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin name for "green plants"), a group that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns and their allies, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae.
In some classification systems, the group has been treated as a kingdom, under various names, e.g. Viridiplantae, Chlorobionta, or simply Plantae, the latter expanding the traditional plant kingdom to include the green algae.

Plastid

plastidsproplastidchloroplasts
The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a membrane-bound organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms.

Vegetable

vegetablessalad vegetablewild vegetables
Plants that produce grain, fruit and vegetables form humankind's basic foods, and have been domesticated for millennia.
Falling outside these definitions are edible fungi (such as edible mushrooms) and edible seaweed which, although not parts of plants, are often treated as vegetables.

Starch

starcheswheat starchrice starch
With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common; primary chloroplasts derived from cyanobacteria containing chlorophylls a and b, cell walls containing cellulose, and food stores in the form of starch contained within the plastids.
This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as energy storage.

Fern ally

fern alliesfern-alliestheir allies
On one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin name for "green plants"), a group that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns and their allies, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae.
Kingdom: Plantae

Seaweed

macroalgaeseaweedsmarine algae
The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the brown, red and green algae.
Seaweed's appearance somewhat resembles non-arboreal terrestrial plants.

Glossary of botanical terms

glabrouscoriaceousmidrib
This glossary of botanical terms is a list of terms relevant to botany and plants in general.