A report on Plant

Green algae from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904.
A variaty of fungi species
Dicksonia antarctica, a species of tree fern
A petrified log in Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona
Range of pangaea glossopteris.
The leaf is usually the primary site of photosynthesis in plants.
There is no photosynthesis in deciduous leaves in autumn.
Plant cell structure
The Venus flytrap, a species of carnivorous plant.
Mechanical harvest of oats.
Melocactus plants being used as medicine.
Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill
A rose espalier at Niedernhall in Germany.
Capitals of ancient Egyptian columns decorated to resemble papyrus plants. (at Luxor, Egypt)
Barbara McClintock (1902–1992) was a pioneering cytogeneticist who used maize (corn) to study the mechanism of inheritance of traits.
Musk Thistle are invasive species in texas.

Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

- Plant

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Fungus

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Any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

Any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

Fungal cell cycle showing Dikaryons typical of Higher Fungi
Omphalotus nidiformis, a bioluminescent mushroom
Bracket fungi on a tree stump
In 1729, Pier Antonio Micheli first published descriptions of fungi.
Armillaria solidipes
Mold growth covering a decaying peach. The frames were taken approximately 12 hours apart over a period of six days.
Polyporus squamosus
The 8-spore asci of Morchella elata, viewed with phase contrast microscopy
The bird's nest fungus Cyathus stercoreus
Prototaxites milwaukeensis (Penhallow, 1908)—a Middle Devonian fungus from Wisconsin
Main groups of fungi
Arbuscular mycorrhiza seen under microscope. Flax root cortical cells containing paired arbuscules.
Diagram of an apothecium (the typical cup-like reproductive structure of Ascomycetes) showing sterile tissues as well as developing and mature asci.
A pin mold decomposing a peach
The dark filaments are hyphae of the endophytic fungus Epichloë coenophiala in the intercellular spaces of tall fescue leaf sheath tissue
The lichen Lobaria pulmonaria, a symbiosis of fungal, algal, and cyanobacterial species
The plant pathogen Puccinia magellanicum (calafate rust) causes the defect known as witch's broom, seen here on a barberry shrub in Chile.
Gram stain of Candida albicans from a vaginal swab from a woman with candidiasis, showing hyphae, and chlamydospores, which are 2–4 µm in diameter.
Ergotamine, a major mycotoxin produced by Claviceps species, which if ingested can cause gangrene, convulsions, and hallucinations
Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells shown with DIC microscopy
The mold Penicillium rubens was the source of penicillin G.
A selection of edible mushrooms eaten in Asia
Stilton cheese veined with Penicillium roqueforti
Amanita phalloides accounts for the majority of fatal mushroom poisonings worldwide. It sometimes lacks the greenish color seen here.
Grasshoppers killed by Beauveria bassiana

These organisms are classified as a kingdom, separately from the other eukaryotic kingdoms, which by one traditional classification include Plantae, Animalia, Protozoa, and Chromista.

Schematic of photosynthesis in plants. The carbohydrates produced are stored in or used by the plant.

Photosynthesis

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Schematic of photosynthesis in plants. The carbohydrates produced are stored in or used by the plant.
Composite image showing the global distribution of photosynthesis, including both oceanic phytoplankton and terrestrial vegetation. Dark red and blue-green indicate regions of high photosynthetic activity in the ocean and on land, respectively.
Photosynthesis changes sunlight into chemical energy, splits water to liberate O2, and fixes CO2 into sugar.
Light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis at the thylakoid membrane
The "Z scheme"
Overview of the Calvin cycle and carbon fixation
Overview of C4 carbon fixation
Plant cells with visible chloroplasts (from a moss, Plagiomnium affine)
Portrait of Jan Baptist van Helmont by Mary Beale, c.1674
Melvin Calvin works in his photosynthesis laboratory.
The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants.
Absorbance spectra of free chlorophyll a ( blue ) and b ( red ) in a solvent. The action spectra of chlorophyll molecules are slightly modified in vivo depending on specific pigment–protein interactions.
Photorespiration

Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel the organism's activities.

Eukaryote

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within a nuclear envelope.

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within a nuclear envelope.

The endomembrane system and its components
Simplified structure of a mitochondrion
Longitudinal section through the flagellum of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Structure of a typical animal cell
Structure of a typical plant cell
Fungal Hyphae cells: 1 – hyphal wall, 2 – septum, 3 – mitochondrion, 4 – vacuole, 5 – ergosterol crystal, 6 – ribosome, 7 – nucleus, 8 – endoplasmic reticulum, 9 – lipid body, 10 – plasma membrane, 11 – spitzenkörper, 12 – Golgi apparatus
This diagram illustrates the twofold cost of sex. If each individual were to contribute the same number of offspring (two), (a) the sexual population remains the same size each generation, where the (b) asexual population doubles in size each generation.
Phylogenetic and symbiogenetic tree of living organisms, showing a view of the origins of eukaryotes and prokaryotes
One hypothesis of eukaryotic relationships – the Opisthokonta group includes both animals (Metazoa) and fungi, plants (Plantae) are placed in Archaeplastida.
A pie chart of described eukaryote species (except for Excavata), together with a tree showing possible relationships between the groups
The three-domains tree and the Eocyte hypothesis
Phylogenetic tree showing a possible relationship between the eukaryotes and other forms of life; eukaryotes are colored red, archaea green and bacteria blue
Eocyte tree.
Diagram of the origin of life with the Eukaryotes appearing early, not derived from Prokaryotes, as proposed by Richard Egel in 2012. This view implies that the UCA was relatively large and complex.

Eukaryotic cells typically contain other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and Golgi apparatus; and chloroplasts can be found in plants and algae.

Bacteria

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Bacteria (singular bacterium, common noun bacteria) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one biological cell.

Bacteria (singular bacterium, common noun bacteria) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one biological cell.

Rod-shaped Bacillus subtilis
Phylogenetic tree of Bacteria, Archaea and Eucarya. The vertical line at bottom represents the last universal common ancestor.
Bacteria display many cell morphologies and arrangements
The range of sizes shown by prokaryotes (Bacteria), relative to those of other organisms and biomolecules.
Structure and contents of a typical Gram-positive bacterial cell (seen by the fact that only one cell membrane is present).
An electron micrograph of Halothiobacillus neapolitanus cells with carboxysomes inside, with arrows highlighting visible carboxysomes. Scale bars indicate 100 nm.
Helicobacter pylori electron micrograph, showing multiple flagella on the cell surface
Bacillus anthracis (stained purple) growing in cerebrospinal fluid
Many bacteria reproduce through binary fission, which is compared to mitosis and meiosis in this image.
A culture of ''Salmonella
A colony of Escherichia coli
Helium ion microscopy image showing T4 phage infecting E. coli. Some of the attached phage have contracted tails indicating that they have injected their DNA into the host. The bacterial cells are ~ 0.5 µm wide.
Transmission electron micrograph of Desulfovibrio vulgaris showing a single flagellum at one end of the cell. Scale bar is 0.5 micrometers long.
The different arrangements of bacterial flagella: A-Monotrichous; B-Lophotrichous; C-Amphitrichous; D-Peritrichous
Streptococcus mutans visualised with a Gram stain.
Phylogenetic tree showing the diversity of bacteria, compared to other organisms. Here bacteria are represented by three main supergroups: the CPR ultramicrobacterias, Terrabacteria and Gracilicutes according to recent genomic analyzes (2019).
Overview of bacterial infections and main species involved.
Colour-enhanced scanning electron micrograph showing Salmonella typhimurium (red) invading cultured human cells
In bacterial vaginosis, beneficial bacteria in the vagina (top) are displaced by pathogens (bottom). Gram stain.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, the first microbiologist and the first person to observe bacteria using a microscope.

Once regarded as plants constituting the class Schizomycetes ("fission fungi"), bacteria are now classified as prokaryotes.

Green algae

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The green algae (singular: green alga) are a group consisting of the Prasinodermophyta and its unnamed sister which contains the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta.

The green algae (singular: green alga) are a group consisting of the Prasinodermophyta and its unnamed sister which contains the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta.

A growth of the green seaweed Ulva on rock substratum at the ocean shore. Some green seaweeds like Ulva are quick to utilize inorganic nutrients from land runoff, and thus can be indicators of nutrient pollution.
Green algae conjugating

The completed clade that includes both green algae and embryophytes is monophyletic and is referred to as the clade Viridiplantae and as the kingdom Plantae.

Embryophyte

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Moss, clubmoss, ferns and cycads in a greenhouse
Most bryophytes, such as these mosses, produce stalked sporophytes from which their spores are released.
Reconstruction of a plant of Rhynia
Lycopodiella inundata, a lycophyte
Athyrium filix-femina, unrolling young frond
Pine forest in France
Large seed of a horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum

The Embryophyta, or land plants, are the most familiar group of green plants that comprise vegetation on Earth.

Algae

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Informal term for a large and diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms.

Informal term for a large and diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms.

False-color scanning electron micrograph of the unicellular coccolithophore Gephyrocapsa oceanica
title page of Gmelin's Historia Fucorum, dated 1768
The kelp forest exhibit at the Monterey Bay Aquarium: A three-dimensional, multicellular thallus
Rock lichens in Ireland
Floridian coral reef
Algae on coastal rocks at Shihtiping in Taiwan
Phytoplankton, Lake Chūzenji
Harvesting algae
Seaweed-fertilized gardens on Inisheer
Dulse, a type of edible seaweed
Algae bladder

Algae spread mainly by the dispersal of spores analogously to the dispersal of Plantae by seeds and spores.

Diagram showing the alternation of generations between a diploid sporophyte (bottom) and a haploid gametophyte (top)

Alternation of generations

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Diagram showing the alternation of generations between a diploid sporophyte (bottom) and a haploid gametophyte (top)
Gametophyte of the fern Onoclea sensibilis (the flat thallus at the bottom of the picture) with a descendant sporophyte beginning to grow from it (the small frond at the top of the picture).
Graphic referred in text.
Life cycle of Foraminifera showing alternation of generations.
Diagram of alternation of generations in liverworts.
Moss life cycle diagram
Hornwort life cycle diagram
<center>Diagram of alternation of generations in ferns.</center>
<center>A gametophyte (prothallus) of Dicksonia sp.</center>
<center>A sporophyte of Dicksonia antarctica.</center>
<center>The underside of a Dicksonia antarctica frond showing the sori, or spore-producing structures.</center>
Angiosperm life cycle
Tip of tulip stamen showing pollen (microgametophytes)
Plant ovules (megagametophytes): Gymnosperm ovule on left, angiosperm ovule (inside ovary) on right
Double fertilization

Alternation of generations (also known as metagenesis or heterogenesis) is the predominant type of life cycle in plants and algae.

Chloroplasts visible in the cells of Bryum capillare, a type of moss

Chloroplast

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Type of membrane-bound organelle known as a plastid that conducts photosynthesis mostly in plant and algal cells.

Type of membrane-bound organelle known as a plastid that conducts photosynthesis mostly in plant and algal cells.

Chloroplasts visible in the cells of Bryum capillare, a type of moss
Euglena, a euglenophyte, contains secondary chloroplasts from green algae.
Chlorarachnion reptans is a chlorarachniophyte. Chlorarachniophytes replaced their original red algal endosymbiont with a green alga.
Scanning electron micrograph of Gephyrocapsa oceanica, a haptophyte.
The photosynthetic pigments present in their chloroplasts give diatoms a greenish-brown color.
Ceratium furca, a peridinin-containing dinophyte
Karenia brevis is a fucoxanthin-containing dynophyte responsible for algal blooms called "red tides".
Dinophysis acuminata has chloroplasts taken from a cryptophyte.
Chloroplast DNA replication via multiple D-loop mechanisms. Adapted from Krishnan NM, Rao BJ's paper "A comparative approach to elucidate chloroplast genome replication."
Over time, base changes in the DNA sequence can arise from deamination mutations. When adenine is deaminated, it becomes hypoxanthine, which can pair with cytosine. During replication, the cytosine will pair with guanine, causing an A --> G base change.
Transmission electron microscope image of a chloroplast. Grana of thylakoids and their connecting lamellae are clearly visible.
Instead of an intermembrane space, glaucophyte algae have a peptidoglycan wall between their inner and outer chloroplast membranes.
Granum-stroma assembly structure The prevailing model of the granum-stroma assembly is stacks of granal thylakoids wrapped by right-handed helical stromal thylakoids which are connected to large parallel sheets of stromal thylakoids and adjacent right-handed helices by left-handed helical structures. (Based on ).
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Chloroplasts are only found in plants, algae, and three species of amoeba – Paulinella chromatophora, P. micropora, and marine P. longichromatophora.

Diagram of the plant cell, with the cell wall in green.

Cell wall

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Structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.

Structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.

Diagram of the plant cell, with the cell wall in green.
Cell wall in multicellular plants – its different layers and their placement with respect to protoplasm (highly diagrammatic)
Molecular structure of the primary cell wall in plants
Photomicrograph of onion root cells, showing the centrifugal development of new cell walls (phragmoplast)
Chemical structure of a unit from a chitin polymer chain
Scanning electron micrographs of diatoms showing the external appearance of the cell wall
Illustration of a typical gram-positive bacterium. The cell envelope comprises a plasma membrane, seen here in light brown, and a thick peptidoglycan-containing cell wall (the purple layer). No outer lipid membrane is present, as would be the case in gram-negative bacteria. The red layer, known as the capsule, is distinct from the cell envelope.

Cell walls are absent in animals but are present in most other eukaryotes including algae, fungi and plants and in most prokaryotes (except mollicute bacteria).