Plant stem

stemstemsinternodeinternodesnodespseudostemnodestalkcladodestalks
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.wikipedia
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Leaf

leavesaxilfoliage
The nodes hold one or more leaves, as well as buds which can grow into branches (with leaves, conifer cones, or inflorescences (flowers)). Adventitious roots may also be produced from the nodes.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.

Underground stem

underground trunksubterraneansubterranean trunk
In most plants stems are located above the soil surface but some plants have underground stems.
Underground stems are modified plant structures that derive from stem tissue but exist under the soil surface.

Inflorescence

cymeinflorescencescymes
The nodes hold one or more leaves, as well as buds which can grow into branches (with leaves, conifer cones, or inflorescences (flowers)). Adventitious roots may also be produced from the nodes.
An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches.

Root

adventitious rootsrootsplant roots
The nodes hold one or more leaves, as well as buds which can grow into branches (with leaves, conifer cones, or inflorescences (flowers)). Adventitious roots may also be produced from the nodes. A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.
Therefore, the root is best defined as the non-leaf, non-nodes bearing parts of the plant's body.

Shoot

shootsfruiting spurspur shoot
The term "shoots" is often confused with "stems"; "shoots" generally refers to new fresh plant growth including both stems and other structures like leaves or flowers.
In botany, shoots consist of stems including their appendages, the leaves and lateral buds, flowering stems and flower buds.

Bulb

bulbousbulbsbulbous plants
Bulb – a short vertical underground stem with fleshy storage leaves attached, e.g. onion, daffodil, tulip. Bulbs often function in reproduction by splitting to form new bulbs or producing small new bulbs termed bulblets. Bulbs are a combination of stem and leaves so may better be considered as leaves because the leaves make up the greater part.
In botany, a bulb is structurally a short stem with fleshy leaves or leaf bases that function as food storage organs during dormancy.

Bud

budsflower budterminal bud
The nodes hold one or more leaves, as well as buds which can grow into branches (with leaves, conifer cones, or inflorescences (flowers)). Adventitious roots may also be produced from the nodes.
In botany, a bud is an undeveloped or embryonic shoot and normally occurs in the axil of a leaf or at the tip of a stem.

Narcissus (plant)

Narcissusdaffodildaffodils
Bulb – a short vertical underground stem with fleshy storage leaves attached, e.g. onion, daffodil, tulip. Bulbs often function in reproduction by splitting to form new bulbs or producing small new bulbs termed bulblets. Bulbs are a combination of stem and leaves so may better be considered as leaves because the leaves make up the greater part.
The plants are scapose, having a single central leafless hollow flower stem (scape).

Cactus

cactiCactaceaecactus family
Cladode (including phylloclade) – a flattened stem that appears more-or-less leaf like and is specialized for photosynthesis, e.g. cactus pads.
In the absence of leaves, enlarged stems carry out photosynthesis.

Corm

cormscorm-scalesGabi
Corm – a short enlarged underground, storage stem, e.g. taro, crocus, gladiolus.
A corm, bulbo-tuber, or bulbotuber is a short, vertical, swollen underground plant stem that serves as a storage organ that some plants use to survive winter or other adverse conditions such as summer drought and heat (perennation).

Gladiolus

gladioligladiolawild gladiolus
Corm – a short enlarged underground, storage stem, e.g. taro, crocus, gladiolus.
Their stems are generally unbranched, producing 1 to 9 narrow, sword-shaped, longitudinal grooved leaves, enclosed in a sheath.

Vine

climberclimbing plantclimbers
Climbing – stems that cling or wrap around other plants or structures.
A vine displays a growth form based on long stems.

Fern

fernspteridologistpteridology
Rhizome – a horizontal underground stem that functions mainly in reproduction but also in storage, e.g. most ferns, iris
They differ from mosses by being vascular, i.e., having specialized tissues that conduct water and nutrients, in having branched stems and in having life cycles in which the sporophyte is the dominant phase.

Tulip

tulipstulip bulbDarwin tulip
Bulb – a short vertical underground stem with fleshy storage leaves attached, e.g. onion, daffodil, tulip. Bulbs often function in reproduction by splitting to form new bulbs or producing small new bulbs termed bulblets. Bulbs are a combination of stem and leaves so may better be considered as leaves because the leaves make up the greater part.
Flowers: The tulip's flowers are usually large and are actinomorphic (radially symmetric) and hermaphrodite (contain both male (androecium) and female (gynoecium) characteristics), generally erect, or more rarely pendulous, and are arranged more usually as a single terminal flower, or when pluriflor as two to three (e.g. Tulipa turkestanica), but up to four, flowers on the end of a floriferous stem (scape), which is single arising from amongst the basal leaf rosette.

Rhizome

rhizomatousrhizomesbotanical rhizome
Rhizome – a horizontal underground stem that functions mainly in reproduction but also in storage, e.g. most ferns, iris
In botany and dendrology, a rhizome (, from "mass of roots", from rhizóō "cause to strike root") is a modified subterranean plant stem that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes.

Banana

bananasbanana treebanana flower
Pseudostem – a false stem made of the rolled bases of leaves, which may be 2 or 3 m tall as in banana
Plants are normally tall and fairly sturdy, and are often mistaken for trees, but what appears to be a trunk is actually a "false stem" or pseudostem.

Iris (plant)

IrisirisesJapanese iris
Rhizome – a horizontal underground stem that functions mainly in reproduction but also in storage, e.g. most ferns, iris Scape – a stem that holds flowers that comes out of the ground and has no normal leaves. Hosta, Lily, Iris, Garlic.
They have long, erect flowering stems which may be simple or branched, solid or hollow, and flattened or have a circular cross-section.

Scape (botany)

scapescapesinflorescence stalks
Scape – a stem that holds flowers that comes out of the ground and has no normal leaves. Hosta, Lily, Iris, Garlic.
In botany, a scape is a long internode (a non-woody, leafless segment between two leaf-bearing regions) that forms the basal part or the whole of a peduncle (a herbaceous stem that is destined to bear one or more flowers or fruit).

Thorns, spines, and prickles

spinesthornthorns
Prickle – a sharpened extension of the stem's outer layers, e.g. roses.
In plant morphology, thorns, spines, and prickles, and in general spinose structures (sometimes called spinose teeth or spinose apical processes), are hard, rigid extensions or modifications of leaves, roots, stems or buds with sharp, stiff ends, and generally serve the same function: physically deterring animals from eating the plant material.

Herbaceous plant

herbherbaceousherbs
Herbaceous – non woody, they die at the end of the growing season.
Herbaceous perennial and biennial plants may have stems that die at the end of the growing season, but parts of the plant survive under or close to the ground from season to season (for biennials, until the next growing season, when they flower and die).

Axillary bud

axillaryaxillary budsaxils
Axillary bud – a bud which grows at the point of attachment of an older leaf with the stem. It potentially gives rise to a shoot.
An axillary bud is an embryonic shoot which lies dormant at the junction of the stem and petiole of a plant.

Stolon

stolonsstoloniferousrunners
Runner (plant part) – a type of stolon, horizontally growing on top of the ground and rooting at the nodes, aids in reproduction. e.g. garden strawberry, Chlorophytum comosum.
In botany, stolons are stems which grow at the soil surface or just below ground that form adventitious roots at the nodes, and new plants from the buds.

Ground tissue

sclerenchymaparenchymachlorenchyma
Stem usually consist of three tissues, dermal tissue, ground tissue and vascular tissue.
1) Parenchyma cells have thin primary walls and usually remain alive after they become mature. Parenchyma forms the "filler" tissue in the soft parts of plants, and is usually present in cortex, pericycle, pith, and medullary rays in primary stem and root.

Pith

fleshmedullarymedullary cells
Dicot stems with primary growth have pith in the center, with vascular bundles forming a distinct ring visible when the stem is viewed in cross section.
Pith, or medulla, is a tissue in the stems of vascular plants.

Bark (botany)

barktree barkperiderm
Those three tissues form the periderm, which replaces the epidermis in function.
Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants.