Plaster

plaster of Parisgypsum plasterplaster-of-Pariscement plasterPlasterersrenderhydrocalrenderedplastersAdhesive bandage
Plaster is a building material used for the protective or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements.wikipedia
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Plasterwork

plasteringplasteredplaster
Another imprecise term used for the material is stucco, which is also often used for plasterwork that is worked in some way to produce relief decoration, rather than flat surfaces.
Plasterwork is construction or ornamentation done with plaster, such as a layer of plaster on an interior or exterior wall structure, or plaster decorative moldings on ceilings or walls.

Gypsum

gypsiferouscalcium sulfate dihydrategypseous
The most common types of plaster mainly contain either gypsum, lime, or cement, but all work in a similar way.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O. It is widely mined and is used as a fertilizer and as the main constituent in many forms of plaster, blackboard/sidewalk chalk, and drywall.

Stucco

renderedrenderstuccoed
Another imprecise term used for the material is stucco, which is also often used for plasterwork that is worked in some way to produce relief decoration, rather than flat surfaces.
In English, "stucco" usually refers to a coating for the outside of a building and "plaster" to a coating for interiors; as described below, the material itself is often little different.

Lime plaster

chunamlimeplaster
The most common types of plaster mainly contain either gypsum, lime, or cement, but all work in a similar way.
Lime plaster is a type of plaster composed of sand, water, and lime, usually non-hydraulic hydrated lime (also known as slaked lime, high calcium lime or air lime).

Orthopedic cast

castcastingcasts
In medicine plaster orthopedic casts are still often used for supporting set broken bones.
An orthopedic cast, or simply cast, is a shell, frequently made from plaster or fiberglass, encasing a limb (or, in some cases, large portions of the body) to stabilize and hold anatomical structures, most often a broken bone (or bones), in place until healing is confirmed.

Fresco

frescoesfrescosfresco painting
In art, lime plaster is the traditional matrix for fresco painting; the pigments are applied to a thin wet top layer of plaster and fuse with it so that the painting is actually in coloured plaster. Many of the greatest mural paintings in Europe, like Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling, are executed in fresco, meaning they are painted on a thin layer of wet plaster, called intonaco; the pigments sink into this layer so that the plaster itself becomes the medium holding them, which accounts for the excellent durability of fresco.

Adhesive

glueadhesivescontact cement
Plaster can be relatively easily worked with metal tools or even sandpaper, and can be moulded, either on site or to make pre-formed sections in advance, which are put in place with adhesive.
The ancient Egyptians also developed starch-based pastes for the bonding of papyrus to clothing and a plaster of Paris-like material made of calcined gypsum.

Lath

lathslatillalattice work
Clay plaster is a mixture of clay, sand and water with the addition of plant fibers for tensile strength over wood lath.
This includes metal wire mesh or expanded metal that is applied to a wood or metal framework as matrix over which stucco or plaster is applied, as well as wallboard products called gypsum or rock lath.

Calcium sulfate

calcium sulphateCaSO 4 Drierite
The hydration of plaster of Paris relies on the reaction of water with the dehydrated or partially hydrated calcium sulfate present in the plaster.
One particular hydrate is better known as plaster of Paris, and another occurs naturally as the mineral gypsum.

Dental impression

impressionimpression materialdental impressions
In dentistry plaster is used to make dental impressions.

Relief

bas-reliefbas reliefbas-reliefs
Another imprecise term used for the material is stucco, which is also often used for plasterwork that is worked in some way to produce relief decoration, rather than flat surfaces.
Decorative reliefs in plaster or stucco may be much larger; this form of architectural decoration is found in many styles of interiors in the post-Renaissance West, and in Islamic architecture.

Lath and plaster

plaster on lathlath-and-plasterplaster and lath
Lime plaster was a common building material for wall surfaces in a process known as lath and plaster, whereby a series of wooden strips on a studwork frame was covered with a semi-dry plaster that hardened into a surface.
It consists of narrow strips of wood (laths) which are nailed horizontally across the wall studs or ceiling joists and then coated in plaster.

Intonaco

arricciowet fresco
Many of the greatest mural paintings in Europe, like Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling, are executed in fresco, meaning they are painted on a thin layer of wet plaster, called intonaco; the pigments sink into this layer so that the plaster itself becomes the medium holding them, which accounts for the excellent durability of fresco.
Intonaco is an Italian term for the final, very thin layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted.

Drywall

plasterboardwallboardsheetrock
Today this building method has been partly replaced with drywall, also composed mostly of gypsum plaster.
A wallboard panel consists of a layer of gypsum plaster sandwiched between two layers of paper.

Lost-wax casting

lost waxlost wax castingbronze casting
An advantage of this plaster image is that it is relatively cheap; should a patron approve of the durable image and be willing to bear further expense, subsequent molds could be made for the creation of a wax image to be used in lost wax casting, a far more expensive process.
Prior to silica-based casting moulds, these moulds were made of a variety of other fire-proof materials, the most common being plaster based, with added grout, and clay based.

Fireproofing

fireprooffire-resistantfire resistance
Various cement-based plasters are also used as proprietary spray fireproofing products. Plasters have been in use in passive fire protection, as fireproofing products, for many decades.
Among the conventional materials, purpose-designed spray fireproofing plasters have become abundantly available the world over.

Concrete

admixturesworkabilitypoured concrete
This "negative" image, if properly designed, may be used to produce clay productions, which when fired in a kiln become terra cotta building decorations, or these may be used to create cast concrete sculptures.
It is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and many plasters.

Portland cement

cementPortland cement concretePortland
Cement plaster is a mixture of suitable plaster, sand, portland cement and water which is normally applied to masonry interiors and exteriors to achieve a smooth surface.
Portland cement is also used in mortars (with sand and water only), for plasters and screeds, and in grouts (cement/water mixes squeezed into gaps to consolidate foundations, road-beds, etc.).

Pompeii

PompeianPompeii, ItalyPompei
However, it needs very good conditions to survive long in unmaintained buildings – Roman decorative plasterwork is mainly known from Pompeii and other sites buried by ash from Mount Vesuvius.
It was Fiorelli who realised these were spaces left by the decomposed bodies and so devised the technique of injecting plaster into them to recreate the forms of Vesuvius's victims.

Calcium oxide

quicklimelimeCaO
To make lime plaster, limestone (calcium carbonate) is heated above approximately 850 °C to produce quicklime (calcium oxide).

Vermiculite

ZonoliteE561
These usually use vermiculite as lightweight aggregate.

Asbestos

asbestos fibersblue asbestosamphibole asbestos
Some variations of plaster that contain powdered silica or asbestos may present health hazards if inhaled.

Passive fire protection

passivecompartmentalisationfire protection
Plasters have been in use in passive fire protection, as fireproofing products, for many decades.

Powder bed and inkjet head 3D printing

Binder-jettinggypsum-based binder jettinginkjet 3D printing
Powder bed and inkjet head 3D printing is commonly based on the reaction of gypsum plaster with water, where the water is selectively applied by the inkjet head.
In the original implementations, starch and gypsum plaster fill the powder bed, the liquid "binder" being mostly water to activate the plaster.

Calcium hydroxide

slaked limelimehydrated lime
Lime plaster is a mixture of calcium hydroxide and sand (or other inert fillers).