Plastic

plasticsadditivesadditivesynthetic plasticcompositionflexible plasticOther Plastic ProductsPlastic goodsplastic productsPolymer additive
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.wikipedia
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Bakelite

Bakelite CorporationBakerlitephenolic resin
The world's first fully synthetic plastic was bakelite, invented in New York in 1907, by Leo Baekeland who coined the term 'plastics'. The development of plastics has evolved from the use of natural plastic materials (e.g., chewing gum, shellac) to the use of chemically modified, natural materials (e.g., natural rubber, nitrocellulose, collagen, galalite) and finally to completely synthetic molecules (e.g., bakelite, epoxy, polyvinyl chloride).
Bakelite (sometimes spelled Baekelite) or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride was the first plastic made from synthetic components.

Molding (process)

moldmoldingmould
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
A mold or mould is a hollowed-out block that is filled with a liquid or pliable material such as plastic, glass, metal, or ceramic raw material.

Plastic recycling

recycled plasticplasticrecyclable
Toward the end of the century, one approach to this problem was met with wide efforts toward recycling.
Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastic and reprocessing the material into useful products.

Petrochemical

petrochemicalspetroleum distillatepetro-chemical
They are usually synthetic, most commonly derived from petrochemicals, however, an array of variants are made from renewable materials such as polylactic acid from corn or cellulosics from cotton linters. While most plastics are produced from petrochemicals, bioplastics are made substantially from renewable plant materials such: as cellulose and starch.
Olefins are the basis for polymers and oligomers used in plastics, resins, fibers, elastomers, lubricants, and gels.

Glass

glassmakersilicate glassvitreous
They have prevailed over traditional materials, such as wood, stone, horn and bone, leather, metal, glass, and ceramic, in some products previously left to natural materials.
When extruded as glass fiber and matted as glass wool so as to trap air, it becomes a thermal insulating material, and when glass fibers are embedded into an organic polymer plastic, they are a key structural reinforcement part of the composite material fiberglass.

Polymer chemistry

polymer chemistMacromolecular ChemistryHistory of polymer chemistry
Many chemists have contributed to the materials science of plastics, including Nobel laureate Hermann Staudinger who has been called "the father of polymer chemistry" and Herman Mark, known as "the father of polymer physics".
Synthetic polymers are ubiquitous in commercial materials and products in everyday use, commonly referred to as plastics, and rubbers, and are major components of composite materials.

Materials science

material sciencematerials engineeringmaterials scientist
Many chemists have contributed to the materials science of plastics, including Nobel laureate Hermann Staudinger who has been called "the father of polymer chemistry" and Herman Mark, known as "the father of polymer physics".
Materials science has driven, and been driven by, the development of revolutionary technologies such as rubbers, plastics, semiconductors, and biomaterials.

Piping

pipepipespipework
In developed economies, about a third of plastic is used in packaging and roughly the same in buildings in applications such as piping, plumbing or vinyl siding.
Industrial process piping (and accompanying in-line components) can be manufactured from wood, fiberglass, glass, steel, aluminum, plastic, copper, and concrete.

Oxygen

OO 2 molecular oxygen
The vast majority of these polymers are formed from chains of carbon atoms, 'pure' or with the addition of: oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur.
Common uses of oxygen include production of steel, plastics and textiles, brazing, welding and cutting of steels and other metals, rocket propellant, oxygen therapy, and life support systems in aircraft, submarines, spaceflight and diving.

Hardness

hardhardersoft
Plastics can also be classified by: their various physical properties, such as: hardness, density, tensile strength, resistance to heat and glass transition temperature, and by their chemical properties, such as the organic chemistry of the polymer and its resistance and reaction to various chemical products and processes, such as: organic solvents, oxidation, and ionizing radiation.
Some materials (e.g. metals) are harder than others (e.g. plastics, wood).

Polyethylene

polythenePEpolyethene
Examples include: polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC).
Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(methylene)) is the most common plastic.

Engineering plastic

engineering plasticsengineering polymersengineering'' plastics
Examples of such qualities and classes are: thermoplastics and thermosets, conductive polymers, biodegradable plastics and engineering plastics and other plastics with particular structures, such as elastomers.
Engineering plastics are a group of plastic materials that have better mechanical and/or thermal properties than the more widely used commodity plastics (such as polystyrene, PVC, polypropylene and polyethylene).

Polyvinyl chloride

PVCvinylpolyvinylchloride
Examples include: polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The development of plastics has evolved from the use of natural plastic materials (e.g., chewing gum, shellac) to the use of chemically modified, natural materials (e.g., natural rubber, nitrocellulose, collagen, galalite) and finally to completely synthetic molecules (e.g., bakelite, epoxy, polyvinyl chloride).
Polyvinyl chloride (colloquial: polyvinyl, vinyl ; abbreviated: PVC) is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.

Halocarbon

organohalideorganic halidehalocarbons
Plastics are usually classified by: the chemical structure of the polymer's backbone and side chains; some important groups in these classifications are: the acrylics, polyesters, silicones, polyurethanes, and halogenated plastics.
Many synthetic organic compounds such as plastic polymers, and a few natural ones, contain halogen atoms; they are known as halogenated compounds or organohalogens.

Biodegradable additives

Some companies produce biodegradable additives, to enhance biodegradation.
Biodegradable additives are additives that enhance the biodegradation of polymers by allowing microorganisms to utilize the carbon within the polymer chain as a source of energy.

Bioplastic

bioplasticsbio-plasticsbio plastics
While most plastics are produced from petrochemicals, bioplastics are made substantially from renewable plant materials such: as cellulose and starch.
Bioplastics are plastic materials produced from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, straw, woodchips, sawdust, recycled food waste, etc.

Thermoplastic

thermoplasticsthermoplastic polymerplastic
One important classification of plastics is by the permanence or impermanence of their form, or whether they are: thermoplastics or thermosetting polymers.
Some thermoplastics do not fully crystallize below the glass transition temperature, retaining some or all of their amorphous characteristics.

Crystal

crystallinecrystalscrystalline solid
However, some plastics are partially crystalline and partially amorphous in molecular structure, giving them both a melting point, the temperature at which the attractive intermolecular forces are overcome, and also one or more glass transitions, the temperatures above which the extent of localized molecular flexibility is substantially increased.
Examples of amorphous solids include glass, wax, and many plastics.

Thermosetting polymer

thermosetthermosetting plasticthermosetting
One important classification of plastics is by the permanence or impermanence of their form, or whether they are: thermoplastics or thermosetting polymers.
Curing a thermosetting resin transforms it into a plastic, or elastomer (rubber) by crosslinking or chain extension through the formation of covalent bonds between individual chains of the polymer.

Plastic pipework

PVC pipePlastic pressure pipe systemsplastic pipe
Plastic pipe is a tubular section, or hollow cylinder, made of plastic.

Polystyrene

expanded polystyrenestyrofoampolystyrene foam
Examples include: polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC).
Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics, the scale of its production being several million tonnes per year.

Nylon

Bri-Nylonnylon 6,6Nylons
Wartime uses of nylon and other plastics greatly increased the market for the new materials.

Carbon

Ccarbonaceouscarbon atom
The vast majority of these polymers are formed from chains of carbon atoms, 'pure' or with the addition of: oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur.
When united with hydrogen, it forms various hydrocarbons that are important to industry as refrigerants, lubricants, solvents, as chemical feedstock for the manufacture of plastics and petrochemicals, and as fossil fuels.

Polymer

polymershomopolymerpolymeric
The vast majority of these polymers are formed from chains of carbon atoms, 'pure' or with the addition of: oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur. Plasticity is the general property of all materials which can deform irreversibly without breaking but, in the class of moldable polymers, this occurs to such a degree that their actual name derives from this specific ability.
Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function.

Nitrocellulose

nitrate filmguncottoncellulose nitrate
The development of plastics has evolved from the use of natural plastic materials (e.g., chewing gum, shellac) to the use of chemically modified, natural materials (e.g., natural rubber, nitrocellulose, collagen, galalite) and finally to completely synthetic molecules (e.g., bakelite, epoxy, polyvinyl chloride).
In 1855, the first man-made plastic, nitrocellulose (branded Parkesine, patented in 1862), was created by Alexander Parkes from cellulose treated with nitric acid and a solvent.