Plasticity (physics)

plasticityplasticplastic deformationdeformationplasticallyDeformable bodyplastic flowdeformable bodiesPlastic materialplastically-deforming
In physics and materials science, plasticity is the ability of a solid material to undergo deformation, a non-reversible change of shape in response to applied forces.wikipedia
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Yield (engineering)

yield strengthyield stressyield
In engineering, the transition from elastic behavior to plastic behavior is called yield.
Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins.

Metal

metalsmetal ionsmetal ion
Plastic deformation is observed in most materials, particularly metals, soils, rocks, concrete, foams, bone and skin.
Heat or forces larger than a metal's elastic limit may cause a permanent (irreversible) deformation, known as plastic deformation or plasticity.

Elasticity (physics)

elasticityelasticelasticity theory
In engineering, the transition from elastic behavior to plastic behavior is called yield. It occurs for stress values where the metal is globally in the elastic domain while some local areas are in the plastic domain.
For even higher stresses, materials exhibit plastic behavior, that is, they deform irreversibly and do not return to their original shape after stress is no longer applied.

Viscoplasticity

viscoplasticCreep Testingelasto-viscoplasticity
Such materials are said to deform visco-plastically.
The inelastic behavior that is the subject of viscoplasticity is plastic deformation which means that the material undergoes unrecoverable deformations when a load level is reached.

Ductility

ductilemalleablemalleability
For many ductile metals, tensile loading applied to a sample will cause it to behave in an elastic manner.
Both of these mechanical properties are aspects of plasticity, the extent to which a solid material can be plastically deformed without fracture.

Cold working

cold formingcold workCold-worked
Plastic materials that have been hardened by prior deformation, such as cold forming, may need increasingly higher stresses to deform further.
Work hardening makes the metal harder, stiffer, and stronger, but less plastic, and may cause cracks of the piece.

Shear band

For crystals, these regions of localized plasticity are called shear bands.
A shear band (or, more generally, a 'strain localization') is a narrow zone of intense shearing strain, usually of plastic nature, developing during severe deformation of ductile materials.

Stress (mechanics)

stressstressestensile stress
It occurs for stress values where the metal is globally in the elastic domain while some local areas are in the plastic domain.
Stress that exceeds certain strength limits of the material will result in permanent deformation (such as plastic flow, fracture, cavitation) or even change its crystal structure and chemical composition.

Brittleness

brittlefragilebrittle materials
However, even ductile metals will fracture when the strain becomes large enough—this is as a result of work hardening of the material, which causes it to become brittle.
# A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks with little elastic deformation and without significant plastic deformation.

Fracture

fracturesbrittle fracturecrack
In brittle materials such as rock, concrete and bone, plasticity is caused predominantly by slip at microcracks.
In brittle fracture, no apparent plastic deformation takes place before fracture.

Cross slip

cross-slip
On the nanoscale the primary plastic deformation in simple face centered cubic metals is reversible, as long as there is no material transport in form of cross-slip.
Cross-slip is important to plasticity, since it allows additional slip planes to become active and allows screw dislocations to bypass obstacles.

Flow plasticity theory

plasticity theoryflow theory of plasticityunloading
The more correct mathematical theory of plasticity, flow plasticity theory, uses a set of non-linear, non-integrable equations to describe the set of changes on strain and stress with respect to a previous state and a small increase of deformation.
Flow plasticity is a solid mechanics theory that is used to describe the plastic behavior of materials.

Deformation (engineering)

deformationplastic deformationelastic deformation
In physics and materials science, plasticity is the ability of a solid material to undergo deformation, a non-reversible change of shape in response to applied forces.

Deformation (mechanics)

straindeformationshear strain
However, even ductile metals will fracture when the strain becomes large enough—this is as a result of work hardening of the material, which causes it to become brittle.

T1 process

T1 processes
In cellular materials such as liquid foams or biological tissues, plasticity is mainly a consequence of bubble or cell rearrangements, notably T1 processes.
Among these, plasticity allows them to be deformed irreversibly.

Yield surface

Tresca yield criterionBeltrami-Haigh yield criterionHaigh-Westergaard representation
A yield surface may be constructed, which provides a visual representation of this concept.
When the stress state lies on the surface the material is said to have reached its yield point and the material is said to have become plastic.

Dislocation

dislocationsscrew dislocationdislocated
At a crystalline scale, plasticity in metals is usually a consequence of dislocations. In 1934, Egon Orowan, Michael Polanyi and Geoffrey Ingram Taylor, roughly simultaneously, realized that the plastic deformation of ductile materials could be explained in terms of the theory of dislocations.
Until the 1930s, one of the enduring challenges of materials science was to explain plasticity in microscopic terms.

Egon Orowan

In 1934, Egon Orowan, Michael Polanyi and Geoffrey Ingram Taylor, roughly simultaneously, realized that the plastic deformation of ductile materials could be explained in terms of the theory of dislocations.
In 1934, Orowan, roughly contemporarily with G. I. Taylor and Michael Polanyi, realized that the plastic deformation of ductile materials could be explained in terms of the theory of dislocations developed by Vito Volterra in 1905.

Michael Polanyi

PolanyipluralismMichael
In 1934, Egon Orowan, Michael Polanyi and Geoffrey Ingram Taylor, roughly simultaneously, realized that the plastic deformation of ductile materials could be explained in terms of the theory of dislocations.
In 1934, Polanyi, at about the same time as G. I. Taylor and Egon Orowan, realised that the plastic deformation of ductile materials could be explained in terms of the theory of dislocations developed by Vito Volterra in 1905.

G. I. Taylor

Geoffrey Ingram TaylorGeoffrey TaylorSir Geoffrey Ingram Taylor
In 1934, Egon Orowan, Michael Polanyi and Geoffrey Ingram Taylor, roughly simultaneously, realized that the plastic deformation of ductile materials could be explained in terms of the theory of dislocations.
In 1934, Taylor, roughly contemporarily with Michael Polanyi and Egon Orowan, realised that the plastic deformation of ductile materials could be explained in terms of the theory of dislocations developed by Vito Volterra in 1905.

Atterberg limits

plasticity indexLiquid LimitPlastic limit
The liquid limit (LL) is conceptually defined as the water content at which the behavior of a clayey soil changes from the plastic state to the liquid state.

Physics

physicistphysicalphysicists
In physics and materials science, plasticity is the ability of a solid material to undergo deformation, a non-reversible change of shape in response to applied forces.

Materials science

material sciencematerials engineeringmaterials scientist
In physics and materials science, plasticity is the ability of a solid material to undergo deformation, a non-reversible change of shape in response to applied forces.

Soil

soilsdirtsoil moisture
Plastic deformation is observed in most materials, particularly metals, soils, rocks, concrete, foams, bone and skin.

Rock (geology)

stonerockrocks
Plastic deformation is observed in most materials, particularly metals, soils, rocks, concrete, foams, bone and skin.