A report on Plato and Truth

Roman copy of a portrait bust c. 370 BC
An angel carrying the banner of "Truth", Roslin, Midlothian
Diogenes Laertius is a principal source for the history of ancient Greek philosophy.
Walter Seymour Allward's Veritas (Truth) outside Supreme Court of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario Canada
Through his mother, Plato was related to Solon.
'"What is Truth?" by Nikolai Ge, depicting John 18:38 in which Pilate asks Christ "What is truth?"
Speusippus was Plato's nephew.
Plato was a wrestler
Plato in his academy, drawing after a painting by Swedish painter Carl Johan Wahlbom
Bust of Pythagoras in Rome.
A detail of Spinoza monument in Amsterdam.
Bust of Socrates at the Louvre.
The "windmill proof" of the Pythagorean theorem found in Euclid's Elements.
What is justice?
A Venn diagram illustrating the classical theory of knowledge.
Oxyrhynchus Papyri, with fragment of Plato's Republic
Bust excavated at the Villa of the Papyri, possibly of Dionysus, Plato or Poseidon.
The Death of Socrates (1787), by Jacques-Louis David
Plato's Allegory of the Cave by Jan Saenredam, according to Cornelis van Haarlem, 1604, Albertina, Vienna
Painting of a scene from Plato's Symposium (Anselm Feuerbach, 1873)
Volume 3, pp. 32–33, of the 1578 Stephanus edition of Plato, showing a passage of Timaeus with the Latin translation and notes of Jean de Serres
First page of the Euthyphro, from the Clarke Plato (Codex Oxoniensis Clarkianus 39), 895 AD. The text is Greek minuscule.
Plato (left) and Aristotle (right) a detail of The School of Athens, a fresco by Raphael. Aristotle gestures to the earth while holding a copy of his Nicomachean Ethics in his hand. Plato holds his Timaeus and gestures to the heavens.
"The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato." (Alfred North Whitehead, Process and Reality, 1929).

It is a traditional model tracing its origins to ancient Greek philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.

- Truth

Just as individual tables, chairs, and cars refer to objects in this world, 'tableness', 'chairness', and 'carness', as well as e. g. justice, truth, and beauty refer to objects in another world.

- Plato
Roman copy of a portrait bust c. 370 BC

8 related topics with Alpha

Overall

René Descartes, who is often credited as the father of modern philosophy, was often preoccupied with epistemological questions in his work.

Epistemology

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Branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge.

Branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge.

René Descartes, who is often credited as the father of modern philosophy, was often preoccupied with epistemological questions in his work.
Bertrand Russell famously brought attention to the distinction between propositional knowledge and knowledge by acquaintance.
An Euler diagram representing a version of the traditional definition of knowledge that is adapted to the Gettier problem. This problem gives us reason to think that not all justified true beliefs constitute knowledge.
The analytic–synthetic distinction was first proposed by Immanuel Kant.
David Hume, one of the most staunch defenders of empiricism.

1) The philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and the conditions required for a belief to constitute knowledge, such as truth and justification

Among the Ancient Greek philosophers, Plato distinguished between inquiry regarding what we know and inquiry regarding what exists, particularly in the Republic, the Theaetetus, and the Meno.

Francisco de Goya, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (El sueño de la razón produce monstruos), c. 1797

Reason

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Francisco de Goya, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (El sueño de la razón produce monstruos), c. 1797
René Descartes
Dan Sperber believes that reasoning in groups is more effective and promotes their evolutionary fitness.

Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic by drawing conclusions from new or existing information, with the aim of seeking the truth.

Within the human mind or soul (psyche), reason was described by Plato as being the natural monarch which should rule over the other parts, such as spiritedness (thumos) and the passions.

Los portadores de la antorcha (The Torch-Bearers) – Sculpture by Anna Hyatt Huntington symbolizing the transmission of knowledge from one generation to the next (Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid, Spain)

Knowledge

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Familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts , skills (procedural knowledge), or objects (acquaintance knowledge), often contributing to understanding.

Familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts , skills (procedural knowledge), or objects (acquaintance knowledge), often contributing to understanding.

Los portadores de la antorcha (The Torch-Bearers) – Sculpture by Anna Hyatt Huntington symbolizing the transmission of knowledge from one generation to the next (Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid, Spain)
Sir Francis Bacon, "Knowledge is Power"
The parable of the blind men and the elephant suggests that people tend to project their partial experiences as the whole truth
The owl of Athena is a symbol of knowledge.

Knowledge of facts, also referred to as propositional knowledge, is often defined as true belief that is distinct from opinion or guesswork by virtue of justification.

In the dialogue Theaetetus by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato, Socrates pondered the distinction between knowledge and true belief but rejected the JTB definition of knowledge.

A brain in a vat that believes it is walking

Reality

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Sum or aggregate of all that is real or existent within a system, as opposed to that which is only imaginary.

Sum or aggregate of all that is real or existent within a system, as opposed to that which is only imaginary.

A brain in a vat that believes it is walking
Reality-virtuality continuum.

Plato and Aristotle could be said to be early examples of comprehensive systems.

George Musser, "Virtual Reality: How close can physics bring us to a truly fundamental understanding of the world?", Scientific American, vol. 321, no. 3 (September 2019), pp. 30–35. "Physics is... the bedrock of the broader search for truth.... Yet [physicists] sometimes seem to be struck by a collective impostor syndrome.... Truth can be elusive even in the best-established theories. Quantum mechanics is as well tested a theory as can be, yet its interpretation remains inscrutable. [p. 30.] The deeper physicists dive into reality, the more reality seems to evaporate." [p. 34.]

Different approaches toward resolving the mind–body problem

Metaphysics

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Branch of philosophy that studies the fundamental nature of reality, the first principles of being, identity and change, space and time, causality, necessity, and possibility.

Branch of philosophy that studies the fundamental nature of reality, the first principles of being, identity and change, space and time, causality, necessity, and possibility.

Different approaches toward resolving the mind–body problem
The circled dot was used by the Pythagoreans and later Greeks to represent the first metaphysical being, the Monad or The Absolute.
The modern "yin and yang symbol" (taijitu)

The earliest type of classification of social construction traces back to Plato in his dialogue Phaedrus where he claims that the biological classification system seems to carve nature at the joints.

Methodologically, the Eleatics were broadly rationalist, and took logical standards of clarity and necessity to be the criteria of truth.

Nietzsche in Basel, Switzerland, c. undefined 1875

Friedrich Nietzsche

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German philosopher, cultural critic and philologist whose work has exerted a profound influence on modern intellectual history.

German philosopher, cultural critic and philologist whose work has exerted a profound influence on modern intellectual history.

Nietzsche in Basel, Switzerland, c. undefined 1875
Portrait of Friedrich Nietzsche
Young Nietzsche, 1861
Young Nietzsche
Arthur Schopenhauer strongly influenced Nietzsche's philosophical thought.
The University of Basel, where Friedrich Nietzsche became a professor in 1869
Left to right: Erwin Rohde, Karl von Gersdorff and Nietzsche, October 1871
Nietzsche, c. 1872
Lou Salomé, Paul Rée and Nietzsche traveled through Italy in 1882, planning to establish an educational commune together, but the friendship disintegrated in late 1882 due to complications from Rée's and Nietzsche's mutual romantic interest in Lou Andreas-Salomé.
Photo of Nietzsche by Gustav-Adolf Schultze, 1882
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After the breakdown, Peter Gast "corrected" Nietzsche's writings without his approval.
Nietzsche's grave at Röcken with the sculpture Das Röckener Bacchanal by Klaus Friedrich Messerschmidt (2000)
Nietzsche, 1869
Wochenspruch der NSDAP 9 April 1939: "What does not kill me makes me stronger."
The residence of Nietzsche's last three years along with archive in Weimar, Germany, which holds many of Nietzsche's papers
Portrait of Nietzsche by Edvard Munch, 1906
Statue of Nietzsche in Naumburg
The Nietzsche Stone, near Surlej, the inspiration for Thus Spoke Zarathustra

Prominent elements of his philosophy include his radical critique of truth in favor of perspectivism; a genealogical critique of religion and Christian morality and a related theory of master–slave morality; the aesthetic affirmation of life in response to both the "death of God" and the profound crisis of nihilism; the notion of Apollonian and Dionysian forces; and a characterization of the human subject as the expression of competing wills, collectively understood as the will to power.

Plato continued along this path in his dialogues, and the modern world eventually inherited reason at the expense of artistic impulses found in the Apollonian and Dionysian dichotomy.

Portrait of Avicenna on an Iranian postage stamp

Avicenna

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His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and The Canon of Medicine, a medical encyclopedia which became a standard medical text at many medieval universities and remained in use as late as 1650.

His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and The Canon of Medicine, a medical encyclopedia which became a standard medical text at many medieval universities and remained in use as late as 1650.

Portrait of Avicenna on an Iranian postage stamp
Map of Khurasan and Transoxiana
Coin of Majd al-Dawla ((r. 997 – 1029)), the amir (ruler) of the Buyid branch of Ray
Coin of Ala al-Dawla Muhammad ((r. 1008 – 1041)), the Kakuyid ruler of Isfahan
The Mausoleum of Avicenna, Hamadan, Iran
Canons of medicine book from Avicenna, Latin translation located at UT Health of San Antonio
Skull of Avicenna, found in 1950 during construction of the new mausoleum
Inside view of the Avicenna Mausoleum, designed by Hooshang Seyhoun in 1945–1950
A monument to Avicenna in Qakh (city), Azerbaijan
Image of Avicenna on the Tajikistani somoni
The statue of Avicenna in United Nations Office in Vienna as a part of the Persian Scholars Pavilion donated by Iran

While discussing the views of the theists among the Greek philosophers, namely Socrates, Plato and Aristotle in Al-Munqidh min ad-Dalal ("Deliverance from Error"), al-Ghazali noted that the Greek philosophers "must be taxed with unbelief, as must their partisans among the Muslim philosophers, such as Avicenna and al-Farabi and their likes."

Avicenna referred to the living human intelligence, particularly the active intellect, which he believed to be the hypostasis by which God communicates truth to the human mind and imparts order and intelligibility to nature.

Dialectic

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Dialectic (, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue; Dialektik), also known as the dialectical method, is a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned argumentation.

Moreover, the term "dialectic" owes much of its prestige to its role in the philosophies of Socrates and Plato, in the Greek Classical period (5th to 4th centuries BC).