Pluralistic ignorance

In social psychology, pluralistic ignorance is a situation in which a majority of group members privately reject a norm, but go along with it because they assume, incorrectly, that most others accept it.wikipedia
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Bystander effect

bystanderbystander interventionBystander apathy
Pluralistic ignorance may help to explain the bystander effect.
This is an example of pluralistic ignorance or social proof.

Deborah Prentice

Prentice
Prentice and Miller found that, on average, private levels of comfort with drinking practices on campus were much lower than the perceived average.
Her pioneering work on pluralistic ignorance applied to college campus alcohol use is a foundation of numerous campus Alcohol education and bystander intervention programs.

Spiral of silence

The Spiral of Silencequasi-statistical senseSpiral of silence on the Internet
Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann, in her spiral of silence theory, argued that media biase s lead to pluralistic ignorance.
Pluralistic ignorance may occur in some cases, leading to the minority opinion to be accepted as a norm.

False consensus effect

False-consensus effectfalse consensusFalse consensus bias
Pluralistic ignorance can be contrasted with the false consensus effect.
The false-consensus effect can be contrasted with pluralistic ignorance, an error in which people privately disapprove but publicly support what seems to be the majority view (see below).

Social norms approach

social norms marketingsocial normSocial norms theory
This phenomenon is known as pluralistic ignorance.

The Emperor's New Clothes

Emperor's New ClothesThe Emperor’s New Clothestale
Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale "The Emperor's New Clothes" is a famous fictional case of pluralistic ignorance.
The story may be explained by pluralistic ignorance.

Social psychology

social psychologistsocialsocial psychological
In social psychology, pluralistic ignorance is a situation in which a majority of group members privately reject a norm, but go along with it because they assume, incorrectly, that most others accept it.

Attitude (psychology)

attitudeattitudessocial attitude
In the case of men, they found a shifting of private attitudes toward this perceived norm, a form of cognitive dissonance.

Social norm

social normsnormsnorm
In the case of men, they found a shifting of private attitudes toward this perceived norm, a form of cognitive dissonance.

Cognitive dissonance

cognitive dissonance theorydissonancecognitive consistency
In the case of men, they found a shifting of private attitudes toward this perceived norm, a form of cognitive dissonance. The latter has found that pluralistic ignorance can be caused by the structure of the underlying social network, not cognitive dissonance.

Social alienation

alienationalienatedalienating
Women, on the other hand, were found to have an increased sense of alienation on the campus but lacked the attitude change detected in men, presumably because norms related to alcohol consumption on campus are much more central for men than for women.

Vegetarianism

vegetarianvegetariansvegetarian diet
Research has shown that pluralistic ignorance plagues not only those who indulge, but also those who abstain: from gambling, smoking and drinking and among some who follow vegetarianism.

Social network

networknetworkingnetworks
The latter has found that pluralistic ignorance can be caused by the structure of the underlying social network, not cognitive dissonance.

Floyd Henry Allport

Floyd Allport
The theory of pluralistic ignorance was studied by Floyd Henry Allport and his students Daniel Katz and Richard Schanck.

Daniel Katz (psychologist)

Daniel KatzKatz
The theory of pluralistic ignorance was studied by Floyd Henry Allport and his students Daniel Katz and Richard Schanck.

Richard Schanck

Richard L. Schanck
The theory of pluralistic ignorance was studied by Floyd Henry Allport and his students Daniel Katz and Richard Schanck.

Industrial and organizational psychology

organizational psychologyindustrial psychologyorganisational psychology
He produced studies of racial stereotyping and prejudice, and attitude change, and his pursuit of the connections between individual psychology and social systems helped to found the field of organizational psychology.

Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann

Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann-Maier-Leibniz
Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann, in her spiral of silence theory, argued that media biase s lead to pluralistic ignorance.

Theory

theoreticaltheoriestheorist
Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann, in her spiral of silence theory, argued that media biase s lead to pluralistic ignorance.

Media bias

media coveragebiasliberal bias
Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann, in her spiral of silence theory, argued that media biase s lead to pluralistic ignorance.

Racial segregation in the United States

segregationracial segregationsegregated
Pluralistic ignorance was blamed for exacerbating support for racial segregation in the United States.

Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Communist PartyCPSUBolshevik Party
It has also been named a reason for the illusory popular support that kept the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in power, as many opposed the regime but assumed that others were supporters of it.

Hans Christian Andersen

H. C. AndersenH.C. AndersenAndersen
Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale "The Emperor's New Clothes" is a famous fictional case of pluralistic ignorance.