Pneumothorax

collapsed lungtension pneumothoraxpunctured lunglung collapsecollapsed lungsspontaneous pneumothoraxartificial pneumothoraxlungs collapsedsucking chest woundT'''ension pneumothorax
A pneumothorax is an abnormal collection of air in the pleural space between the lung and the chest wall.wikipedia
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Chest pain

chest painschest tightnesschest
Symptoms typically include sudden onset of sharp, one-sided chest pain and shortness of breath.
Serious and relatively common causes include acute coronary syndrome such as a heart attack (31%), pulmonary embolism (2%), pneumothorax, pericarditis (4%), aortic dissection (1%), and esophageal rupture.

Atelectasis

collapsecollapsed lunglung collapse
It is often called a collapsed lung, although that term may also refer to atelectasis.
It is often called a collapsed lung, although that term may also refer to pneumothorax.

Chest tube

chest draintube thoracostomyintercostal drain
In a larger pneumothorax, or if there is shortness of breath, the air may be removed with a syringe or a chest tube connected to a one-way valve system.
It is used to remove air (pneumothorax), fluid (pleural effusion, blood, chyle), or pus (empyema) from the intrathoracic space.

Hemothorax

haemothoraxbleeding into the pleural spaceblood
Other conditions that can result in similar symptoms include a hemothorax (buildup of blood in the pleural space), pulmonary embolism, and heart attack.
Hemothoraces are usually caused by an injury but may occur spontaneously: due to cancer invading the pleural cavity, as a result of a blood clotting disorder, as an unusual manifestation of endometriosis, in response to a collapsed lung, or rarely in association with other conditions.

Pleurodesis

scarring down the pleura
The surgical treatments usually involve pleurodesis (in which the layers of pleura are induced to stick together) or pleurectomy (the surgical removal of pleural membranes).
Pleurodesis is performed to prevent recurrence of pneumothorax or recurrent pleural effusion.

Gunshot wound

Gunshot woundsBallistic traumashot
Traumatic pneumothorax most commonly occurs when the chest wall is pierced, such as when a stab wound or gunshot wound allows air to enter the pleural space, or because some other mechanical injury to the lung compromises the integrity of the involved structures.
Common causes of death following gunshot injury include bleeding, low oxygen caused by pneumothorax, catastrophic injury to the heart and major blood vessels, and damage to the brain or central nervous system.

Rib fracture

broken ribbroken ribsfractured rib
Traumatic pneumothoraces have been found to occur in up to half of all cases of chest trauma, with only rib fractures being more common in this group.
Potential complications include a pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, and pneumonia.

Pleural cavity

pleuralpleural spacepleura
Traumatic pneumothorax most commonly occurs when the chest wall is pierced, such as when a stab wound or gunshot wound allows air to enter the pleural space, or because some other mechanical injury to the lung compromises the integrity of the involved structures. A pneumothorax is an abnormal collection of air in the pleural space between the lung and the chest wall.
Therefore, in cases of pneumothorax, the other lung will still function normally unless there is a tension pneumothorax or simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax, which may collapse the contralateral parenchyma, blood vessels and bronchi.

Cystic fibrosis

CFCystic fibrosis of the pancreasdisease
The sudden onset of breathlessness in someone with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis, or other serious lung diseases should therefore prompt investigations to identify the possibility of a pneumothorax.
People with CF are susceptible to getting a pneumothorax.

Folliculin

FLCN
Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome is caused by mutations in the FLCN gene (located at chromosome 17p11.2), which encodes a protein named folliculin.
Folliculin also known as FLCN, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome protein or FLCN_HUMAN is a protein that in humans is associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome and hereditary spontaneous pneumothorax.

Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome

Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndromeBirt–Hogg–Dube syndromeBirt-Hogg-Dube syndrome
The hereditary conditions – Marfan syndrome, homocystinuria, Ehlers–Danlos syndromes, alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (which leads to emphysema), and Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome – have all been linked to familial pneumothorax.
Pulmonary cysts are equally common (84%), but only 24% of people with BHD eventually experience a collapsed lung (spontaneous pneumothorax).

Mechanical ventilation

mechanical ventilatorassisted ventilationRespiratory monitoring
The pneumothorax can be occult (not readily apparent) in half of these cases, but may enlarge – particularly if mechanical ventilation is required.
Mechanical ventilation is often a life-saving intervention, but carries potential complications including pneumothorax, airway injury, alveolar damage, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis.

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

LymphangiomyomatosisLAM Actionpulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis
The consequences of vessel and airway obstruction include chylous fluid accumulations, hemoptysis, airflow obstruction and pneumothorax.

Congenital pulmonary airway malformation

congenital cystic adenomatoid malformationcystic adenomatoid malformationpulmonary abnormalities
In children, additional causes include measles, echinococcosis, inhalation of a foreign body, and certain congenital malformations (congenital pulmonary airway malformation and congenital lobar emphysema).
However, 25% develop cyanosis, pneumothorax, and show signs of increased breathing difficulty (tachypnoea and intercostal retractions).

Thorax

chestthoracicthoraces
A pneumothorax can also be caused by physical trauma to the chest (including a blast injury) or as a complication of a healthcare intervention, in which case it is called a traumatic pneumothorax.
Pneumothorax is the condition where air or gas can build up in the pleural space.

Catamenial pneumothorax

Catamenial pneumothorax is a condition of air leaking into the pleural space (pneumothorax) occurring in conjunction with menstrual periods (catamenial refers to menstruation), believed to be caused primarily by endometriosis of the pleura (the membrane surrounding the lung or diaphragm).

Tuberculosis

consumptionpulmonary tuberculosisTB
Smoking increases the risk of primary spontaneous pneumothorax, while the main underlying causes for secondary pneumothorax are COPD, asthma, and tuberculosis.
Prior to the introduction of this medication, the only treatment was surgical intervention, including the "pneumothorax technique", which involved collapsing an infected lung to "rest" it and to allow tuberculous lesions to heal.

Respiratory disease

lung diseasepulmonary diseaserespiratory diseases
A primary spontaneous pneumothorax is one that occurs without an apparent cause and in the absence of significant lung disease.
A pneumothorax is a hole in the pleura covering the lung allowing air in the lung to escape into the pleural cavity.

Myocardial infarction

heart attackheart attacksacute myocardial infarction
Other conditions that can result in similar symptoms include a hemothorax (buildup of blood in the pleural space), pulmonary embolism, and heart attack.
Rarer severe differential diagnoses include aortic dissection, esophageal rupture, tension pneumothorax, and pericardial effusion causing cardiac tamponade.

Pneumocystis pneumonia

Pneumocystis'' pneumoniaPneumocystis carinii pneumoniaPneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia
Chest tubes are used first-line when pneumothorax occurs in people with AIDS, usually due to underlying pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), as this condition is associated with prolonged air leakage.
Pneumothorax is a well-known complication of PCP.

Pneumatosis

emphysemaCongenital lobar emphysemaCompensatory emphysema
The hereditary conditions – Marfan syndrome, homocystinuria, Ehlers–Danlos syndromes, alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (which leads to emphysema), and Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome – have all been linked to familial pneumothorax. In children, additional causes include measles, echinococcosis, inhalation of a foreign body, and certain congenital malformations (congenital pulmonary airway malformation and congenital lobar emphysema).
A bleb or bulla may sometimes rupture and cause a pneumothorax.

Systemic scleroderma

systemic sclerosisProgressive systemic sclerosisDiffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis
Other pulmonary complications in more advanced disease include aspiration pneumonia, pulmonary hemorrhage and pneumothorax.

Endometriosis

Endomentriosisendometriosis,endometriotic
Manifestations of this include coughing up blood, a collapsed lung, or bleeding into the pleural space.

Blunt trauma

blunt force traumabluntblunt-force trauma
A traumatic pneumothorax may result from either blunt trauma or penetrating injury to the chest wall.
The most immediate life-threatening injuries that may occur include tension pneumothorax, open pneumothorax, hemothorax, flail chest, cardiac tamponade, airway obstruction/rupture.

Ehlers–Danlos syndromes

Ehlers-Danlos syndromeEhlers–Danlos syndromeEhlers Danlos Syndrome
The hereditary conditions – Marfan syndrome, homocystinuria, Ehlers–Danlos syndromes, alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (which leads to emphysema), and Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome – have all been linked to familial pneumothorax.