Podestà

potestaatpodestapodesteriapotestatepodestatRectorautonomous podestariaFascist Podestàpodesteriaspodesterie
Podestà is the name given to certain high officials in many Italian cities beginning in the later Middle Ages.wikipedia
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Mayor

reevemayorsacting mayor
Currently, Podestà is the title of mayors in Italian-speaking municipalities of Graubünden in Switzerland. In February 1926, Mussolini's Senate issued a decree which abolished the autonomous powers and functions of comunes (municipalities), including elected town councils and mayors.
In Medieval Italy, the city-states who did not consider themselves independent principalities or dukedoms – particularly those of the Imperial Ghibelline faction – were led by podestàs.

Chief magistrate

Chief Judicial MagistrateChief Presidency Magistratecivil magistrate
Mainly it meant the chief magistrate of a city state, the counterpart to similar positions in other cities that went by other names, e.g. rettori ("rectors"), but it could also mean the local administrator, who was the representative of the Holy Roman Emperor.

Palazzo Pubblico

Palazzo Pubblico of SienaPalazzo Pubblico, SienaPalazzo Publico
The architectural arrangement of the Palazzo Pubblico at Siena, built starting in 1297, evokes the uneasy relation of the commune with the podestà, who in Siena's case was a disinterested nobleman at the head of the judiciary.
Construction began in 1297 to serve as the seat of the Republic of Siena's government, which consisted of the Podestà and Council of Nine, the elected officials who performed executive functions (and judicial ones in secular matters).

Lombard League

Lombardan alliance of powerful Italian city statesLega Lombarda
From the start, this was very unpopular, and their often arbitrary behaviour was a factor in bringing about the formation of the Lombard League and the uprising against Frederick in 1167.
The association succeeded the Veronese League, established in 1164 by Verona, Padua, Vicenza, and the Republic of Venice, after Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa had claimed direct Imperial control over Italy at the 1158 Diet of Roncaglia and began to replace the Podestà magistrates by his own commissioners.

Orvieto

Orvieto, ItalyOrvientani
In the thirteenth century in Florence, in Orvieto (1251) and some other cities a capitano del popolo (literally, "captain of the people") was chosen to look after the interests of the lower classes.
Its municipal institutions already recognized in a papal bull of 1157, from 1201 Orvieto governed itself through a podestà, who was as often as not the bishop, however, acting in concert with a military governor, the "captain of the people".

Republic of Genoa

GenoeseGenoaGenoan
After the other dogal republic, Genoa, was in 1273 granted control of Pera and Galata, commercial suburbs of Constantinople, by the Byzantine emperor, it governed them jointly by a common podestà until 1453, when all Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Turks.
Between 1218–1220 Genoa was served by the Guelph podestà Rambertino Buvalelli, who probably introduced Occitan literature to the city, which was soon to boast such troubadours as Jacme Grils, Lanfranc Cigala, and Bonifaci Calvo.

Benito Mussolini

MussoliniBenitoDuce
In February 1926, Mussolini's Senate issued a decree which abolished the autonomous powers and functions of comunes (municipalities), including elected town councils and mayors.
Local autonomy was abolished, and podestàs appointed by the Italian Senate replaced elected mayors and councils.

Lex Frisionum

Frisian LawLex Frisonumthe Frisian law
From apocryphal beginnings, important rights were granted or confirmed under the code of law known as the Lex Frisionum.
The Frisians received the title of freemen and were allowed to choose their own podestat or imperial governor.

Potestas

obedience
The term derives from the Latin word potestas, meaning power.
In some of the Italian city states, the term "Potestas" describing the authority of a magistrate developed into "Podestà", which was the chief magistrate's title.

Beyoğlu

PeraBeyogluBeyoğlu (Istanbul)
After the other dogal republic, Genoa, was in 1273 granted control of Pera and Galata, commercial suburbs of Constantinople, by the Byzantine emperor, it governed them jointly by a common podestà until 1453, when all Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Turks.
Pera became a flourishing trade colony, ruled by a podestà.

Sjoerd Wiarda

However, in 1399 the districts of Westergo and Oostergo elected potestates, Haring Harinxma and Sjoerd Wiarda respectively, in the struggle against the count of Holland.
Sjoerd Pijbes Wiarda (in office 1399–1410) was the fifteenth potestaat (or elected governor) of Friesland now a province of the Netherlands.

Magnus Forteman

Magnus Forteman (809), was the legendary first potestaat (or magistrate governor) and commander of Friesland which is now a province of Netherlands.

Igo Galama

Igo GalemaYgo II Galama
Igo Galama (876 to 910) was the legendary fifth potestaat (or elected governor) of Friesland, now a province of the Netherlands.

Hessel Hermana

Hessel Hermana is the fourth potestaat (or elected governor) of Friesland in the list of rulers of Frisia.

Taco Ludigman

Taco Ludigman (elected about 819) was the legendary second potestaat (or magistrate governor) of Friesland.

Haring Harinxma

Haring Haringsma
However, in 1399 the districts of Westergo and Oostergo elected potestates, Haring Harinxma and Sjoerd Wiarda respectively, in the struggle against the count of Holland.
The Schieringers elected him potestate of Westergo (southwest corner of Friesland, modern Wymbritseradeel), together with Sjoerd Wiarda, van Gotum of Oostergo (eastern region of Friesland) in the struggle against the count of Holland in 1399.

Gosse Ludigman

Gosse Ludigman (elected 989 died in 1000) was a legendary potestaat (or elected governor) of Friesland, now a province of the Netherlands.

Adelbrik Adelen

Adelbrik Adelen (Sexbierum, elected about 830) was the third potestaat (magistrate governor) of Friesland a province of the Netherlands.

Sicko Sjaerdema

Sikke Sjaardema (died 1260), alternatively spelled Sikko or Sicka, was the eighth potestaat of Friesland, a province of the Netherlands.

Hessel Martena

Hessel Martena (appointed approximately 1306 to 1312) was the tenth Potestaat (magistrate governor) of Frisia.

Gale Hania

Gale Hania (died 1380) was the thirteenth potestaat (or ruler) of Friesland, a province of Netherlands.

Galata

PeraSycaeGalatia, Turkey
After the other dogal republic, Genoa, was in 1273 granted control of Pera and Galata, commercial suburbs of Constantinople, by the Byzantine emperor, it governed them jointly by a common podestà until 1453, when all Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Turks.
Designed as an identical copy of the 13th century Palazzo San Giorgio in Genoa, the palace of the Genoese podestà of Galata, Montano de Marinis (which was known as the Palazzo del Comune (Palace of the Municipality) in the Genoese period and built in 1316), partially stands in ruins on Kart Çınar Sokak; a narrow side street that's parallel to the neighbouring Bankalar Caddesi (Banks Street) which was the financial center of the Ottoman Empire.

Juw Juwinga

The only potestates chosen to lead Friesland between the Vlie and Lauwers were Juw Juwinga (1396) and Juw Dekema (1494), both were chosen by the Schieringers.
When Albrecht of Bavaria, count of Holland, threatened Friesland in 1396, Juw was chosen as potestate of Friesland.

Saco Reinalda

Saco Reinalda (chosen from 1150 to 1167) was a legendary potestaat of Friesland, now a province of the Netherlands.

Capitano del popolo

Captain of the PeopleCapitani del Popolocapitano
It was created in the early 13th century when the populares, the increasingly wealthy classes of commoners (merchants, professionals, craftsmen and, in maritime cities, ship-owners) began to acquire roles in the communal administration of various Italian city-states, and needed a municipal officeholder able to counter the political power of the nobles (called potentes), represented usually by the podestà (a title used for chief magistrates and other top administrators in medieval Italian cities).