Podocyte

podocytesfiltration slitsslit diaphragmglomerular podocytesKidney glomerulus podocytepedicelsvisceral epithelial cell
Podocytes are cells in the Bowman's capsule in the kidneys that wrap around capillaries of the glomerulus.wikipedia
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Bowman's capsule

Bowman capsuleBowman's spaceParietal epithelial cell
Podocytes are cells in the Bowman's capsule in the kidneys that wrap around capillaries of the glomerulus.

Ultrafiltration (renal)

ultrafiltrationglomerular filtratefiltered
The Bowman's capsule filters the blood, retaining large molecules such as proteins while smaller molecules such as water, salts, and sugars are filtered as the first step in the formation of urine.
As in nonbiological examples of ultrafiltration, pressure (in this case blood pressure) and concentration gradients lead to a separation through a semipermeable membrane (provided by the podocytes).

Kidney

kidneysrenalkidney disorder
Podocytes are cells in the Bowman's capsule in the kidneys that wrap around capillaries of the glomerulus.

Process (anatomy)

processprocessesprojections
The podocytes have long processes, called foot processes, foot projections, or pedicels, for which the cells are named (podo- + -cyte).
The word is used even at the microanatomic level, where cells can have processes such as cilia or pedicels.

Nephrin

NPHS1
When infants are born with certain defects in these proteins, such as nephrin and CD2AP, their kidneys cannot function. The slits are covered by slit diaphragms which are composed of a number of cell-surface proteins including nephrin, podocalyxin, and P-cadherin, which restrict the passage of large macromolecules such as serum albumin and gamma globulin and ensure that they remain in the bloodstream. Proteins that are required for the correct function of the slit diaphragm include nephrin, NEPH1, NEPH2, podocin, CD2AP.
The renal filtration barrier consists of fenestrated endothelial cells, the glomerular basement membrane, and the podocytes of epithelial cells.

Glomerulus (kidney)

glomerulusglomeruliglomerular
Podocytes are cells in the Bowman's capsule in the kidneys that wrap around capillaries of the glomerulus.
The gaps between these capillaries are called fenestrae.The walls have a unique structure: there are pores between the cells that allow water and soluble substances to exit, and after passing through the glomerular basement membrane, and between podocyte foot processes, enter the capsule as ultrafiltrate.

Podocalyxin

The slits are covered by slit diaphragms which are composed of a number of cell-surface proteins including nephrin, podocalyxin, and P-cadherin, which restrict the passage of large macromolecules such as serum albumin and gamma globulin and ensure that they remain in the bloodstream.
Podocalyxin, a sialoglycoprotein, is thought to be the major constituent of the glycocalyx of podocytes in the glomerulus (Bowman's capsule).

Capillary

capillariessinusoidscapillary bed
Podocytes are cells in the Bowman's capsule in the kidneys that wrap around capillaries of the glomerulus.
In the renal glomerulus there are cells with no diaphragms, called podocyte foot processes or pedicels, which have slit pores with a function analogous to the diaphragm of the capillaries.

Podocin

Proteins that are required for the correct function of the slit diaphragm include nephrin, NEPH1, NEPH2, podocin, CD2AP.
Podocin is a protein component of the filtration slits of podocytes.

FAT1

FATFAT (gene)
and FAT1.
The murine Fat1 knockout mouse is not embryonically lethal but pups die within 48-hours due to the abnormal fusion of foot processes of the podocytes within the kidney.

Nephron

renal tubulenephronsrenal tubules
Small molecules such as water, glucose, and ionic salts are able to pass through the filtration slits and form an ultrafiltrate in the tubular fluid, which is further processed by the nephron to produce urine.
Blood is filtered as it passes through three layers: the endothelial cells of the capillary wall, its basement membrane, and between the foot processes of the podocytes of the lining of the capsule.

KIRREL

NEPH1
Proteins that are required for the correct function of the slit diaphragm include nephrin, NEPH1, NEPH2, podocin, CD2AP.
NEPH1 is expressed in filtration slits of kidney podocytes, cells involved in ensuring size- and charge-selective ultrafiltration of blood (Sellin et al., 2003).

Minimal change disease

lipoid nephrosisMinimal change lesionminimal change nephropathy
A Loss of the foot processes of the podocytes (i.e., podocyte effacement) is a hallmark of minimal change disease, which has therefore sometimes been called foot process disease.
These are diffuse loss of visceral epithelial cells' foot processes (i.e., podocyte effacement), vacuolation, and growth of microvilli on the visceral epithelial cells, allowing for excess protein loss in the urine.

Congenital nephrotic syndrome

congenitalcongenital nephrosiscongenital nephrotic syndrome.
An example of this occurs in the congenital disorder Finnish-type nephrosis, which is characterised by neonatal proteinuria leading to end-stage renal failure.

Pre-eclampsia

preeclampsiatoxemiatoxemia of pregnancy
Presence of podocytes in urine has been proposed as an early diagnostic marker for preeclampsia.

Renal corpuscle

vascular poleMalpighian BodiesMalpighian corpuscles
The visceral layer, composed of modified simple squamous epithelium, is lined by podocytes.

KIRREL3

NEPH2
Proteins that are required for the correct function of the slit diaphragm include nephrin, NEPH1, NEPH2, podocin, CD2AP.
NEPH1 and NEPH2 are involved in the blood filtration function of the kidney and are located in the slit diaphragm.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
Podocytes are cells in the Bowman's capsule in the kidneys that wrap around capillaries of the glomerulus.

Blood

human bloodhematologicaloxygen consumption
The Bowman's capsule filters the blood, retaining large molecules such as proteins while smaller molecules such as water, salts, and sugars are filtered as the first step in the formation of urine.

Molecule

molecularmoleculesmolecular structure
The Bowman's capsule filters the blood, retaining large molecules such as proteins while smaller molecules such as water, salts, and sugars are filtered as the first step in the formation of urine.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
The Bowman's capsule filters the blood, retaining large molecules such as proteins while smaller molecules such as water, salts, and sugars are filtered as the first step in the formation of urine.

Water

H 2 OHOliquid water
The Bowman's capsule filters the blood, retaining large molecules such as proteins while smaller molecules such as water, salts, and sugars are filtered as the first step in the formation of urine. Small molecules such as water, glucose, and ionic salts are able to pass through the filtration slits and form an ultrafiltrate in the tubular fluid, which is further processed by the nephron to produce urine.

Salt (chemistry)

saltsaltspotassium salt
The Bowman's capsule filters the blood, retaining large molecules such as proteins while smaller molecules such as water, salts, and sugars are filtered as the first step in the formation of urine.

Sugar

sugarssugar tradesugar cube
The Bowman's capsule filters the blood, retaining large molecules such as proteins while smaller molecules such as water, salts, and sugars are filtered as the first step in the formation of urine.