Poland

PolishPOLRepublic of PolandPolesPolePLPolskaPolish-bornPolish statePolonia
Poland (Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska ), is a country located in Central Europe.wikipedia
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List of cities and towns in Poland

cityList of cities in Polandtown
Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw.
A list of cities in Poland, preceded by a table of major Polish cities.

Warsaw

WarszawaWarsaw, PolandWarschau
Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw.
Warsaw (Warszawa ; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.

Łódź

LodzŁódź, PolandLódz
Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.
Łódź (also written in English as Lodz) is the third-largest city in Poland and a former industrial hub.

Kraków

KrakowCracowKraków, Poland
Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.
Kraków (, also,, ), also spelled Krakow in English, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.

Wrocław

BreslauWroclawBreslau (Wrocław)
Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.
Wrocław (, ; Breslau ; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is a city in western Poland and the largest city in the historical region of Silesia.

Gdańsk

DanzigGdanskDanzig (Gdańsk)
Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.
Gdańsk (, also, ; Gduńsk; Danzig ) is a city on the Baltic coast of northern Poland.

Poznań

PosenPoznanPoznan, Poland
Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.
Poznań (,, or ; Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region and is the fifth-largest city in Poland.

Szczecin

StettinSzczecin, PolandStettin (Szczecin)
Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.
Szczecin (,, ; Stettin ; Stettin ; known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland.

Slovakia

SlovakSVKSlovak Republic
Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Lithuania, and Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast to the north, Belarus and Ukraine to the east, Slovakia and the Czech Republic to the south, and Germany to the west.
It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the west, and the Czech Republic to the northwest.

Ukraine

UkrainianUKRUkrainia
Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Lithuania, and Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast to the north, Belarus and Ukraine to the east, Slovakia and the Czech Republic to the south, and Germany to the west.
It is bordered by Russia to the north-east; Belarus to the north; Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west; and Romania, Moldova, and the Black Sea to the south.

Lithuania

LTURepublic of LithuaniaLithuanian
Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Lithuania, and Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast to the north, Belarus and Ukraine to the east, Slovakia and the Czech Republic to the south, and Germany to the west.
It is bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, and Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) to the southwest.

Czech Republic

CzechCZEthe Czech Republic
Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Lithuania, and Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast to the north, Belarus and Ukraine to the east, Slovakia and the Czech Republic to the south, and Germany to the west.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika ), also known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east, and Poland to the northeast.

Germany

GermanGERFederal Republic of Germany
Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Lithuania, and Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast to the north, Belarus and Ukraine to the east, Slovakia and the Czech Republic to the south, and Germany to the west.
It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands to the west.

Belarus

BLRRepublic of BelarusBelorussia
Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Lithuania, and Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast to the north, Belarus and Ukraine to the east, Slovakia and the Czech Republic to the south, and Germany to the west.
Belarus, officially the Republic of Belarus, formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.

Baltic Sea

BalticBaltic coastthe Baltic
Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Lithuania, and Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast to the north, Belarus and Ukraine to the east, Slovakia and the Czech Republic to the south, and Germany to the west.
The Baltic Sea is a mediterranean sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden, northeast Germany, Poland, Russia and the North and Central European Plain.

Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)

Kingdom of PolandPolandPolish
The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.
The Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie ; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) was the Polish state from the coronation of the first King Bolesław I the Brave in 1025 to the union with Lithuania and the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty in 1385.

Second Polish Republic

PolandPolishinterwar Poland
With the passing of prominence and prosperity, the country was partitioned by neighbouring states at the end of the 18th century, and regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland in the period between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).

Polish Golden Age

Golden AgeGolden Age of the CommonwealthGolden Age of Poland
With the passing of prominence and prosperity, the country was partitioned by neighbouring states at the end of the 18th century, and regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles.
The Polish Golden Age refers to the Renaissance period in Poland which lasted from the late 15th century to the death of Sigismund II Augustus, the last member of the Jagiellonian dynasty, in 1572.

Prehistory and protohistory of Poland

prehistory of PolandPrehistory of Poland (until 966)human activity on Polish soil
The history of human activity on Polish soil spans almost 500,000 years.
The prehistory and protohistory of Poland can be traced from the first appearance of Homo species on the territory of modern-day Poland, to the establishment of the Polish state in the 10th century AD, a span of roughly 500,000 years.

Union of Lublin

Lublin UnionTreaty of Lublinunion of Poland and Lithuania
The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.
The Union of Lublin (unia lubelska; Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest countries in Europe at the time.

Partitions of Poland

partition of Polandpartitionsfirst partition of Poland
With the passing of prominence and prosperity, the country was partitioned by neighbouring states at the end of the 18th century, and regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

Name of Poland

LachLyakhsNames of Poland
However, it was the Western Polans who dominated the region and gave Poland its name.
The ethnonyms for the Poles (people) and Poland (their country) include endonyms (the way Polish people refer to themselves and their country) and exonyms (the way other peoples refer to the Poles and their country).

Solidarity (Polish trade union)

SolidaritySolidarnośćSolidarity movement
In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic.
Solidarity (Solidarność, ; full name: Independent Self-governing Labour Union "Solidarity"—Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy "Solidarność" ) is a Polish labour union that was founded on 17 September 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa.

Grand Duchy of Lithuania

LithuaniaLithuanianGrand Duke of Lithuania
The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.
The Grand Duchy expanded to include large portions of the former Kievan Rus' and other Slavic lands, including what is now Belarus and parts of Ukraine, Poland and Russia.

North European Plain

Northern European LowlandsNorthern European PlainCentral European Plain
Throughout the Iron Age the area became extensively diverse, with various cultures and tribes settling on the vast Central European Plain.
The North European Plain (Norddeutsches Tiefland, 'North German Plain', or Mitteleuropäische Tiefebene; Nizina Środkowoeuropejska, 'Middle European Plain'; Nordeuropæiske Lavland and Noord-Europese Laagvlakte, both meaning 'Northern European Plain') is a geomorphological region in Europe, mostly in Poland, Denmark, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands (Low Countries), with small parts of northern France and Czech republic.