Poland

A reconstruction of a Bronze Age, Lusatian culture settlement in Biskupin, 8th century BC
Poland under the rule of Mieszko I, whose acceptance of Christianity under the auspices of the Latin Church and the Baptism of Poland marked the beginning of statehood in 966.
Casimir III the Great is the only Polish king to receive the title of Great. He built extensively during his reign, and reformed the Polish army along with the country's legal code, 1333–70.
The Battle of Grunwald was fought against the German Order of Teutonic Knights, and resulted in a decisive victory for the Kingdom of Poland, 15 July 1410.
Wawel Castle in Kraków, seat of Polish kings from 1038 until the capital was moved to Warsaw in 1596.
King John III Sobieski defeated the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683.
Stanisław II Augustus, the last King of Poland, reigned from 1764 until his abdication on 25 November 1795.
The partitions of Poland, carried out by the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), the Russian Empire (brown), and the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (green) in 1772, 1793 and 1795.
Chief of State Marshal Józef Piłsudski was a hero of the Polish independence campaign and the nation's premiere statesman from 1918 until his death on 12 May 1935.
Polish Army 7TP tanks on military manoeuvres shortly before the invasion of Poland in 1939
Pilots of the 303 Polish Fighter Squadron during the Battle of Britain, October 1940
Map of the Holocaust in German-occupied Poland with deportation routes and massacre sites. Major ghettos are marked with yellow stars. Nazi extermination camps are marked with white skulls in black squares. The border in 1941 between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union is marked in red.
At High Noon, 4 June 1989 — political poster featuring Gary Cooper to encourage votes for the Solidarity party in the 1989 elections
Flowers in front of the Presidential Palace following the death of Poland's top government officials in a plane crash on 10 April 2010
Topographic map of Poland
Morskie Oko alpine lake in the Tatra Mountains. Poland has one of the highest densities of lakes in the world.
The wisent, one of Poland's national animals, is commonly found at the ancient and UNESCO-protected Białowieża Forest.
The Sejm is the lower house of the parliament of Poland.
The Constitution of 3 May adopted in 1791 was the first modern constitution in Europe.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, located in Warsaw
Polish Air Force F-16s, a single-engine multirole fighter aircraft
A Mercedes-Benz Sprinter patrol van belonging to the Polish State Police Service (Policja)
The Old City of Zamość is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
PKP Intercity Pendolino at the Wrocław railway station
Physicist and chemist Maria Skłodowska-Curie was the first person to win two Nobel Prizes.
Nicolaus Copernicus, the 16th century Polish astronomer who formulated the heliocentric model of the solar system.
Population of Poland from 1900 to 2010 in millions of inhabitants
Dolina Jadwigi — a bilingual Polish-Kashubian road sign with the village name
John Paul II, born Karol Wojtyła, held the papacy between 1978-2005 and was the first Pole to become a Roman Catholic Pope.
Jagiellonian University in Kraków
The Polish White Eagle is Poland's enduring national and cultural symbol
All Saints' Day on 1 November is one of the most important public holidays in Poland.
Lady with an Ermine (1490) by Leonardo da Vinci. It symbolises Poland's cultural heritage and identity.
Selection of hearty traditional comfort food from Poland, including bigos, gołąbki, żurek, pierogi, placki ziemniaczane, and rye bread.
Traditional polonaise dresses, 1780–1785.
Andrzej Wajda, the recipient of an Honorary Oscar, the Palme d'Or, as well as Honorary Golden Lion and Golden Bear Awards.
Headquarters of the publicly funded national television network TVP in Warsaw
The Stadion Narodowy in Warsaw, home of the national football team, and one of the host stadiums of Euro 2012.

Country in Central Europe.

- Poland

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Map of the Baltic Sea region

Baltic Sea

Map of the Baltic Sea region
Danish Straits and southwestern Baltic Sea
Åland between Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia
Cape Arkona on the island of Rügen in Germany, was a sacred site of the Rani tribe before Christianization.
Main trading routes of the Hanseatic League (Hanse).
In 1649 the settlement of the Latvian-speaking Kursenieki spanned from Klaipėda to Gdańsk along the coast of the Baltic Sea.
The naval Battle of the Sound took place on 8 November 1658 during the Dano-Swedish War.
The burning Cap Arcona shortly after the attacks, 3 May 1945. Only 350 survived of the 4,500 prisoners who had been aboard
Baltic drainage basins (catchment area), with depth, elevation, major rivers and lakes
Curonian Spit in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia
Regions and basins of the Baltic Sea: 
1 = Bothnian Bay
2 = Bothnian Sea
1 + 2 = Gulf of Bothnia, partly also 3 & 4
3 = Archipelago Sea
4 = Åland Sea
5 = Gulf of Finland
6 = Northern Baltic Proper
7 = Western Gotland Basin
8 = Eastern Gotland Basin
9 = Gulf of Riga
10 = Bay of Gdańsk/Gdansk Basin
11 = Bornholm Basin and Hanö Bight
12 = Arkona Basin 6–12 = Baltic Proper
13 = Kattegat, not an integral part of the Baltic Sea
14 = Belt Sea (Little Belt and Great Belt)
15 = Öresund (The Sound) 14 + 15 = Danish Straits, not an integral part of the Baltic Sea
Satellite image of the Baltic Sea in a mild winter
Traversing Baltic Sea and ice
On particularly cold winters, the coastal parts of the Baltic Sea freeze into ice thick enough to walk or ski on.
Piles of drift ice on the shore of Puhtulaid, near Virtsu, Estonia, in late April
Depths of the Baltic Sea in meters
Baltic Sea near Klaipėda (Karklė).
Skerries form an integral and typical part of many of the archipelagos of the Baltic Sea, such as these in the archipelago of Åland, Finland.
Stockholm archipelago
Aerial view of Bornholm, Denmark
Population density in the Baltic Sea catchment area
Vasilyevsky Island in Saint Petersburg, Russia
Stockholm in Sweden
Riga in Latvia
Helsinki in Finland
Gdańsk in Poland
Tallinn in Estonia
Satellite photo of the Baltic Sea surrounding Gotland, Sweden, with algae bloom (phytoplankton) swirling in the water
Pedestrian pier in Sellin, Germany
Svetlogorsk resort town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia
Mrzeżyno beach in Poland

The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden and the North and Central European Plain.

Slovakia

Landlocked country in Central Europe.

Landlocked country in Central Europe.

A Venus from Moravany nad Váhom, which dates back to 22,800 BC
Left: a Celtic Biatec coin
Right: five Slovak crowns
A Roman inscription at the castle hill of Trenčín (178–179 AD)
A statue of Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius in Žilina. In 863, they introduced Christianity to what is now Slovakia.
Scire vos volumus, a letter written in 879 by Pope John VIII to Svatopluk I
Certain and disputed borders of Great Moravia under Svatopluk I (according to modern historians)
Stephen I, King of Hungary
One of the commanders of a Slovak volunteers' army captain Ján Francisci-Rimavský during the fight for independence from the Kingdom of Hungary
Czechoslovak declaration of independence by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk in the United States, 1918.
Adolf Hitler greeting Jozef Tiso, president of the (First) Slovak Republic, a client state of Nazi Germany during World War II, 1941.
Troops of Slovak anti-Nazi resistance movement in 1944.
The Velvet Revolution ended 41 years of authoritarian Communist rule in Czechoslovakia in 1989.
Slovakia became a member of the European Union in 2004 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
A topographical map of Slovakia
Slovak Paradise National Park
Domica Cave
Belá River
Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica in the Tatra Mountains
Former Slovak Prime Minister Peter Pellegrini with former U.S. President Donald Trump in the White House, 2019
Embassy of Japan in Bratislava
Bratislava, capital and largest city of Slovakia
National Bank of Slovakia in Bratislava
High-rise buildings in Bratislava's new business district
Slovakia is part of the Schengen Area, the EU single market, and since 2009, the Eurozone (dark blue)
High-rise buildings in Bratislava's business districts
ESET headquarters in Bratislava
A proportional representation of Slovakia's exports, 2019
Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce
Bojnice Castle
The centre of Bardejov – a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Cable cars at Jasná in the Tatra Mountains.
Spiš Castle
Population density in Slovakia. The two biggest cities are clearly visible, Bratislava in the far west and Košice in the east.
The Slovak alphabet has 46 characters, of which 3 are digraphs and 18 contain diacritics.
Comenius University headquarters in Bratislava
Wooden folk architecture can be seen in the well-preserved village of Vlkolínec, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Slovaks wearing folk costumes from Eastern Slovakia
Main altar in the Basilica of St. James, crafted by Master Paul of Levoča, 1517. It is the tallest wooden altar in the world.
Ľudovít Štúr, the creator of standard Slovak
Halušky with bryndza cheese, kapustnica soup and Zlatý Bažant dark beer—examples of Slovak cuisine
The Slovak national ice hockey team celebrating a victory against Sweden at the 2010 Winter Olympics
Football stadium Tehelné pole in Bratislava. Football is the most popular sport in Slovakia.

It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the southwest, and the Czech Republic to the northwest.

On this map, Carpathians (Eastern Carpathians) are called Alpes Bastarnicae

Carpathian Mountains

Arc across Central and Eastern Europe.

Arc across Central and Eastern Europe.

On this map, Carpathians (Eastern Carpathians) are called Alpes Bastarnicae
Geographical map of the Carpathian Mountains
Maramureș. Mountains in the north of Romania
Mukachevo, Western Ukraine
View from Sanok in Poland
Kežmarok in Slovakia
Hutsul people, living in the Carpathian mountains, circa 1872
Szczawnica in Poland, Pieniny, 1939
Shepherds in Beskids
The Feast of the Assumption of Mary in the Polish Carpathians
Vrátna dolina, Slovakia
Map of the main divisions of the Carpathians.

Roughly 1500 km long, it is the third-longest European mountain range after the Urals at 2500 km and the Scandinavian Mountains at 1700 km. The range stretches from the far eastern Czech Republic (3%) and Austria (1%) in the northwest through Slovakia (17%), Poland (10%), Hungary (4%), Ukraine (10%), Romania (50%) to Serbia (5%) in the south.

Kuyavia

Kujavian rapeseed field. The region is famous for its rapeseed oil, an essential component of local cuisine
Map of Kuyavia in the 15th-17th centuries
Old Town and Market Square in Bydgoszcz, the largest city of Kuyavia. The Cathedral of St. Martin and St. Nicholas can be seen in the background
Monument in the Valley of Death in Bydgoszcz
12th-century Holy Virgin Mary church in Inowrocław
Włocławek Cathedral
Gopło Lake and Mouse Tower of Kruszwica castle
Holy Trinity Church in Strzelno
Bydgoszcz riverfront with the Bydgoszcz Cathedral and White Granary
Church of the Assumption in Koronowo
Graduation towers in Ciechocinek
Solanka Park in Inowrocław
Czarna Droga Lock of the Bydgoszcz Canal
Bydgoszcz 19th century "The Eagle Hotel"

Kuyavia (Kujawy; Kujawien; Cuiavia), also referred to as Cuyavia, is a historical region in north-central Poland, situated on the left bank of Vistula, as well as east from Noteć River and Lake Gopło.

King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania – Sigismund II Augustus and Queen of Poland, Grand Duchess consort of Lithuania – Barbara Radziwiłł in Vilnius by Jan Matejko.

Polish Golden Age

King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania – Sigismund II Augustus and Queen of Poland, Grand Duchess consort of Lithuania – Barbara Radziwiłł in Vilnius by Jan Matejko.
Jagiellonian University in Kraków
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, the seminal work on the heliocentric theory of Renaissance astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543)
Nicolaus Copernicus, one of the most important astronomers in history
Jan Kochanowski, Polish Renaissance poet who established poetic patterns that would become integral to the Polish literary language
Tapestry with shield-bearing satyrs and monogram SA of king Sigismund Augustus, ca. 1555
Wawel Castle
Sigismund's Chapel serves as a tomb for the last Jagiellonian monarchs. Designed by Italian masters, the dome was covered with real gold to illustrate Poland's prosperity during the Golden Age.
Conception of the Polish Crown of Stanisław Orzechowski, a szlachta ideologist. In 1564 Orzechowski wrote Quincunx, in which he expounded principles of a state identified with its nobility.
Castle in Krasiczyn
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth at its maximum extent, after the Truce of Deulino in 1619, overlaid over modern borders.
Gdańsk in the 17th century
Sigismund III Vasa (1566-1632) was one of the most controversial Polish monarchs. Fervently Catholic and aiming to seize absolute power in the region, under his rule Poland was at its largest territorial extent
Shuysky Tribute, homage of the deposed Tsar of Russia Vasili IV Shuysky to Sigismund III of Poland
Władysław IV Vasa of Poland (1595-1648), portrait by Peter Paul Rubens. When the Polish army occupied Moscow in 1610 he was elected Tsar of Russia but did not assume the throne

The Polish Golden Age was the Renaissance period in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, roughly corresponding to the period of rule of the King Sigismund I the Old and his son, Sigismund II Augustus, the last of the Jagiellonian Dynasty monarchs, until his death in 1572.

Deeds of the Princes of the Poles

Piast dynasty

Deeds of the Princes of the Poles
Lands held by the Piast dynasty (992–1025), with a shaded area corresponding to the territory of present-day Poland
Denar Princes Polonie, 11th century (in the times of Bolesław I the Brave), one of the most recognizable coins in the history of Polish coinage.
Silesian Piasts Coat of Arms

The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland.

"Day, ut ia pobrusa, a ti poziwai", highlighted in red

Old Polish

Period in the history of the Polish language between the 10th and the 16th centuries.

Period in the history of the Polish language between the 10th and the 16th centuries.

"Day, ut ia pobrusa, a ti poziwai", highlighted in red
One of the signs used to write nasal vowels in Old Polish

The Old Polish language was spoken mainly on the territory of modern Poland.

Gniezno

Medieval seal of Gniezno
King Władysław IV Vasa confirms the old privileges of Gniezno, 1635
19th-century painting of Gniezno
Memorial at the site of a German execution of 24 Poles in November 1939 in the Dalki district
Gniezno during the visit of Pope John Paul II in 1979
View of Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Adalbert. On the right side - church under the invocation of St. John the Baptist
Panorama of Gniezno. 19th century
Gniezno Old Town
Aleksander Fredro Theatre in Gniezno
Regional court
Gniezno Doors in the Cathedral
Coffin of Adalbert of Prague in the Cathedral
Market Square (Rynek)
Holy Trinity church
Franciscan church
Gothic Saint John the Baptist church in winter
Saint Lawrence church
Monument of King Bolesław I the Brave with the Cathedral in the background
Museum of the Polish State Origins
Museum of Archdiocese in Gniezno
Episcopal palace of Primates of Poland
Saint George's Church

Gniezno (Gnesen) is a city in central-western Poland, about 50 km east of Poznań, with 68,943 inhabitants making it the sixth-largest city in the Greater Poland Voivodeship.

Adalbert of Prague

Monument to Adalbert and his brother Gaudentius, Libice nad Cidlinou, Czech Republic.
Adalbert on a seal of the chapter of Gniezno Cathedral (Gnesen)
Poland, Bohemia and Prussia during the reign of Bolesław the Brave.
The execution of Saint Adalbert by the pagan Prussians, Gniezno Doors.
Silver coffin of Adalbert, Cathedral in Gniezno
Canonical cross of Saint Adalbert by Giennadij Jerszow. Collegiate Capitol in Gdańsk. Silver-Gold 2011
Statue of Saint Adalbert at Prague

Adalbert of Prague (Sanctus Adalbertus, svatý Vojtěch, svätý Vojtech, święty Wojciech, Szent Adalbert (Béla); c. undefined 956 – 23 April 997), known in Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia by his birth name Vojtěch (Voitecus), was a Bohemian missionary and Christian saint.

An early wheel made of a solid piece of wood

Wheel

Circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing.

Circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing.

An early wheel made of a solid piece of wood
This Ljubljana Marshes Wheel with axle is the oldest wooden wheel yet discovered dating to Copper Age (c. 3,130 BCE)
A depiction of an onager-drawn cart on the Sumerian "War" panel of the Standard of Ur (c. 2500 BCE)
Solid wheels on a heavy temple car, contrasted with the lighter wire-spoked wheels of the black roadster bicycle in the foreground
A figurine featuring the New World's independently invented wheel. Among the places where wheeled toys were found, Mesoamerica is the only one where the wheel was never put to practical use before the 16th century.
Three spoked wheels on an antique tricycle
An aluminium alloy wheel
A spoked wheel on display at The National Museum of Iran, in Tehran. The wheel is dated to the late 2nd millennium BCE and was excavated at Choqa Zanbil.
A wheel with car tire made by BMW company
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Depictions of a wheeled vehicle appeared between 3631 and 3380 BCE in the Bronocice clay pot excavated in a Funnelbeaker culture settlement in southern Poland.