Polarizer

circular polarizerpolarizing filterpolarizedpolarizersMalus's lawpolariserpolarizinglinear polarizerpolarizing beam splitterpolarizing filters
A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that lets light waves of a specific polarization pass through while blocking light waves of other polarizations.wikipedia
208 Related Articles

Liquid-crystal display

LCDliquid crystal displayLCD screen
Polarizers are used in many optical techniques and instruments, and polarizing filters find applications in photography and LCD technology. The durability and practicality of Polaroid makes it the most common type of polarizer in use, for example for sunglasses, photographic filters, and liquid crystal displays.
A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals combined with polarizers.

Sunglasses

shadessunglassdark glasses
The durability and practicality of Polaroid makes it the most common type of polarizer in use, for example for sunglasses, photographic filters, and liquid crystal displays.
They can sometimes also function as a visual aid, as variously termed spectacles or glasses exist, featuring lenses that are colored, polarized or darkened.

Polaroid (polarizer)

PolaroidpolarizedPolarizing film
A Polaroid polarizing filter functions similarly on an atomic scale to the wire-grid polarizer.
Polaroid is a type of synthetic plastic sheet which is used as a polarizer or polarizing filter.

Beam splitter

beamsplitteroptical splitterbeam-splitter
Beam-splitting polarizers split the incident beam into two beams of differing linear polarization.
Polarizing beam splitters, such as the Wollaston prism, use birefringent materials, splitting light into beams of differing polarization.

Nicol prism

Nicolcontributions to sciencemade from a special Icelandic crystal
A Nicol prism was an early type of birefringent polarizer, that consists of a crystal of calcite which has been split and rejoined with Canada balsam.
A Nicol prism is a type of polarizer, an optical device made from calcite crystal used to produce and analyse plane polarized light.

Optics

opticalopticoptical system
Polarizers are used in many optical techniques and instruments, and polarizing filters find applications in photography and LCD technology.
Media that reduce the amplitude of certain polarization modes are called dichroic, with devices that block nearly all of the radiation in one mode known as polarizing filters or simply "polarisers".

Optical filter

filterfiltersoptical filters
A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that lets light waves of a specific polarization pass through while blocking light waves of other polarizations.
Another kind of optical filter is a polarizer or polarization filter, which blocks or transmits light according to its polarization.

Rochon prism

Rochon
The Rochon and Sénarmont prisms are similar, but use different optical axis orientations in the two prisms.
A Rochon prism is a type of polariser.

Glan–Taylor prism

Glan–laser prism
Nicol prisms produce a very high purity of polarized light, and were extensively used in microscopy, though in modern use they have been mostly replaced with alternatives such as the Glan–Thompson prism, Glan–Foucault prism, and Glan–Taylor prism.
A Glan–Taylor prism is a type of prism which is used as a polarizer or polarizing beam splitter.

Birefringence

birefringentdouble refractionbiaxial
Other linear polarizers exploit the birefringent properties of crystals such as quartz and calcite.
Polarizers are routinely used to detect stress in plastics such as polystyrene and polycarbonate.

Glan–Foucault prism

Glan–Foucault
Nicol prisms produce a very high purity of polarized light, and were extensively used in microscopy, though in modern use they have been mostly replaced with alternatives such as the Glan–Thompson prism, Glan–Foucault prism, and Glan–Taylor prism.
A Glan–Foucault prism (also called a Glan–air prism) is a type of prism which is used as a polarizer.

Sénarmont prism

SénarmontSénarmont prism polarizer
The Rochon and Sénarmont prisms are similar, but use different optical axis orientations in the two prisms.
The Sénarmont prism is a type of polariser.

Photographic filter

Filterfiltersphotographic filters
The durability and practicality of Polaroid makes it the most common type of polarizer in use, for example for sunglasses, photographic filters, and liquid crystal displays.
Linear polarising filters, while effective, can interfere with metering and auto-focus mechanisms when mirrors or beam-splitters are in the light path, as in the digital single lens reflex camera; a circular polarizer is also effective, and does not affect metering or auto-focus.

Wollaston prism

Wollaston
A Wollaston prism is another birefringent polarizer consisting of two triangular calcite prisms with orthogonal crystal axes that are cemented together.
It separates light into two separate linearly polarized outgoing beams with orthogonal polarization.

Polarized 3D system

polarized 3D glasses3D glassespolarized 3D
They are used as polarizing filters in photography to reduce oblique reflections from non-metallic surfaces, and are the lenses of the 3D glasses worn for viewing some stereoscopic movies (notably, the RealD 3D variety), where the polarization of light is used to differentiate which image should be seen by the left and right eye.
To present stereoscopic images and films, two images are projected superimposed onto the same screen or display through different polarizing filters.

Brewster's angle

Brewster angleBrewster windowBrewster's law
At a special angle known as Brewster's angle, no p-polarized light is reflected from the surface, thus all reflected light must be s-polarized, with an electric field perpendicular to the plane of incidence.
A glass plate or a stack of plates placed at Brewster's angle in a light beam can, thus, be used as a polarizer.

Polarizing filter (photography)

polarizing filterpolarizing filterspolarising filter
Polarizers are used in many optical techniques and instruments, and polarizing filters find applications in photography and LCD technology. They are used as polarizing filters in photography to reduce oblique reflections from non-metallic surfaces, and are the lenses of the 3D glasses worn for viewing some stereoscopic movies (notably, the RealD 3D variety), where the polarization of light is used to differentiate which image should be seen by the left and right eye.
For modern cameras, a circular polarizer (product labeling abbreviation: CPL) is typically used; this comprises firstly a linear polarizer which performs the artistic function just described, followed by a quarter-wave plate which further transforms the now-linearly polarized light into circularly-polarised light before entering the camera.

Optical rotation

optical activityoptically activeoptically inactive
This effect is used in polarimetry to measure the optical activity of a sample.
Modulation of a liquid crystal's optical activity, viewed between two sheet polarizers, is the principle of operation of liquid-crystal displays (used in most modern televisions and computer monitors).

Glan–Thompson prism

Nicol prisms produce a very high purity of polarized light, and were extensively used in microscopy, though in modern use they have been mostly replaced with alternatives such as the Glan–Thompson prism, Glan–Foucault prism, and Glan–Taylor prism.
The prism can therefore be used as a polarizing beam splitter.

Polarization (waves)

polarizationpolarizedpolarized light
A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that lets light waves of a specific polarization pass through while blocking light waves of other polarizations.
Polarized light can be produced by passing unpolarized light through a polarizer, which allows waves of only one polarization to pass through.

Stereoscopy

stereoscopicstereoscopic 3D3D
They are used as polarizing filters in photography to reduce oblique reflections from non-metallic surfaces, and are the lenses of the 3D glasses worn for viewing some stereoscopic movies (notably, the RealD 3D variety), where the polarization of light is used to differentiate which image should be seen by the left and right eye.
To present stereoscopic pictures, two images are projected superimposed onto the same screen through polarizing filters or presented on a display with polarized filters.

Étienne-Louis Malus

MalusMalus, Etienne LouisMalus, Étienne-Louis
Malus's law, which is named after Étienne-Louis Malus, says that when a perfect polarizer is placed in a polarized beam of light, the irradiance, I, of the light that passes through is given by
Malus is probably best remembered for Malus's law, giving the resultant intensity, when a polariser is placed in the path of an incident beam.

RealD 3D

RealD CinemaReal D 3DRealD
They are used as polarizing filters in photography to reduce oblique reflections from non-metallic surfaces, and are the lenses of the 3D glasses worn for viewing some stereoscopic movies (notably, the RealD 3D variety), where the polarization of light is used to differentiate which image should be seen by the left and right eye.
The audience wears circularly polarized glasses that have oppositely polarized lenses that ensures each eye sees only its designated frame.

Polarimetry

polarimetricpolariscopespectropolarimetry
This effect is used in polarimetry to measure the optical activity of a sample.
The most sensitive are based on interferometers, while more conventional polarimeters are based on arrangements of polarising filters, wave plates or other devices.

Extinction cross

The extinction cross is an optical phenomenon that is seen when trying to extinguish a laser beam or non-planar white light using crossed polarizers.