Poles

PolishPolePolish peoplePolish nationethnic PolesPolandethnic PolishPolish descentPolish nationalityethnically Polish
For a specific analysis of the population of Poland, see Demographics of Polandwikipedia
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Polish diaspora

PoloniaPolishPolish community
A wide-ranging Polish diaspora (the Polonia) exists throughout Europe, the Americas, and in Australasia.
The Polish diaspora refers to Poles and people of Polish heritage or origin who live outside Poland.

Polish language

PolishplPolish-language
The Poles (Polacy, ; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history, and are native speakers of the Polish language.
It is spoken primarily in Poland and serves as the native language of the Poles.

West Slavs

West SlavicWestern SlavsSlavic
The Poles (Polacy, ; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history, and are native speakers of the Polish language. undefined 930–960 AD, when the Polans – an influential West Slavic tribe in the Greater Poland region, now home to such cities as Poznań, Gniezno, Kalisz, Konin and Września – united various Lechitic tribes under what became the Piast dynasty, thus creating the Polish state.
West Slavic speaking nations today include the Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Sorbs and ethnic groups Kashubians, Moravians and Silesians.

History of Poland

feudal fragmentation of PolandPolish historyKingdom of Poland
The Poles (Polacy, ; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history, and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Millions of Polish citizens perished in the course of the Nazi occupation of Poland between 1939 and 1945 as Germany classified ethnic Poles and other Slavs, Jews and Romani (Gypsies) as subhuman.

Lechites

LechiticLechitic tribesLech
undefined 930–960 AD, when the Polans – an influential West Slavic tribe in the Greater Poland region, now home to such cities as Poznań, Gniezno, Kalisz, Konin and Września – united various Lechitic tribes under what became the Piast dynasty, thus creating the Polish state.
Lechites, or Lekhites, (Lechici) is a name given to certain tribes of West Slavic peoples, including the ancestors of modern Poles and the historical Pomeranians and Polabians, speakers of the Lechitic languages.

Slavs

SlavicSlavSlavic peoples
Slavs have been in the territory of modern Poland for over 1500 years.
Present-day Slavic people are classified into East Slavs (chiefly Belarusians, Russians, Rusyns, and Ukrainians), West Slavs (chiefly Czechs, Kashubs, Moravians, Poles, Silesians, Slovaks and Sorbs), and South Slavs (chiefly Bosniaks, Bulgarians, Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Serbs and Slovenes).

Polish Americans

PolishPolish-AmericanPolish American
There is a notable Polish diaspora in the United States, Brazil, and Canada.
Polish Americans are Americans who have total or partial Polish ancestry.

Polish Canadians

PolishPolish CanadianPolish-Canadian
There is a notable Polish diaspora in the United States, Brazil, and Canada.
Polish Canadians are citizens of Canada with Polish ancestry, and Poles who immigrated to Canada from abroad.

Jan Ludwik Popławski

The concept which has become known as the Piast Idea, the chief proponent of which was Jan Ludwik Popławski, is based on the statement that the Piast homeland was inhabited by so-called "native" aboriginal Slavs and Slavonic Poles since time immemorial and only later was "infiltrated" by "alien" Celts, Germans, Baltic peoples and others.
Jan Ludwik Popławski (17 January 1854 in Bystrzejowice Pierwsze – 12 March 1908 in Warsaw) was a Polish journalist, author, politician and one of the first chief activists and ideologues of the right-wing National Democracy political camp.

Polish cuisine

PolishPolanddishes
The city of Curitiba has the second largest Polish diaspora in the world (after Chicago) and Polish music, dishes and culture are quite common in the region.
Many Poles allow themselves a generous amount of time to serve and enjoy their festive meals, especially Christmas Eve supper (Wigilia) or Easter breakfast, which could take a number of days to prepare in their entirety.

Belarus

BLRRepublic of BelarusBelorussia
There are also Polish minorities in the surrounding countries including (Germany), and indigenous minorities in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, northern and eastern Lithuania, western Ukraine, and western Belarus.
More than 80% of the population is ethnic Belarusian, with sizable minorities of Russians, Poles and Ukrainians.

Culture of Lithuania

Lithuanian cultureLithuanianArchitecture of Lithuania
Poland, located in Central Europe, developed a character that was influenced by its geography at the confluence of fellow Central European cultures (Austrian, Czech, German, Hungarian, and Slovak) as well as from Western European cultures (French, Spanish and Dutch), Southern European cultures (Italian and Greek), Baltic/Northeastern cultures (Lithuanian, Estonian and Latvian), Eastern European cultures (Belarusian and Ukrainian) and Western Asian/Caucasian cultures (Ottoman Turkish, Armenian, and Georgian).
In the 2001 census, 83.45% of the population identified themselves as ethnic Lithuanians, 6.74% as Poles, 6.31% as Russians, 1.23% as Belarusians, and 2.27% as members of other ethnic groups.

Konin

37 – KoninKonin, Polandking's castle
undefined 930–960 AD, when the Polans – an influential West Slavic tribe in the Greater Poland region, now home to such cities as Poznań, Gniezno, Kalisz, Konin and Września – united various Lechitic tribes under what became the Piast dynasty, thus creating the Polish state.
Poles, Jews, Germans and Scots were the town's four main ethnic groups.

Tamara de Lempicka

Notable Polish émigrés – many of them forced from their homeland by historic vicissitudes – have included physicist Joseph Rotblat, mathematician Stanisław Ulam, pianist Arthur Rubinstein, actresses Helena Modjeska and Pola Negri, military leaders Tadeusz Kościuszko and Casimir Pulaski, U.S. National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, politician Rosa Luxemburg, painter Tamara de Lempicka, filmmakers Samuel Goldwyn and the Warner Brothers, cartoonist Max Fleischer, and cosmeticians Helena Rubinstein and Max Factor.
Her father was Boris Gurwik-Górski, a Russian Jewish attorney for a French trading company, and her mother was Malwina Decler, a Polish Catholic socialite who had lived most of her life abroad and who met her husband at one of the European spas.

Recovered Territories

Area recoveredformer German territoriesgranted
Poles resettled in the "Recovered Territories" in the west and north.
Over the centuries, however, they had become predominantly German-speaking through the processes of German eastward settlement (Ostsiedlung), political expansion (Drang nach Osten), as well as language shift due to assimilation (see also: Germanisation) of local Polish, Slavic and Baltic Prussian population.

Culture of Poland

Polish cultureculturePolish
The Poles (Polacy, ; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history, and are native speakers of the Polish language. The city of Curitiba has the second largest Polish diaspora in the world (after Chicago) and Polish music, dishes and culture are quite common in the region.
In the early Middle Ages, before their speakers had become Germanized, Pomeranian languages and dialects were spoken along the Baltic in an area extending from the lower Vistula River to the lower Oder River." used throughout Poland (being that country's official language) and by Polish minorities in other countries. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet, which corresponds to the Latin alphabet with several additions. Despite the pressure of non-Polish administrations in Poland, who have often attempted to suppress the Polish language, a rich literature has developed over the centuries. The language is currently the largest, in speakers, of the West Slavic group. It is the second most widely spoken Slavic language, after Russian and ahead of Ukrainian. Polish is mainly spoken in Poland. Poland is one of the most linguistically homogeneous European countries; nearly 97% of Poland's citizens declare Polish as their mother tongue.

Lviv

LwówLembergLvov
In Ukraine it is most common in the western Lviv and Volyn oblast (provinces), while in western Belarus it is used by the significant Polish minority, especially in the Brest and Grodno regions and in areas along the Lithuanian border.
The town grew quickly due to an influx of Polish people from Kraków, Poland, after they had suffered a widespread famine there.

Moldova

Republic of MoldovaMDAMoldavian
There are some smaller indigenous minorities in nearby countries such as Moldova.
Despite being disfavored by the brief union of Angevin Poland and Hungary (the latter was still the country's overlord), Bogdan's successor Lațcu, the Moldavian ruler also likely allied himself with the Poles.

Stefan Banach

BanachBanach, StefanBanacha
Outstanding Polish mathematicians formed the Lwów School of Mathematics (including Stefan Banach, Hugo Steinhaus, Stanisław Ulam) and Warsaw School of Mathematics (including Alfred Tarski, Kazimierz Kuratowski, Wacław Sierpiński).
Stefan Banach (Polish: ; 30 March 1892 – 31 August 1945) was a Polish mathematician who is generally considered one of the world's most important and influential 20th-century mathematicians.

Kazimierz Kuratowski

KuratowskiCasimir KuratowskiKuratowski, Kazimierz
Outstanding Polish mathematicians formed the Lwów School of Mathematics (including Stefan Banach, Hugo Steinhaus, Stanisław Ulam) and Warsaw School of Mathematics (including Alfred Tarski, Kazimierz Kuratowski, Wacław Sierpiński).
Kazimierz Kuratowski (2 February 1896 – 18 June 1980) was a Polish mathematician and logician.

Ignacy Domeyko

Ignacio DomeykoIgnacy DomejkoDomejko
Another notable Polish expatriate scientist was Ignacy Domeyko (1802–89), a geologist and mineralogist who lived and worked in South America, in Chile.
Ignacy Domeyko or Domejko, pseudonym: Żegota (Ignacio Domeyko, ; born near Nieśwież, now Karelichy District, Belarus, 31 July 1802 – 23 January 1889, Santiago de Chile) was a Polish geologist, mineralogist and educator.

Hilary Koprowski

Hilary Koprowski, M.D.
Hilary Koprowski (1916 – 2013) was a Polish virologist and immunologist, and the inventor of the world's first effective live polio vaccine.
Hilary Koprowski (5 December 1916 – 11 April 2013) was a Polish virologist and immunologist active in the United States; inventor of the world's first effective live polio vaccine.

Vilnius

VilnaWilnoVilnius, Lithuania
Polish is the most widely used minority language in Lithuania's Vilnius County (26% of the population, according to the 2001 census results) and is found elsewhere in northeastern and western Lithuania.
From the late 1940s on Vilnius began to grow again, following an influx of Lithuanians, Poles and Belarusians from neighbouring regions within Lithuania as well as neighbouring region of Grodno and from other more remote areas of the Soviet Union (particularly Russia, Belarus and Ukraine).

Curitiba

Curitiba, BrazilCuritiba, ParanáCuritiba Master Plan
The city of Curitiba has the second largest Polish diaspora in the world (after Chicago) and Polish music, dishes and culture are quite common in the region.
Objects like an old wagon, pipe of cabbage and a print of the Black Madonna of Częstochowa (patron saint of the Polish people), form parts of the memorial.

Michał Kleofas Ogiński

Michał OgińskiMichal Kleofas OginskiMichal Kleofas Ogiński
Polonaises for piano were and remain popular, such as those by Michał Kleofas Ogiński, Karol Kurpiński, Juliusz Zarębski, Henryk Wieniawski, Mieczysław Karłowicz, Józef Elsner, and, most famously, Fryderyk Chopin.
Michał Kleofas Ogiński (25 September 1765 – 15 October 1833) was a Polish diplomat and politician, Grand Treasurer of Lithuania, and a senator of Tsar Alexander I.