Polio

poliomyelitisinfantile paralysisparalytic polioAcute poliomyelitisbulbar poliopolio epidemicbulbar poliomyelitisinfantile paralysis (polio)paralytic poliomyelitispoliomyelitis, bulbar
Polio, short for poliomyelitis, or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.wikipedia
2,096 Related Articles

Poliovirus

polio viruspoliopolioviruses
Polio, short for poliomyelitis, or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. Poliomyelitis is caused by infection with a member of the genus Enterovirus known as poliovirus (PV).
Poliovirus, the causative agent of polio (also known as poliomyelitis), is a member virus of Enterovirus C, in the family of Picornaviridae.

Polio vaccine

oral polio vaccineSalk vaccinepolio vaccination
The disease is preventable with the polio vaccine; however, multiple doses are required for it to be effective.
Polio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio).

Post-polio syndrome

post-poliopostpoliomyelitis syndromePost-polio progressive muscular atrophy
Years after recovery, post-polio syndrome may occur, with a slow development of muscle weakness similar to that which the person had during the initial infection.
Post-polio syndrome (PPS, poliomyelitis sequelae) are latent symptoms of poliomyelitis (polio), occurring at about a 25% to 40% rate (latest data greater than 80%).

Polio eradication

Poliomyelitis eradicationEradication of polioeradicate polio
In 2013, the World Health Organization had hoped that vaccination efforts and early detection of cases would result in global eradication of the disease by 2018.
A public health effort to permanently eliminate all cases of poliomyelitis (polio) infection around the world began in 1988, led by the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Rotary Foundation.

List of childhood diseases and disorders

childhood diseaseschildhood diseaseList of childhood diseases
In the 20th century it became one of the most worrying childhood diseases in these areas.
[[File:Childhood-cluster diseases world map - DALY - WHO2002.svg|thumb|upright=1.5|Disability-adjusted life year for childhood-cluster diseases per 100,000 inhabitants. These include pertussis, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, measles, and tetanus.

Flaccid paralysis

flaccidacute flaccid paralysisflaccidity
In about 0.5 percent of cases, there is muscle weakness resulting in an inability to move. About one to five in 1000 cases progress to paralytic disease, in which the muscles become weak, floppy and poorly controlled, and, finally, completely paralyzed; this condition is known as acute flaccid paralysis.
AFP is the most common sign of acute polio, and used for surveillance during polio outbreaks.

Jonas Salk

SalkDr. Jonas SalkJonas E. Salk
The first polio vaccine was developed in the 1950s by Jonas Salk.
Until 1955, when the Salk vaccine was introduced, polio was considered one of the most frightening public health problems in the world.

Vaccination

vaccinationsvaccinatedvaccinating
In 2013, the World Health Organization had hoped that vaccination efforts and early detection of cases would result in global eradication of the disease by 2018.

RNA virus

RNA virusesRNARNA genome
This group of RNA viruses colonize the gastrointestinal tract – specifically the oropharynx and the intestine.
Notable human diseases caused by RNA viruses include Ebola virus disease, SARS, rabies, common cold, influenza, hepatitis C, hepatitis E, West Nile fever, polio and measles.

Fecal–oral route

fecal-oral routefecal-oralfaecal-oral route
Poliovirus is usually spread from person to person through infected fecal matter entering the mouth. The disease is transmitted primarily via the fecal-oral route, by ingesting contaminated food or water.
Diseases caused by fecal-oral transmission include diarrhea, typhoid, cholera, polio and hepatitis.

Paralysis

paralyzedparalysedparalytic
About one to five in 1000 cases progress to paralytic disease, in which the muscles become weak, floppy and poorly controlled, and, finally, completely paralyzed; this condition is known as acute flaccid paralysis.
Other major causes are stroke, trauma with nerve injury, poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy, peripheral neuropathy, Parkinson's disease, ALS, botulism, spina bifida, multiple sclerosis, and Guillain–Barré syndrome.

Infection

infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfections
Polio, short for poliomyelitis, or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.
For example, less than 5% of individuals infected with polio develop disease.

World Health Organization

WHOWorld Health OrganisationWorld Health Organization (WHO)
In 2013, the World Health Organization had hoped that vaccination efforts and early detection of cases would result in global eradication of the disease by 2018.
1998: WHO's Director-General highlighted gains in child survival, reduced infant mortality, increased life expectancy and reduced rates of "scourges" such as smallpox and polio on the fiftieth anniversary of WHO's founding.

Enterovirus

enterovirusesenteroviralenterovirus infections
Poliomyelitis is caused by infection with a member of the genus Enterovirus known as poliovirus (PV).
Historically, poliomyelitis was the most significant disease caused by an enterovirus, namely poliovirus.

Transmission (medicine)

transmissiondisease transmissiontransmissible disease
The disease is transmitted primarily via the fecal-oral route, by ingesting contaminated food or water.
For example, if it is noted that polio is more common in cities in underdeveloped countries, without a clean water supply, than in cities with a good plumbing system, we might advance the theory that polio is spread by the fecal-oral route.

Passive immunity

maternal antibodiespassive immunizationimmunization, passive
Maternal antibodies also cross the placenta, providing passive immunity that protects the infant from polio infection during the first few months of life.
Immunization is often required shortly following birth to prevent diseases in newborns such as tuberculosis, hepatitis B, polio, and pertussis, however, maternal IgG can inhibit the induction of protective vaccine responses throughout the first year of life.

Michael Underwood (physician)

Michael Underwood
The disease was first recognized as a distinct condition by the English physician Michael Underwood in 1789 and the virus that causes it was first identified in 1908 by the Austrian immunologist Karl Landsteiner.
In 1789, he became the first person to give a clinical description of Poliomyelitis, which he referred to as "a debility of the lower extremities."

Karl Landsteiner

LandsteinerLandsteiner, Kari
The disease was first recognized as a distinct condition by the English physician Michael Underwood in 1789 and the virus that causes it was first identified in 1908 by the Austrian immunologist Karl Landsteiner.
During that time he discovered – in co-operation with Erwin Popper – the infectious character of poliomyelitis and isolated the polio virus.

Influenza-like illness

flu-like symptomsacute respiratory infectionflu-like
Rarely, the infection produces minor symptoms; these may include upper respiratory tract infection (sore throat and fever), gastrointestinal disturbances (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation or, rarely, diarrhea), and influenza-like illness.
Infectious diseases causing ILI include malaria, acute HIV/AIDS infection, herpes, hepatitis C, Lyme disease, rabies, myocarditis, Q fever, dengue fever, poliomyelitis, pneumonia, measles, and many others.

Asymptomatic

subclinicalsub-clinicalno symptoms
In up to 70 percent of infections there are no symptoms.

William Hammon

In 1950, William Hammon at the University of Pittsburgh purified the gamma globulin component of the blood plasma of polio survivors.
William McDowall Hammon (1904 – September 19, 1989) was an American physician and researcher, best known for his work on poliomyelitis.

Subclinical infection

subclinicalasymptomaticasymptomatically
In most people with a normal immune system, a poliovirus infection is asymptomatic.

University of Pittsburgh

PittsburghPittWestern University of Pennsylvania
In 1950, William Hammon at the University of Pittsburgh purified the gamma globulin component of the blood plasma of polio survivors.
In the early 20th century, epidemics of polio began to hit the United States and other industrialized countries.

Asymptomatic carrier

carriercarriershealthy carrier
It is important to determine the source of the virus because for each reported case of paralytic polio caused by wild poliovirus, an estimated 200 to 3,000 other contagious asymptomatic carriers exist.
Viral diseases such as hepatitis and poliomyelitis are frequently transmitted in this manner.

Iron lung

negative pressure ventilatorEmerson iron lungiron lung machines
Historically, a noninvasive, negative-pressure ventilator, more commonly called an iron lung, was used to artificially maintain respiration during an acute polio infection until a person could breathe independently (generally about one to two weeks).
Need for this treatment may result from certain diseases (e.g. polio, botulism) and certain poisons (e.g. barbiturates, tubocurarine).