Polis

poleiscity-statescity-stateGreek city-statescityGreek city-statecitiescity statetowncity states
Polis, plural poleis literally means city in Greek.wikipedia
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List of ancient Greek cities

Greek city statesancient Greekancient Greek city
In modern historiography, polis is normally used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states, like Classical Athens and its contemporaries, and thus is often translated as "city-state".
These were often referred to as poleis in the ancient world, although the list is not limited to "proper" poleis.

Classical Athens

AthensAthenianAthenians
In modern historiography, polis is normally used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states, like Classical Athens and its contemporaries, and thus is often translated as "city-state".
The city of Athens (, Athênai [a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯]; Modern Greek: Αθήναι Athine or, more commonly and in singular, Αθήνα Athina [a.'θi.na]) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (480–323 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League.

Ancient Greece

Greekancient Greekancient Greeks
The Ancient Greek city-state developed during the Archaic period as the ancestor of city, state, and citizenship and persisted (though with decreasing influence) well into Roman times, when the equivalent Latin word was civitas, also meaning "citizenhood", while municipium applied to a non-sovereign local entity.
Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin.

City

citiesUrbanCivil (City)
Polis, plural poleis literally means city in Greek.
The Roman civitas was closely linked with the Greek polis—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis.

Archaic Greece

ArchaicArchaic periodArchaic Greek
The Ancient Greek city-state developed during the Archaic period as the ancestor of city, state, and citizenship and persisted (though with decreasing influence) well into Roman times, when the equivalent Latin word was civitas, also meaning "citizenhood", while municipium applied to a non-sovereign local entity.
It began with a "structural revolution" that "drew the political map of the Greek world" and established the poleis, the distinctively Greek city-states, and it ended with the intellectual revolution of the Classical period.

Athens

Athens, GreeceAthenianAthenians
The ancient Greeks did not always refer to Athens, Sparta, Thebes, and other poleis as such; they often spoke instead of the Athenians, Lacedaemonians, Thebans and so on.
Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus.

Khôra

choraa state between being and nothingchōra
These cities consisted of a fortified city centre (asty) built on an acropolis or harbor and controlled surrounding territories of land (khôra).
Khôra (also chora; ) was the territory of the Ancient Greek polis outside the city proper.

City-state

city statecity-statescity states
In modern historiography, polis is normally used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states, like Classical Athens and its contemporaries, and thus is often translated as "city-state". The Hellenistic colonies and cities of the era retain some basic characteristics of a polis, except the status of independence (city-state) and the political life.
Historical city-states included Sumerian cities such as Uruk and Ur; Ancient Egyptian city-states, such as Thebes and Memphis; the Phoenician cities (such as Tyre and Sidon); the five Philistine city-states; the Berber city-states of the Garamantes; the city-states of ancient Greece (the poleis such as Athens, Sparta, Thebes, and Corinth); the Roman Republic (which grew from a city-state into a great power); the Mayan and other cultures of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica (including cities such as Chichen Itza, Tikal, Copán and Monte Albán); the central Asian cities along the Silk Road; the city-states of the Swahili coast; Venice; Ragusa; states of the medieval Russian lands such as Novgorod and Pskov; and many others.

Asty

These cities consisted of a fortified city centre (asty) built on an acropolis or harbor and controlled surrounding territories of land (khôra).
Asty is an ancient Greek word denoting the physical space of a city or town, especially as opposed to the political concept of a polis, which encompassed the entire territory and citizen body of a city-state.

Politeia

Polity (Aristotle)πολιτείαpolity
Plato analyzes the polis in The Republic, whose Greek title, Πολιτεία (Politeia), itself derives from the word polis.
Derived from the word polis ("city-state"), it has a range of meanings, from "the rights of citizens" to a "form of government".

Greek colonisation

Greek coloniesGreek colonycolony
Many colonies that were founded in this period evolved into strong city-states and became independent of their metropoleis.

Theatre of ancient Greece

Greek theatreGreek dramaancient Greek theatre
The city-state of Athens, which became a significant cultural, political, and military power during this period, was its center, where it was institutionalised as part of a festival called the Dionysia, which honored the god Dionysus.

Ancient Greek temple

Greek templetempletemples
The construction of temples was usually organised and financed by cities or by the administrations of sanctuaries.

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
The Ancient Greek city-state developed during the Archaic period as the ancestor of city, state, and citizenship and persisted (though with decreasing influence) well into Roman times, when the equivalent Latin word was civitas, also meaning "citizenhood", while municipium applied to a non-sovereign local entity.
Rome differed from Greek city-states in allowing freed slaves to become citizens.

Achaean League

AchaeansAchaeanAchaian League
Achaean League is the last example of original Greek city-state federations (dissolved after the Battle of Corinth (146 BC)).
The Achaean League (Greek: Κοινὸν τῶν Ἀχαιῶν, Koinon ton Akhaion 'League of Achaeans') was a Hellenistic-era confederation of Greek city states on the northern and central Peloponnese.

Metic

meticsmétèquesmétèque
Demographic decline forced the cities to abolish the status of metic and bestow citizenship; in 228 BC, Miletus enfranchised over 1,000 Cretans.
In ancient Greece, a metic (Ancient Greek: μέτοικος, métoikos: from μετά, metá, indicating change, and οἶκος, oîkos "dwelling") was a foreign resident of Athens, one who did not have citizen rights in their Greek city-state (polis) of residence.

Republic (Plato)

RepublicThe RepublicPlato's Republic
Plato analyzes the polis in The Republic, whose Greek title, Πολιτεία (Politeia), itself derives from the word polis.
The centerpiece is preceded and followed by the discussion of the means that will secure a well-ordered polis (City).

Agora

Agora Dhakamarket-placemarketplace
The agora ( agorá) was a central public space in ancient Greek city-states.

Dyme

Stratos (Achaea)Dyme, Greece
Dyme sold its citizenship for one talent, payable in two installments.
Dyme, or Dymae, was a town and polis (city-state) of ancient Achaea, and the most westerly of the 12 Achaean cities, from which circumstance it is said to have derived its name.

Synoecism

synoikismossynoecizedsynoikism
In ancient Greece, society was divided into the demos (δῆμοι, κῶμαι; "country people" or "country villages") and the "asty" or "polis" .

Towns of ancient Greece

fortphrouriontown
The Hellenistic colonies and cities of the era retain some basic characteristics of a polis, except the status of independence (city-state) and the political life.
The archetypical settlement in ancient Greece was the self-governing city state called the polis, but other types of settlement occurred.

Police

policingpolice forcepolice department
Derivative words in English include policy, polity, police, and politics. In Greek, words deriving from polis include politēs and politismos, whose exact equivalents in Latin, Romance, and other European languages, respectively civis ("citizen"), civilisatio ("civilization"), etc., are similarly derived.
This is derived from πόλις (polis), "city".

Magna Graecia

Magna GreciaGreekGreater Greece
The cities of Magna Graecia, with the notable examples of Syracuse and Tarentum, were conquered by Rome in the late 3rd century BC.
With colonization, Greek culture was exported to Italy, in its dialects of the Ancient Greek language, its religious rites and its traditions of the independent polis.

War against Nabis

Roman-Spartan Warfinally defeatLaconian War
During the Hellenistic period, which marks the decline of the classical polis, the following cities remained independent: Sparta until 195 BC after the War against Nabis.
Philip of Macedon offered him the polis of Argos in exchange for Sparta defecting from the Roman coalition and joining the Macedonian alliance.

Pentapolis

Five Cities
A pentapolis (from Greek πεντα- penta-, "five" and πόλις polis, "city") is a geographic and/or institutional grouping of five cities.