Polish Golden Age

King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania – Sigismund II Augustus and Queen of Poland, Grand Duchess consort of Lithuania – Barbara Radziwiłł in Vilnius by Jan Matejko.
Jagiellonian University in Kraków
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, the seminal work on the heliocentric theory of Renaissance astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543)
Nicolaus Copernicus, one of the most important astronomers in history
Jan Kochanowski, Polish Renaissance poet who established poetic patterns that would become integral to the Polish literary language
Tapestry with shield-bearing satyrs and monogram SA of king Sigismund Augustus, ca. 1555
Wawel Castle
Sigismund's Chapel serves as a tomb for the last Jagiellonian monarchs. Designed by Italian masters, the dome was covered with real gold to illustrate Poland's prosperity during the Golden Age.
Conception of the Polish Crown of Stanisław Orzechowski, a szlachta ideologist. In 1564 Orzechowski wrote Quincunx, in which he expounded principles of a state identified with its nobility.
Castle in Krasiczyn
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth at its maximum extent, after the Truce of Deulino in 1619, overlaid over modern borders.
Gdańsk in the 17th century
Sigismund III Vasa (1566-1632) was one of the most controversial Polish monarchs. Fervently Catholic and aiming to seize absolute power in the region, under his rule Poland was at its largest territorial extent
Shuysky Tribute, homage of the deposed Tsar of Russia Vasili IV Shuysky to Sigismund III of Poland
Władysław IV Vasa of Poland (1595-1648), portrait by Peter Paul Rubens. When the Polish army occupied Moscow in 1610 he was elected Tsar of Russia but did not assume the throne

The Renaissance period in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, roughly corresponding to the period of rule of the King Sigismund I the Old and his son, Sigismund II Augustus, the last of the Jagiellonian Dynasty monarchs, until his death in 1572.

- Polish Golden Age

71 related topics


Khmelnytsky Uprising

Cossack rebellion that took place between 1648 and 1657 in the eastern territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, which led to the creation of a Cossack Hetmanate in Ukraine.

Entrance of Bohdan Khmelnytsky to Kyiv, Mykola Ivasyuk
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1648
Bohdan Khmelnytsky with Tuhai Bey at Lviv, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1885, National Museum in Warsaw
Meeting of Khmelnytsky with Tuhaj Bej by Juliusz Kossak
The Russo-Polish and Second Northern Wars diminished the scope of Polish–Lithuanian control
Massacre of 3000–5000 Polish captives after the battle of Batih in 1652
First edition of Yeven Mezulah (1653): "I write of the Evil Decrees of Chmiel, may his name be obliterated... in (5)'408 to '411 Anno Mundi"
Cossack army in 1648.

The success of the anti-Polish rebellion, along with internal conflicts in Poland, as well as concurrent wars waged by Poland with Russia and Sweden (the Russo-Polish War (1654–1667) and Second Northern War (1655–1660) respectively), ended the Polish Golden Age and caused a secular decline of Polish power during the period known in Polish history as the Deluge.

Jagiellonian dynasty

Royal dynasty, founded by Jogaila, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, who in 1386 was baptized as Władysław, married Queen Jadwiga of Poland, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło.

Jogaila, later Władysław II Jagiełło (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434), King of Poland (1386–1399) alongside his wife Jadwiga, and then sole King of Poland.
Baptism of Władysław III of Poland at Wawel in 1425
The Crusade of Varna was a series of events in 1443–44 between the crusaders and the Ottoman Empire, culminating in a devastating Christian loss at the Battle of Varna on 10 November 1444.
Thirteen Years' War—Battle of Chojnice in 1454
Malbork Castle during Thirteen Years' War (1460)
Sigismund I the Old (1467 –1548), King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania
Chicken War or Hen War, a 1537 anti-royalist and anti-absolutist rokosz (rebellion) by the Polish nobility.
Death of Barbara Radziwiłł Painting by Józef Simmler
Wawel Hill, the castle and the cathedral
Ladislaus II Jagiellon (1456–1516), King of Bohemia and Hungary
Louis II of Hungary (1506–1526), King of Hungary and Bohemia
Discovery of the corpse of King Louis II after the Battle of Mohacs

The Polish "Golden Age", the period of the reigns of Sigismund I and Sigismund II, the last two Jagiellonian kings, or more generally the 16th century, is most often identified with the rise of the culture of Polish Renaissance.

Sigismund I the Old

King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1506 until his death in 1548.

Portrait by Kulmbach, 1511-1518
Sigismund (far right) with Emperor Maximilian I and brother Vladislaus II in Vienna, 1515. Woodcut by Albrecht Dürer
Sigismund grants a noble status to the professors of the Jagiellonian University, 1535. Painting by Jan Matejko
Medal featuring the profile of Sigismund I, by Giovanni Maria Mosca
Chicken War in 1537 by Henryk Rodakowski. Seated Sigismund is accompanied by his wife Bona Sforza and royal court whilst being surrounded by an angry mob at Lwów High Castle
Polish-Lithuanian army during the Battle of Orsha in 1514, by Hans Krell
Sigismund's halfarmour, Polish Army Museum
Queen Bona Sforza was instrumental in establishing alliances for Poland. She was known for being a notorious conspirator.
Prussian Homage, by Jan Matejko, 1882. Albrecht Hohenzollern receives the Duchy of Prussia in fief from Poland's King Sigismund I the Old, 1525
A posthumous portrait by Lucas Cranach the Younger made in around 1553
Hanging of the Sigismund Bell in 1521, by Jan Matejko
Medal of Sigismund I the Old.
18th-century depiction by Marcello Bacciarelli
As one of the Magi by Joos van Cleve, {{circa|1520}}<ref>{{cite web|author=Marcin Latka|title=Commissions from the territories of today's Poland in the workshop of Joos van Cleve|url=https://artinpoland.weebly.com/en/commissions-from-the-territories-of-todays-poland-in-the-workshop-of-joos-van-cleve|work=artinpoland.weebly.com|access-date=18 January 2016}}</ref>
Portrait made by Andreas Jungholz, 1546
Portrait of Sigismund I in an advanced age by Anonymous Painter, 1550
Sigismund I the Old's tomb by Bartolommeo Berrecci, Sigismund's Chapel, Wawel Cathedral
Sigismund I the Old by Jan Matejko, c. 1880

Italian styles and fashions dominated at the height of the Polish Renaissance and Polish Golden Age, which developed the Roman Catholic identity of Poland.


Country in Central Europe.

A reconstruction of a Bronze Age, Lusatian culture settlement in Biskupin, 8th century BC
Poland under the rule of Mieszko I, whose acceptance of Christianity under the auspices of the Latin Church and the Baptism of Poland marked the beginning of statehood in 966.
Casimir III the Great is the only Polish king to receive the title of Great. He built extensively during his reign, and reformed the Polish army along with the country's legal code, 1333–70.
The Battle of Grunwald was fought against the German Order of Teutonic Knights, and resulted in a decisive victory for the Kingdom of Poland, 15 July 1410.
Wawel Castle in Kraków, seat of Polish kings from 1038 until the capital was moved to Warsaw in 1596.
King John III Sobieski defeated the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683.
Stanisław II Augustus, the last King of Poland, reigned from 1764 until his abdication on 25 November 1795.
The partitions of Poland, carried out by the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), the Russian Empire (brown), and the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (green) in 1772, 1793 and 1795.
Chief of State Marshal Józef Piłsudski was a hero of the Polish independence campaign and the nation's premiere statesman from 1918 until his death on 12 May 1935.
Polish Army 7TP tanks on military manoeuvres shortly before the invasion of Poland in 1939
Pilots of the 303 Polish Fighter Squadron during the Battle of Britain, October 1940
Map of the Holocaust in German-occupied Poland with deportation routes and massacre sites. Major ghettos are marked with yellow stars. Nazi extermination camps are marked with white skulls in black squares. The border in 1941 between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union is marked in red.
At High Noon, 4 June 1989 — political poster featuring Gary Cooper to encourage votes for the Solidarity party in the 1989 elections
Flowers in front of the Presidential Palace following the death of Poland's top government officials in a plane crash on 10 April 2010
Topographic map of Poland
Morskie Oko alpine lake in the Tatra Mountains. Poland has one of the highest densities of lakes in the world.
The wisent, one of Poland's national animals, is commonly found at the ancient and UNESCO-protected Białowieża Forest.
The Sejm is the lower house of the parliament of Poland.
The Constitution of 3 May adopted in 1791 was the first modern constitution in Europe.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, located in Warsaw
Polish Air Force F-16s, a single-engine multirole fighter aircraft
A Mercedes-Benz Sprinter patrol van belonging to the Polish State Police Service (Policja)
The Old City of Zamość is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
PKP Intercity Pendolino at the Wrocław railway station
Physicist and chemist Maria Skłodowska-Curie was the first person to win two Nobel Prizes.
Nicolaus Copernicus, the 16th century Polish astronomer who formulated the heliocentric model of the solar system.
Population of Poland from 1900 to 2010 in millions of inhabitants
Dolina Jadwigi — a bilingual Polish-Kashubian road sign with the village name
John Paul II, born Karol Wojtyła, held the papacy between 1978-2005 and was the first Pole to become a Roman Catholic Pope.
Jagiellonian University in Kraków
The Polish White Eagle is Poland's enduring national and cultural symbol
All Saints' Day on 1 November is one of the most important public holidays in Poland.
Lady with an Ermine (1490) by Leonardo da Vinci. It symbolises Poland's cultural heritage and identity.
Selection of hearty traditional comfort food from Poland, including bigos, gołąbki, żurek, pierogi, placki ziemniaczane, and rye bread.
Traditional polonaise dresses, 1780–1785.
Andrzej Wajda, the recipient of an Honorary Oscar, the Palme d'Or, as well as Honorary Golden Lion and Golden Bear Awards.
Headquarters of the publicly funded national television network TVP in Warsaw
The Stadion Narodowy in Warsaw, home of the national football team, and one of the host stadiums of Euro 2012.

With the end of the prosperous Polish Golden Age, the country was partitioned by neighbouring states at the end of the 18th century.

Sigismund II Augustus

King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, the son of Sigismund I the Old, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548.

Portrait by Lucas Cranach the Younger, 1553
A 1568 Lithuanian coin of Sigismund II Augustus with Vytis and the Columns of Gediminas
Queen Elizabeth, by Lucas Cranach the Younger
Portrait of Barbara Radziwiłł by Lucas Cranach the Younger, ca. 1553
Portrait of Sigismund Augustus in armour, 1550s
Portrait of Catherine of Austria by Lucas Cranach the Younger.
Death of Sigismund II Augustus at Knyszyn, by Jan Matejko
Tomb of Sigismund Augustus in the Sigismund Chapel at Wawel Cathedral in Kraków, Poland
Letter from Hürrem Sultan, wife of Suleiman the Magnificent, to Sigismund Augustus, complimenting him on his accession to the throne, 1549
Medal obverse featuring Sigismund from 1562, National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.
Parade armour of King Sigismund Augustus, made in Nuremberg by Kunz Lochner, 1550s. Livrustkammaren in Stockholm.
Union of Lublin; Sigismund stands in the center holding a crucifix among nobles, envoys and the clergy.
Sigismund Augustus in armour, 1550s, Alte Pinakothek
Tapestry with Shield-Bearing Satyrs with the royal monogram S.A. (Sigismundus Augustus), woven in Brussels in about 1555
Jan Kochanowski presents his work Satyr to Sigismund, an 1884 illustration by Feliks Sypniewski

Sigismund Augustus' rule is widely considered as the apex of the Polish Golden Age; he established the first regular Polish navy and the first regular postal service in Poland, known today as Poczta Polska.

Renaissance in Poland

Jan Kochanowski, poet and prose writer, with his beloved daughter
Copernicus' De revolutionibus orbium coelestium
King Sigismund I the Old and bishop Piotr Tomicki kneeling before St. Stanisław, a leaf from the Hours of Sigismund I by Stanisław Samostrzelnik, 1535
Portrait of Queen Anna Jagiellon of Poland by Martin Kober, 1576
Graves of the last Jagiellons in the Sigismund's Chapel, hailed as "the most beautiful example of the Tuscan Renaissance north of the Alps"
Wawel Castle's courtyard exemplifies first period of the Polish Renaissance
Poznań Town Hall, rebuilt from Gothic style by Giovanni Battista di Quadro, 1550&ndash;55
Green Gate in Gdańsk
"Armenian houses" in Zamość

The Renaissance in Poland (Renesans, Odrodzenie; literally: the Rebirth) lasted from the late 15th to the late 16th century and is widely considered to have been the Golden Age of Polish culture.

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Country and federation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch in real union, who was both King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (green) with vassal states (light green) at their peak in 1619
The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1526.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (green) with vassal states (light green) at their peak in 1619
The Union of Lublin joined the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1569.
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent in 1619.
Sigismund III Vasa was a religious zealot and an enlightened despot who presided over an era of prosperity and achievement. His reign also marked the Commonwealth's largest territorial expansion.
Sejm of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (parliment) in the early 17th century
John III Sobieski, victor over the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Vienna in 1683.
Augustus II the Strong, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, wearing the Order of the White Eagle which he established in 1705.
Partitions of Poland in 1772, 1793 and 1795.
Royal Castle in Warsaw was the formal residence of Polish kings after the capital was moved from Kraków in 1596
Crown Tribunal in Lublin was the highest court of appeals in the Kingdom of Poland
Palace of the Lithuanian Tribunal in Vilnius, which exclusively was the highest appeal court for the Lithuanian nobility in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
The Republic at the Zenith of Its Power, the Royal Election of 1573
The Constitution of 3 May adopted in 1791 was the first modern constitution in Europe.
Cereals exports in the years 1619–1799. Agriculture, once extremely profitable to the nobility, became much less so after the mid-17th century.
A historical re-enactor dressed in the Polish Winged Hussars armour
Multi-stage rocket from Artis Magnæ Artilleriæ pars prima by Kazimierz Siemienowicz
Krasiczyn Castle was built between 1580-1631 in the mannerist style.
Wilanów Palace, completed in 1696, exemplifies the opulence of royal and noble residences in the Commonwealth.
Nieborów Palace designed by Dutch architect Tylman van Gameren and built in 1697
Social strata in the Commonwealth's society in 1655. From left: Jew, barber surgeon, painter, butcher, musician, tailor, barmaid, pharmacist, shoemaker, goldsmith, merchant and Armenian
Population density of the Commonwealth per each voivodeship in 1650
Saints Peter and Paul Church in Kraków was built between 1597-1619 by the Jesuit order
Original act of the Warsaw Confederation in 1573, the first act of religious freedom in Europe
First anniversary anthem of the Constitution of 3 May 1791 (1792) in Hebrew, Polish, German and French
Topographical map of the Commonwealth in 1764
Statuta Regni Poloniae in ordinem alphabeti digesta (Statutes of the Polish Kingdom, Arranged in Alphabetical Order), 1563
Grand Marshal of the Crown Łukasz Opaliński portraited with the insignium of his power in the parliament - the Marshal's cane, 1640
Rococo iconostasis in the Orthodox Church of the Holy Spirit in Vilnius, designed by Johann Christoph Glaubitz, 1753–1756
18th century amber casket. Gdańsk patronized by the Polish court flourished as the center for amber working in the 17th century.<ref name="gordon_campbell">{{cite book |author=Gordon Campbell |title=The Grove encyclopedia of decorative arts |year=2006 |page=13 |publisher=Oxford University Press US |isbn=01-95189-48-5}}</ref>
Stanisław Poniatowski, Commander of the Royal Guards and Grand Treasurer. Painted by Angelika Kauffmann in 1786.
Equestrian portrait of King Sigismund III of Poland, by Peter Paul Rubens, 1624
Tapestry with the arms of Michał Kazimierz Pac, Jan Leyniers, Brussels, 1667–1669
Silver tankard by Józef Ceypler, Kraków, 1739–1745
Example of the merchant architecture: Konopnica's tenement house in Lublin, 1575
Hussars' armours, first half of the 17th century
De republica emendanda (1554) by Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski, proposed a deep programme of reforms of the state, society and church.
Merkuriusz Polski Ordynaryjny, the first Polish newspaper published on the orders of Queen Marie Louise Gonzaga in 1661
Title page of Treny (1580) by Jan Kochanowski, a series of elegies upon the death of his beloved daughter, is an acknowledged masterpiece.
A plate from Michał Boym's Flora Sinensis (1656), the first description of an ecosystem of the Far East published in Europe<ref>{{cite book |author1=Gwei-Djen Lu |author2=Joseph Needham |author3=Vivienne Lo |title=Celestial lancets: a history and rationale of acupuncture and moxa |year=2002 |page=284 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=07-00714-58-8}}</ref>
Taurus Poniatovii, constellation originated by Marcin Poczobutt in 1777 to honor the king Stanisław II Augustus<ref>{{cite web |author=Ian Ridpath |url=http://www.ianridpath.com/startales/poniatowski.htm |title=Taurus Poniatovii - Poniatowski's bull |work=www.ianridpath.com |access-date=2009-05-18}}</ref>
Branicki Palace in Białystok, designed by Tylman van Gameren, is sometimes referred to as the "Polish Versailles."
Pažaislis Monastery in Kaunas, Pietro Puttini, built 1674–1712
Zamość City Hall, designed by Bernardo Morando, is a unique example of Renaissance architecture in Europe, consistently built in accordance with the Italian theories of an "ideal town."<ref name="unesco.org">{{cite web |url=http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/564 |title=Old City of Zamość |publisher=UNESCO World Heritage Centre |date=2009-09-23 |access-date=2011-09-15}}</ref>
Plafond Allegory of Spring, Jerzy Siemiginowski, 1680s, Wilanów Palace
Łańcut Synagogue was established by Stanisław Lubomirski, 1733.<ref>After a fire had destroyed a wooden synagogue in 1733 Stanislaw Lubomirski decided to found a new bricked synagogue building. {{cite web |author=Polin Travel |url=http://www.jewish-guide.pl/sites/lancut |title=Lancut |work=www.jewish-guide.pl|access-date=2010-09-02}}</ref>
Saints Peter and Paul Church in Kraków was built between 1597-1619 by the Jesuit order

Sigismund's long reign marked an end to the Polish Golden Age and the beginning of the Silver Age.

List of Polish monarchs

Ruled at various times either by dukes and princes or by kings (11th to 18th centuries).

Stanislaus II Augustus

This era of progress, also known as the Polish Renaissance, continued until the Union of Lublin under Sigismund II Augustus, which unofficially marked the end of the Polish Golden Age.

Sigismund III Vasa

Sigismund III Vasa (Zygmunt III Waza, Žygimantas Vaza; 20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632

Portrait by Pieter Soutman, c. undefined 1624
John III, his wife Catherine Jagiellon and young Sigismund imprisoned at Gripsholm. An 1859 painting by Józef Simmler.
Sigismund in his youth, 1585.
Chancellor Jan Zamoyski staunchly opposed the pro-Habsburg alliance.
Archduke Ernest of Austria, whose correspondence with Sigismund caused a political crisis.
Sigismund early in his reign, by court painter Martin Kober.
Charles of Sweden, Sigismund's uncle, who waged war against Sigismund and Poland for the Swedish crown.
Equestrian portrait of King Sigismund by Peter Paul Rubens
Linköping Castle where Sigismund met with Charles to discuss the future of the Swedish monarchy.
Portrait of Sigismund as a young adult by Jan Szwankowski, ca. 1590.
Dethronisation act issued on 24 June 1607.
Sigismund as supreme commander of Poland–Lithuania, dressed in hose.
Victorious Sigismund at Smolensk, by Italian-born artist Tommaso Dolabella, 1611.
Apotheosis of Sigismund following his victory over the Ottoman Empire, etching from 1629. The king's spear striking a Turk symbolizes the triumph of Catholicism and Christianity over Islam.
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in a Polish costume, 1631–1632. A lifelong enemy of Sigismund, he attempted to take Ducal Prussia and Livonia.
Portrait by Peter Paul Rubens, c. 1620s
Assassination attempt on Sigismund by Michał Piekarski in 1620.
The gateway between the Warsaw Castle and St. John's Cathedral was constructed as a precaution after the assassination attempt.
John Albert was appointed bishop at the age of nine and cardinal at the age of twenty thanks to his father's reputation.
Sigismund III on catafalque following his death.
Sigismund's Column (1644) in Warsaw is a reminder of the king's decision to transfer the capital of Poland.
Silver sarcophagus of Saint Stanislaus at Wawel Cathedral is one of several exquisite items commissioned by Sigismund III.
Alchemist Sendivogius and Sigismund III, by Jan Matejko.
Anne of Habsburg was Sigismund's first consort. An introvert, she was known for her hostile attitude towards Sweden and Protestantism.
Constance of Habsburg, Anne's sister and Sigismund's second consort. A devout Catholic, she supported Sigismund in political endeavours.
False Dmitriy I takes an oath of allegiance to Sigismund III, by Nikolai Nevrev (1874)
Statue of King Sigismund III on top of Sigismund's Column in Warsaw
A 40-ducat coin depicting King Sigismund III Vasa, 1621
Mater Dolorosa painted by Sigismund in the 1620s, based on works by Gortzius Geldorp
Facade relief on the Golden House in Gdańsk
Banner used during Sigismund III Vasa's reign

As an enlightened despot, he presided over an era of prosperity and achievement, further distinguished by the transfer of the country's capital from Kraków to Warsaw.


Country in the Baltic region of Europe.

Lithuania's name in writing, 1009
Baltic amber was once a valuable trade resource. It was transported from the region of modern-day Lithuania to the Roman Empire and Egypt through the Amber Road.
Changes in the territory of Lithuania from the 13th to 15th century. At its peak, Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. Lithuania's strength was its toleration of various cultures and religions.
Trakai Island Castle, the former residence of the Grand Dukes and capital city of the medieval state
Battle of Grunwald and Vytautas the Great in the centre
The victory of the Polish-Lithuanian forces over the Muscovites at the Battle of Orsha in 1514
Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania in Vilnius, marked 6, in 1600
Emilia Plater, often nicknamed as a Lithuanian Joan of Arc, leading peasant scythemen during the 1831 uprising
Bishop Motiejus Valančius resisted Russification. He urged protest against the closing of Catholic churches and organised book printing in Lithuanian in Lithuania Minor
The original 20 members of the Council of Lithuania after signing the Act of Independence of Lithuania, 16 February 1918.
Lithuanian armoured train Gediminas 3, used in Lithuanian Wars of Independence and Lithuanian soldiers
Antanas Smetona was the first and last president of interbellum Lithuania (1919–1920, 1926–1940)
Lituanica above New York in 1933. The transatlantic flight was one of the most precise in aviation history. It equaled, and in some aspects surpassed, Charles Lindbergh's classic flight.
Soldiers of the Red Army enter the territory of Lithuania during the first Soviet occupation in 1940.
Lithuanian resistance fighters. The armed resistance was 50,000 strong at its peak.
Site of the Paneriai massacre, where the German Nazis and their collaborators executed up to 100,000 people of various nationalities. About 70,000 of them were Jews.
Monument in Naujoji Vilnia in memory of the Soviet deportations from Lithuania
The Baltic Way was a mass anti-Soviet demonstration where approx. 25% of the population of the Baltic states participated
An Anti-Soviet rally in Vingis Park of about 250,000 people. Sąjūdis was a movement which led to the restoration of an Independent State of Lithuania.
On 13 January 1991, Soviet forces fired live rounds at unarmed independence supporters and crushed two of them with tanks, killing 13 in total. To this day, Russia refuses to extradite the perpetrators, who were convicted of war crimes.
Physical map and geomorphological subdivision of Lithuania.
White stork is the national bird of Lithuania which has the highest-density stork population in Europe.
Seimas — Parliament of Lithuania
Commemoration of the Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania in the historical Seimas hall where it was originally signed in 1990. The ceremony is attended by the Lithuanian President, Prime Minister, Chairman of the Seimas and other high-ranking officials.
Statutes of Lithuania were the central piece of Lithuanian law in 1529–1795
Lithuanian police cruiser in Gediminas Avenue, Vilnius
Stamp dedicated to Lithuania's presidency of the European Union. Post of Lithuania, 2013.
Lithuania was recently a member of the United Nations Security Council. Its representatives are on the right side.
Lithuanian Army soldiers with their NATO allies during Iron Sword 2014
Lithuanian Army soldiers marching with their dress uniforms in Vilnius. An officer stands out with a sword.
Real GPD per capita development of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
Lithuania's GDP per capita compared to rest of the world (2020)
Lithuania, GNI per capita, PPP (current international $), 2016
A proportional representation of Lithuania exports, 2019
Nasdaq Vilnius Stock Exchange, located in K29 business centre in Konstitucijos Avenue, Vilnius
LituanicaSAT-2 in the thermal-vacuum chamber.
Druskininkai is a popular spa town
Telia (skyscraper with the old Teo LT logo) and Huawei headquarters in Vilnius
Major highways in Lithuania
Marijampolė railway station, completed in 1924
Mineral water spring in Birštonas
FSRU Independence in port of Klaipėda
Kruonis Pumped Storage Plant
Population of Lithuania 1915–2014
Population density
Kaunas Clinics is the largest and the most advanced medical institution in Lithuania.
Hill of Crosses near Šiauliai
Vilnius University, one of the oldest universities in the region. It was established by Stephen Báthory, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, in 1579.
Vilnius University Life Sciences Center in the Sunrise Valley
The earliest known Lithuanian glosses (between 1520 and 1530) written in the margins of Johannes Herolt book Liber Discipuli de eruditione Christifidelium. Words: teprÿdav[ſ]ʒÿ (let it strike), vbagÿſte (indigence)
The first Lithuanian printed book Catechism of Martynas Mažvydas (1547, Königsberg)
The title page of Radivilias (1592, Vilnius). The poem celebrating commander Mikalojus Radvila Rudasis (1512–1584) and recounts the famous victory of Lithuanian Armed Forces over Moscow troops (1564).
Vilnius Cathedral by Laurynas Gucevičius
Gryčia (traditional dwelling house, built in the 19th century)
Kings' Fairy Tale (1908–1909) by Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis
Lithuanian National Drama Theatre
Romuva Cinema, the oldest still operational cinema in Lithuania
Painter and composer M.K. Čiurlionis
Rock band Antis, which under firm censorship actively mocked the Soviet Union regime by using metaphors in their lyrics, during an Anti-Sovietism, Anti-communism concert in 1987
Lithuanian dark rye bread
Cepelinai, a potato-based dumpling dish characteristic of Lithuanian cuisine with meat, curd or mushrooms
Lithuania has longlasting beer brewing traditions
Lithuania men's national basketball team is ranked eighth worldwide in FIBA Rankings.

The Commonwealth reached its Golden Age in the early 17th century.