John Paul II in 1984
The wedding portrait of John Paul II's parents, Emilia and Karol Wojtyła Sr.
The Polish People's Republic in 1989
Painting of Saint John Paul II painted by Zbigniewa Kotyłły, 2012
Poland's fate was heavily discussed at the Yalta Conference in February 1945. Joseph Stalin, whose Red Army occupied the entire country, presented several alternatives which granted Poland industrialized territories in the west whilst the Red Army simultaneously permanently annexed Polish territories in the east, resulting in Poland losing over 20% of its pre-war borders - areas primarily inhabited by ethnic Belarusians or Ukrainians. Soviet-backed Polish communists came to power and oversaw the country's entry into the Warsaw Pact in 1955.
Karol Wojtyła (second from right) in a Baudienst forced labor work crew during the German occupation of Poland in WWII, circa 1941
Border changes of Poland after World War II. The eastern territories (Kresy) were annexed by the Soviets. The western territories, referred to as the "Recovered Territories", were granted as war reparations. Despite the western lands being more industrialized, Poland lost 77,035 km2 (29,743 sq mi) and major cities like Lviv and Vilnius.
The 1970 Polish protests were put down by the Communist authorities and Citizens' Militia. The riots resulted in the deaths of 42 people and over 1,000 injured.
The Pontifical International Athenaeum Angelicum in Rome, Italy
Queues waiting to enter grocery stores in Warsaw and other Polish cities and towns were typical in the late 1980s. The availability of food and goods varied at times, and the most sought after basic item was toilet paper.
Karol Wojtyła pictured during a kayaking trip to the countryside with a groups of students, circa 1960
The new Warszawa Centralna railway station in Warsaw had automatic doors and escalators. It was a flagship project during the 1970s economic boom and was dubbed the most modern station in Europe at the time of its completion in 1975.
19 Kanonicza Street in Kraków, Poland where John Paul II lived as a priest and bishop (now an Archdiocese Museum).
Lech Wałęsa co-founded and headed the Solidarity movement which toppled Communism. He later became the President of Poland.
First appearance of Pope John Paul II following his election on 16 October 1978
The 1980 Gdańsk Shipyard Strike and subsequent Summer 1981 Hunger Demonstrations were instrumental in strengthening the Solidarity movement's influence.
John Paul's first papal trip to Poland in June 1979
Logo of the Polish United Workers' Party
John Paul II with the president of Italy Sandro Pertini in 1984
Władysław Gomułka and Leonid Brezhnev in East Berlin, 1967
John Paul II during a visit to West Germany, 1980
An abandoned State Agricultural Farm in south-eastern Poland. State farms were a form of collective farming created in 1949.
US President Ronald Reagan meeting with Pope John Paul II during a visit to the Vatican City, 1982
Łódź was Poland's largest city after the destruction of Warsaw during World War II. It was also a major industrial centre in Europe and served as the temporary capital due to its economic significance in the 1940s.
Graffiti showing John Paul II with quote "Do not be afraid" in Rijeka, Croatia
Female textile workers in a state-run factory, Łódź, 1950s
John Paul II was the first Pope to enter and pray in a mosque, visiting the tomb of John the Baptist at Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
Supersam Warsaw, the first self-serve shopping centre in Poland, 1969
John Paul II moments after being shot during an assassination attempt by Mehmet Ali Ağca in St. Peter's Square, 13 May 1981
Pewex, a chain of hard currency stores which sold unobtainable Western goods and items
An ailing John Paul II riding in the Popemobile in September 2004 in St. Peter's Square
Ration cards for sugar, 1977
(l-r) George W. Bush, Laura Bush, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, Condoleezza Rice, and Andrew Card, US dignitaries paying respects to John Paul II on 6 April 2005 at St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
Bar mleczny, a former milk bar in Gdynia. These canteens offered value meals to citizens throughout Communist Poland.
The tomb of John Paul II in the Vatican Chapel of Saint Sebastian within St. Peter's Basilica where it has been since 2011.
Trybuna Ludu (People's Tribune) was a government-sponsored newspaper and propaganda outlet
1.5 million St. Peter's Square attendees witness the beatification of John Paul II on 1 May 2011 in Vatican City
Andrzej Wajda was a key figure in Polish cinematography during and after the fall of communism
Statue of John Paul II outside the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Tepeyac, Mexico City
Allegory of communist censorship, Poland, 1989. Newspapers visible are from all Eastern Bloc countries including East Germany, the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia
Candles around monument to John Paul II in Zaspa, Gdańsk at the time of his death
The 237-meter Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw, constructed in 1955. At the time of its completion it was one of the tallest buildings in Europe
The canonisation of John Paul II and John XXIII
Smyk Department Store, 1960s
The tomb of the parents of John Paul II at Rakowicki Cemetery in Kraków, Poland
Polish university students during lecture, 1964
Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka
One of many schools constructed in central Warsaw in the 1960s
Karol Wojtyła (1958)
Jerzy Popiełuszko was a Roman Catholic priest who supported the anti-communist opposition. He was murdered by the Security Services "SB" of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
A demographics graph illustrating population growth between 1900 and 2010. The highest birth rate was during the Second Polish Republic and consequently under the Polish People's Republic.
A typical socialist apartment building in Warsaw representing the style of functionalism, built due to the ever-growing population and high birth rate at the time
Konstantin Rokossovsky, pictured in a Polish uniform, was Marshal of the Soviet Union and Marshal of Poland until being deposed during the Polish October in 1956.
Poland's old and new borders, 1945

He has also been credited with helping to end Communist rule in his native Poland as well as the rest of Europe.

- Pope John Paul II

On 16 October 1978, the Archbishop of Kraków, Cardinal Karol Wojtyła, was elected Pope, taking the name John Paul II.

- Polish People's Republic
John Paul II in 1984

7 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Poland

3 links

Country in Central Europe.

Country in Central Europe.

A reconstruction of a Bronze Age, Lusatian culture settlement in Biskupin, 8th century BC
Poland under the rule of Mieszko I, whose acceptance of Christianity under the auspices of the Latin Church and the Baptism of Poland marked the beginning of statehood in 966.
Casimir III the Great is the only Polish king to receive the title of Great. He built extensively during his reign, and reformed the Polish army along with the country's legal code, 1333–70.
The Battle of Grunwald was fought against the German Order of Teutonic Knights, and resulted in a decisive victory for the Kingdom of Poland, 15 July 1410.
Wawel Castle in Kraków, seat of Polish kings from 1038 until the capital was moved to Warsaw in 1596.
King John III Sobieski defeated the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683.
Stanisław II Augustus, the last King of Poland, reigned from 1764 until his abdication on 25 November 1795.
The partitions of Poland, carried out by the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), the Russian Empire (brown), and the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (green) in 1772, 1793 and 1795.
Chief of State Marshal Józef Piłsudski was a hero of the Polish independence campaign and the nation's premiere statesman from 1918 until his death on 12 May 1935.
Polish Army 7TP tanks on military manoeuvres shortly before the invasion of Poland in 1939
Pilots of the 303 Polish Fighter Squadron during the Battle of Britain, October 1940
Map of the Holocaust in German-occupied Poland with deportation routes and massacre sites. Major ghettos are marked with yellow stars. Nazi extermination camps are marked with white skulls in black squares. The border in 1941 between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union is marked in red.
At High Noon, 4 June 1989 — political poster featuring Gary Cooper to encourage votes for the Solidarity party in the 1989 elections
Flowers in front of the Presidential Palace following the death of Poland's top government officials in a plane crash on 10 April 2010
Topographic map of Poland
Morskie Oko alpine lake in the Tatra Mountains. Poland has one of the highest densities of lakes in the world.
The wisent, one of Poland's national animals, is commonly found at the ancient and UNESCO-protected Białowieża Forest.
The Sejm is the lower house of the parliament of Poland.
The Constitution of 3 May adopted in 1791 was the first modern constitution in Europe.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, located in Warsaw
Polish Air Force F-16s, a single-engine multirole fighter aircraft
A Mercedes-Benz Sprinter patrol van belonging to the Polish State Police Service (Policja)
The Old City of Zamość is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
PKP Intercity Pendolino at the Wrocław railway station
Physicist and chemist Maria Skłodowska-Curie was the first person to win two Nobel Prizes.
Nicolaus Copernicus, the 16th century Polish astronomer who formulated the heliocentric model of the solar system.
Population of Poland from 1900 to 2010 in millions of inhabitants
Dolina Jadwigi — a bilingual Polish-Kashubian road sign with the village name
John Paul II, born Karol Wojtyła, held the papacy between 1978-2005 and was the first Pole to become a Roman Catholic Pope.
Jagiellonian University in Kraków
The Polish White Eagle is Poland's enduring national and cultural symbol
All Saints' Day on 1 November is one of the most important public holidays in Poland.
Lady with an Ermine (1490) by Leonardo da Vinci. It symbolises Poland's cultural heritage and identity.
Selection of hearty traditional comfort food from Poland, including bigos, gołąbki, żurek, pierogi, placki ziemniaczane, and rye bread.
Traditional polonaise dresses, 1780–1785.
Andrzej Wajda, the recipient of an Honorary Oscar, the Palme d'Or, as well as Honorary Golden Lion and Golden Bear Awards.
Headquarters of the publicly funded national television network TVP in Warsaw
The Stadion Narodowy in Warsaw, home of the national football team, and one of the host stadiums of Euro 2012.
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent in 1619

As a member of the Eastern Bloc in the global Cold War, the Polish People's Republic was a founding signatory of the Warsaw Pact.

Poland is one of the most religious countries in Europe, where Roman Catholicism remains a criterion of national identity and Polish-born Pope John Paul II is widely revered.

Solidarity logo

Solidarity (Polish trade union)

2 links

Polish trade union founded in August 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk, Poland.

Polish trade union founded in August 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk, Poland.

Solidarity logo
30th anniversary mural depicting the murdered priest Jerzy Popiełuszko who publicly supported Solidarity during the 1980s
The logo of Solidarność painted on an overturned Soviet era T-55 in Prague in 1990
Students in Scotland collect signatures for a petition in support of Solidarity in 1981
Solidarity, ETUC Demonstration—Budapest 2011

The survival of Solidarity was an unprecedented event not only in Poland, a satellite state of the USSR ruled in practice by a one-party Communist state, but the whole of the Eastern bloc.

Pope John Paul II, Sollicitudo rei socialis, on Vatican website

Kraków

1 links

Second-largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.

Second-largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.

Tomb of Casimir III the Great at Wawel Cathedral. Kraków was the capital of Poland from 1038 to 1596.
The Church of St. Adalbert is one of the oldest churches in the city, dating from the 11th century.
Woodcut of Kraków from the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493
View of Kraków (Cracovia) near the end of the 16th-century
Tadeusz Kościuszko takes the oath of loyalty to the Polish nation in Kraków's market square (Rynek), 1794
Act of granting the constitution to the Free City of Krakow. After the Partitions of Poland, Kraków was independent city republic and the only piece of sovereign Polish territory between 1815 and 1846.
Flower vendors in Rynek. First autochrome in Poland, dated 1912
Kraków Ghetto, 1942—a German checkpoint during operation Aktion Krakau
Kraków's territorial growth from the late 18th to the 20th century
Camaldolese Hermit Monastery in Bielany
Convent of Norbertine Sisters in Kraków-Zwierzyniec and the Vistula River during the summer season
The Renaissance Cloth Hall (Sukiennice) in Main Market Square
The Kraków Barbican dating from around 1498 was once a fortified outpost of the inner medieval city.
Kanonicza Street, at the foot of the Wawel Castle
View of Kraków from St. Mary's Basilica in the Market Square
Palace of Art at Szczepański Square is an example of Art Nouveau architecture in central Kraków.
Basztowa Street, filled with some of the most unique historical buildings in all architectural styles; part of the Royal Route of Kraków
Pawilon Wyspiański 2000 is a rare example of Postmodern architecture present in Kraków's Old Town.
Planty Park, which surrounds Kraków's Old Town
A pavilion within the Planty Park during winter
The New Town Hall of Podgórze, which used to be a self-governing independent town until its incorporation into Kraków in 1915
Entrance to the Wielopolski Palace from 1560, the seat of Kraków's mayor, administration and city council
Matejko Square, featuring the Grunwald Monument at Kleparz, is one of the city's most important public spaces.
Socialist-realist district of Nowa Huta
The Center for Business Innovation office complex in Kraków
Unity Tower, one of the tallest buildings in the city
Bombardier city tram on Piłsudski Bridge
PKP Intercity train at the Main Railway Station
Wawel Cathedral, home to royal coronations and resting place of many national heroes; considered to be Poland's national sanctuary
Saint Anne's Church is the leading example of Baroque architecture in Poland.
Kraków University of Economics
Collegium Maius, Jagiellonian University's oldest building
Leonardo da Vinci's Lady with an Ermine, at the Czartoryski Museum
The National Museum in Kraków is one of Poland's finest galleries of art.
Kraków Congress Centre – the business and cultural flagship of the city
Kraków's renowned Juliusz Słowacki Theatre
Concert hall of the Kraków Philharmonic
Wisła Kraków Stadium
Tauron Arena Kraków
Cracovia Stadium
Wawel Castle
German concentration camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau
Wieliczka Salt Mine
Pieskowa Skała castle
Benedictine Tyniec Abbey

In 1978, Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, was elevated to the papacy as Pope John Paul II—the first non-Italian pope in 455 years.

After the war, under the Polish People's Republic (officially declared in 1952), the intellectual and academic community of Kraków came under complete political control.

Three Arrows through red flag of Marx-Engles-Lenin

Anti-communism

1 links

Political and ideological opposition to communism.

Political and ideological opposition to communism.

Three Arrows through red flag of Marx-Engles-Lenin
White propaganda poster "For united Russia" representing the Bolsheviks as a fallen communist dragon and the White Cause as a crusading knight
The Freikorps were anti-communist right-wing paramilitaries (which were essential in fighting against and dismantling the Communist Revolution in Germany between 1918 and 1919) who are widely seen as a precursor to Nazism and responsible for the assassination of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, the leaders of the Communist Revolution.
Mussolini and the Fascist paramilitary Blackshirts' March on Rome in October 1922
Members of the Lapua Movement assaults a former Red officer and the publisher of the communist newspaper at the Vaasa riot on June 4, 1930, in Vaasa, Finland.
Anti-communist propaganda in West Germany in 1953: "All ways of Marxism lead to Moscow! Therefore CDU"
Herta Müller in 2009
Russian èmigré anti-Bolshevik poster, c. 1932
Nazi anti-Bolshevik poster in German-occupied Estonia
Prior to the June 1990 elections, demonstrators on Wenceslas Square in April gather under a poster where the red star and initials of the KSČ has a swastika painted on top of it while the coat of arms depicted is from before the formation of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
Lauri Törni (1919–1965), Finnish-born green beret, captain, who fought against communism in the ranks of three different armies (Finnish Defence Forces, Waffen-SS and United States Army)
German anti-communist propaganda poster
Symbol of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956: Hungarian flag with the 1949–1956 communist emblem cut out
The flag of Europe was a symbol for Moldovan anti-communists in 2009
"Bolshevik freedom", Polish anti-communist propaganda poster with nude caricature of Leon Trotsky
Polish anti-communist university students
During the Spanish Civil War, Pope Pius XI wrote, "bolshevistic and atheistic Communism, which aims at upsetting the social order and at undermining the very foundations of Christian civilization", had destroyed "as far as possible every church and every monastery".
Spanish prisoners in the Mauthausen Concentration Camp upon being liberated by the United States Army.
Signing of the Treaty of Friendship and Non-Aggression between Nazi Germany and Turkey, 18 June 1941
Chinese Kuomintang troops rounding up communist prisoners for execution in Shanghai
A Hong Kong demonstration in 2009
Bodo League massacre of communists and suspected sympathizers, South Korea, 1950
Augusto Pinochet, an anti-communist Chilean general who overthrew the Marxist government of President Salvador Allende in September 1973
Joseph N. Welch (left) being questioned by Senator Joe McCarthy (right) on 9 June 1954
Cover to the 1947 propaganda comic book Is This Tomorrow
John F. Kennedy's 1963 "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech in West Berlin
Anti-communists Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher, respectively president of the United States and prime minister of the United Kingdom

Pope John Paul II was a harsh critic of communism as was Pope Pius IX, who issued a Papal encyclical, entitled Quanta cura, in which he called "communism and Socialism" the most fatal error.

Poznań 1956 protests were massive anti-communist protests in the People's Republic of Poland.

The Baptism of Poland. Detail from Jan Matejko's Christianization of Poland AD 966.

Poles

1 links

Poles, or Polish people, are a West Slavic nation and ethnic group, who share a common history, culture, the Polish language and are identified with the country of Poland in Central Europe.

Poles, or Polish people, are a West Slavic nation and ethnic group, who share a common history, culture, the Polish language and are identified with the country of Poland in Central Europe.

The Baptism of Poland. Detail from Jan Matejko's Christianization of Poland AD 966.
Fragment of Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum (1073) by Adam of Bremen, containing the name "Polans": "trans Oddaram sunt Polanos"
Book of Henryków. Highlighted in red is the earliest known sentence written in the Old Polish language
King Casimir III the Great welcomes the Jews to Poland (painting by Gerson, 1874).
The map depicts countries by number of citizens who reported Polish ancestry or citizenship (based on sources in this article)
Poland
+ 10,000,000
+ 1,000,000
+ 100,000
+ 10,000

Poles have made important contributions to the world in every major field of human endeavor, among them Copernicus, Marie Curie, Joseph Conrad, Frédéric Chopin and Pope John Paul II.

In the early 20th century, over a million Polish people settled in France, mostly during world wars, among them Polish émigrés fleeing either Nazi occupation (1939–1945) or Communism (1945/1947–1989).

St. Peter's Basilica, the largest Catholic church in the world

Catholic Church

0 links

Largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide.

Largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide.

St. Peter's Basilica, the largest Catholic church in the world
The first use of the term "Catholic Church" (literally meaning "universal church") was by the church father Saint Ignatius of Antioch in his Letter to the Smyrnaeans (c. 110 AD). Ignatius of Antioch is also attributed the earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" (Χριστιανισμός) c. 100 AD. He died in Rome, with his relics located in the Basilica of San Clemente al Laterano.
This fresco (1481–82) by Pietro Perugino in the Sistine Chapel shows Jesus giving the keys of heaven to Saint Peter.
The Last Supper, a late 1490s mural painting by Leonardo da Vinci, depicting the last supper of Jesus and his twelve apostles on the eve of his crucifixion. Most apostles are buried in Rome, including Saint Peter.
Jesus' commission to Saint Peter
19th-century drawing by Henry William Brewer of Old Saint Peter's Basilica, originally built in 318 by Emperor Constantine
Chartres Cathedral, completed 1220
The Renaissance period was a golden age for Catholic art. Pictured: the Sistine Chapel ceiling painted by Michelangelo
Ruins of the Jesuit Reduction at São Miguel das Missões in Brazil
While, since the 1960s, Pope Pius XII has been accused of not having done enough to shelter Jews from the Holocaust, his defenders claim he secretly encouraged individual Catholic resistance groups, such as that led by priest Heinrich Maier. Maier helped the allies fight against the V-2, which was produced by concentration camp prisoners.
Members of the Canadian Royal 22e Regiment in audience with Pope Pius XII, following the Liberation of Rome in 1944 during World War II
Bishops listen during the Second Vatican Council
Pope John Paul II was credited as a major influence to the end of the Cold War and the fall of communism. Here with U.S. President Ronald Reagan and his wife, Nancy, in 1982.
Francis is the 266th and current pope of the Catholic Church, a title he holds ex officio as bishop of Rome, and sovereign of Vatican City. He was elected in the 2013 papal conclave.
C. 1210 manuscript version of the traditional Shield of the Trinity theological diagram
The Blessed Virgin Mary is highly regarded in the Catholic Church, proclaiming her as Mother of God, free from original sin and an intercessor.
Mass at the Grotto at Lourdes, France. The chalice is displayed to the people immediately after the consecration of the wine.
Baptism of Augustine of Hippo as represented in a sculptural group in Troyes Cathedral (1549), France
Pope Benedict XVI celebrates the Eucharist at the canonisation of Frei Galvão in São Paulo, Brazil on 11 May 2007
A Catholic believer prays in a church in Mexico
The Seven Sacraments Altarpiece triptych painting of Extreme Unction (Anointing of the Sick) with oil being administered by a priest during last rites. Rogier van der Weyden, c. 1445.
Priests lay their hands on the ordinands during the rite of ordination.
Wedding mass in the Philippines
Catholic religious objects – Holy Bible, crucifix and rosary
East Syrian Rite wedding crowning celebrated by a bishop of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church in India, one of the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the pope and the Catholic Church.
Saint Teresa of Calcutta advocated for the sick, the poor and the needy by practicing the acts of corporal works of mercy.
Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling
Pope Paul VI issued Humanae vitae on 25 July 1968.

In the 1960s, Pope John XXIII convened the Second Vatican Council, which ushered in radical change to Church ritual and practice, and in the later 20th century, the long reign of Pope John Paul II contributed to the Fall of Communism in Europe, and a new public and international role for the papacy.

The church was an important player in the fall of Communism in Europe, particularly in the Polish People's Republic.

Stefan Wyszyński

0 links

Polish prelate of the Catholic Church.

Polish prelate of the Catholic Church.

Wyszyński's cell in St. Joseph Church in Prudnik
Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński.
Mausoleum chapel of Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński in St. John's Archcathedral in Warsaw.
Statue of Wyszyński near the Visitationist Church in Warsaw.

The case for his beatification and canonization opened in 1989 (he had the title of Servant of God when the cause commenced) and has many proponents in the Vatican and in his native Poland, where he is well known for his heroic and principled stand against National Socialism and Communism, and because of his connections to Pope John Paul II (he played a key role in urging Cardinal Wojtyła to accept his election as pope).

In 1950, Wyszyński decided to enter into a secret agreement with the communist authorities, which was signed on 14 April 1950 by the Polish episcopate and the government.