Polish People's Republic

The Polish People's Republic in 1989
Poland's fate was heavily discussed at the Yalta Conference in February 1945. Joseph Stalin, whose Red Army occupied the entire country, presented several alternatives which granted Poland industrialized territories in the west whilst the Red Army simultaneously permanently annexed Polish territories in the east, resulting in Poland losing over 20% of its pre-war borders - areas primarily inhabited by ethnic Belarusians or Ukrainians. Soviet-backed Polish communists came to power and oversaw the country's entry into the Warsaw Pact in 1955.
Border changes of Poland after World War II. The eastern territories (Kresy) were annexed by the Soviets. The western territories, referred to as the "Recovered Territories", were granted as war reparations. Despite the western lands being more industrialized, Poland lost 77,035 km2 (29,743 sq mi) and major cities like Lviv and Vilnius.
The 1970 Polish protests were put down by the Communist authorities and Citizens' Militia. The riots resulted in the deaths of 42 people and over 1,000 injured.
Queues waiting to enter grocery stores in Warsaw and other Polish cities and towns were typical in the late 1980s. The availability of food and goods varied at times, and the most sought after basic item was toilet paper.
The new Warszawa Centralna railway station in Warsaw had automatic doors and escalators. It was a flagship project during the 1970s economic boom and was dubbed the most modern station in Europe at the time of its completion in 1975.
Lech Wałęsa co-founded and headed the Solidarity movement which toppled Communism. He later became the President of Poland.
The 1980 Gdańsk Shipyard Strike and subsequent Summer 1981 Hunger Demonstrations were instrumental in strengthening the Solidarity movement's influence.
Logo of the Polish United Workers' Party
Władysław Gomułka and Leonid Brezhnev in East Berlin, 1967
An abandoned State Agricultural Farm in south-eastern Poland. State farms were a form of collective farming created in 1949.
Łódź was Poland's largest city after the destruction of Warsaw during World War II. It was also a major industrial centre in Europe and served as the temporary capital due to its economic significance in the 1940s.
Female textile workers in a state-run factory, Łódź, 1950s
Supersam Warsaw, the first self-serve shopping centre in Poland, 1969
Pewex, a chain of hard currency stores which sold unobtainable Western goods and items
Ration cards for sugar, 1977
Bar mleczny, a former milk bar in Gdynia. These canteens offered value meals to citizens throughout Communist Poland.
Trybuna Ludu (People's Tribune) was a government-sponsored newspaper and propaganda outlet
Andrzej Wajda was a key figure in Polish cinematography during and after the fall of communism
Allegory of communist censorship, Poland, 1989. Newspapers visible are from all Eastern Bloc countries including East Germany, the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia
The 237-meter Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw, constructed in 1955. At the time of its completion it was one of the tallest buildings in Europe
Smyk Department Store, 1960s
Polish university students during lecture, 1964
One of many schools constructed in central Warsaw in the 1960s
Jerzy Popiełuszko was a Roman Catholic priest who supported the anti-communist opposition. He was murdered by the Security Services "SB" of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
A demographics graph illustrating population growth between 1900 and 2010. The highest birth rate was during the Second Polish Republic and consequently under the Polish People's Republic.
A typical socialist apartment building in Warsaw representing the style of functionalism, built due to the ever-growing population and high birth rate at the time
Konstantin Rokossovsky, pictured in a Polish uniform, was Marshal of the Soviet Union and Marshal of Poland until being deposed during the Polish October in 1956.
Poland's old and new borders, 1945

Country in Central Europe that existed from 1947 to 1989 as the predecessor of the modern Republic of Poland.

- Polish People's Republic

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Edward Gierek in visit to the Rząśnik PGR

State Agricultural Farm

Edward Gierek in visit to the Rząśnik PGR
Former PGR in Szczyrzyc
One of the many agricultural machines used in the State Farms - harvester Bison model Z056
PGR Wieżanka
PGR Żelechów
PGR Krościenko
PGR Gwoździany
PGR Rybotycze
PGR Grąziowa
PGR Pieszcz
PGR Wielopole
PGR Grabowo

A State Agricultural Farm (Państwowe Gospodarstwo Rolne, PGR) was a form of collective farming in the People's Republic of Poland, similar to Soviet sovkhoz and to the East German Volkseigenes Gut.

Allegory communist censorship collage of artist Jacek Halicki (1989).

Censorship in Communist Poland

Allegory communist censorship collage of artist Jacek Halicki (1989).

Censorship in Communist Poland was primarily performed by the Polish Main Office of Control of Press, Publications and Shows (Główny Urząd Kontroli Prasy, Publikacji i Widowisk), a governmental institution created in 1946 by the pro-Soviet Provisional Government of National Unity with Stalin's approval and backing, and renamed in 1981 as the Główny Urząd Kontroli Publikacji i Widowisk (GUKPiW).

"Drive to the Collective Farm!" — 1920s Yiddish-language poster featuring women kolkhoz workers

Collective farming

Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise".

Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise".

"Drive to the Collective Farm!" — 1920s Yiddish-language poster featuring women kolkhoz workers
"Kolkhoz-woman with pumpkins", 1930 painting
Latter-day Iroquois longhouse housing several hundred people
Soviet famine of 1932–33. Areas of most disastrous famine marked with black.
1962 stamp commemorating the "completion" of land collectivization.

The Baltic states and most of the Eastern Bloc (except Poland) adopted collective farming after World War II, with the accession of communist regimes to power.

The Gdańsk Voivodeship within Poland, between 1950 and 1975.

Gdańsk Voivodeship (1945–1975)

Voivodeship with capital in Gdańsk, that was located in the region of Pomerelia.

Voivodeship with capital in Gdańsk, that was located in the region of Pomerelia.

The Gdańsk Voivodeship within Poland, between 1950 and 1975.
Gdańsk Voivodeship within Poland, from 1946 to 1950.
The counties of Poland in 1968, including the counties of the Gdańsk Voivodeship.

On, 19 February 1947, the provisional government was replaced by the Polish People's Republic.

The Szczecin Voivodeship within Poland, between 1950 and 1975.

Koszalin Voivodeship (1950–1975)

The Szczecin Voivodeship within Poland, between 1950 and 1975.
The counties of Poland in 1968, including the counties of the Koszalin Voivodeship.

The Koszalin Voivodeship was a voivodeship (province) of the Polish People's Republic, with capital in Koszalin, that existed from 1950 to 1975.

Palace of Culture and Science in 2019

Palace of Culture and Science

Notable high-rise building in central Warsaw, Poland.

Notable high-rise building in central Warsaw, Poland.

Palace of Culture and Science in 2019
Palace in 1954, during construction
Palace in 1960
South view of the Palace
The Palace of Culture and Science at night during Christmas market
Congress Hall

The Palace of Culture and Science is a highly controversial building for some, and is often viewed as a reminder of Soviet influence over the Polish People's Republic, especially due to its construction during mass violations of human rights under Joseph Stalin.

Sexmission

1984 Polish cult comedy science fiction action film.

1984 Polish cult comedy science fiction action film.

The film contains numerous subtle allusions to the realities of the communist-bloc society, particularly to that of the People's Republic of Poland just before the fall of communism, perhaps in the anticipation of the major events to come; the fall of communism and the rise of political liberty.

DVD cover of a recent Polish movie edition

The Cruise (1970 film)

Polish comedy film released in 1970, directed by Marek Piwowski who also co-wrote the screenplay with Andrzej Barszczyński, Janusz Głowacki and Jerzy Karaszkiewicz.

Polish comedy film released in 1970, directed by Marek Piwowski who also co-wrote the screenplay with Andrzej Barszczyński, Janusz Głowacki and Jerzy Karaszkiewicz.

DVD cover of a recent Polish movie edition
Screenshot from the movie

Shot in a quasi-documentary style, with a cast featuring not more than two or three professional actors, the absurd plot parodies life in the People's Republic of Poland, reducing a weekend river cruise to a hilarious parody of the entire communist system.

A newer high-rise tower in downtown New Brunswick, New Jersey, U.S.

Tower block

Tall building, as opposed to a low-rise building and is defined differently in terms of height depending on the jurisdiction.

Tall building, as opposed to a low-rise building and is defined differently in terms of height depending on the jurisdiction.

A newer high-rise tower in downtown New Brunswick, New Jersey, U.S.
The Majakka high-rise building in Kalasatama, Helsinki
These tower blocks were built in Shibam, Yemen, in the 16th century, and are the tallest mudbrick buildings in the world, some more than 30 m high.
Sliding ladder for firefighters in 1904
A residential block in Steinfurt, Westphalia, Germany, forming a "Y"
High-rise buildings, Hong Kong
Nowa Huta in Kraków, Poland, serves as one of the best examples of socialist realism, with its street hierarchy resembling that of Paris.
Painted paneláks in Prague, Czech Republic
Renovated apartment building from 1963 in Bucharest, Romania. With the 2010s, renovation of older apartment buildings in Eastern Europe has become common, especially in countries which get EU funds.
High-rise office buildings in La Défense, France
The three tower blocks of the Crossways Estate in Bow, London, United Kingdom, before their refurbishment
Flats in Ballymun, Dublin, Ireland
Central Park Tower in Manhattan, New York City, the tallest residential high-rise tower in the world, December 2020
Housing commission towers in Waterloo, Sydney, Australia
"Street in the sky" at Park Hill
Salford tower blocks in 2001. In the UK, tower blocks were mostly built between the 1950s and 70s.

This took place mostly in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s of the 20th century, though in the People's Republic of Poland this process started even earlier due to the severe damages that Polish cities sustained during World War II.

Interkosmos patch

Interkosmos

Soviet space program, designed to help the Soviet Union's allies with crewed and uncrewed space missions.

Soviet space program, designed to help the Soviet Union's allies with crewed and uncrewed space missions.

Interkosmos patch
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East German postage stamp
A commemorative coin issued in Mongolia

1973 April 4 - Interkosmos 9 "Copernicus-500" - satellite of cooperation of the Polish People's Republic and Soviet Union to study the Sun and ionosphere. Orbit around 200–1550 km.