Polish People's Republic

The Polish People's Republic in 1989
Poland's fate was heavily discussed at the Yalta Conference in February 1945. Joseph Stalin, whose Red Army occupied the entire country, presented several alternatives which granted Poland industrialized territories in the west whilst the Red Army simultaneously permanently annexed Polish territories in the east, resulting in Poland losing over 20% of its pre-war borders - areas primarily inhabited by ethnic Belarusians or Ukrainians. Soviet-backed Polish communists came to power and oversaw the country's entry into the Warsaw Pact in 1955.
Border changes of Poland after World War II. The eastern territories (Kresy) were annexed by the Soviets. The western territories, referred to as the "Recovered Territories", were granted as war reparations. Despite the western lands being more industrialized, Poland lost 77,035 km2 (29,743 sq mi) and major cities like Lviv and Vilnius.
The 1970 Polish protests were put down by the Communist authorities and Citizens' Militia. The riots resulted in the deaths of 42 people and over 1,000 injured.
Queues waiting to enter grocery stores in Warsaw and other Polish cities and towns were typical in the late 1980s. The availability of food and goods varied at times, and the most sought after basic item was toilet paper.
The new Warszawa Centralna railway station in Warsaw had automatic doors and escalators. It was a flagship project during the 1970s economic boom and was dubbed the most modern station in Europe at the time of its completion in 1975.
Lech Wałęsa co-founded and headed the Solidarity movement which toppled Communism. He later became the President of Poland.
The 1980 Gdańsk Shipyard Strike and subsequent Summer 1981 Hunger Demonstrations were instrumental in strengthening the Solidarity movement's influence.
Logo of the Polish United Workers' Party
Władysław Gomułka and Leonid Brezhnev in East Berlin, 1967
An abandoned State Agricultural Farm in south-eastern Poland. State farms were a form of collective farming created in 1949.
Łódź was Poland's largest city after the destruction of Warsaw during World War II. It was also a major industrial centre in Europe and served as the temporary capital due to its economic significance in the 1940s.
Female textile workers in a state-run factory, Łódź, 1950s
Supersam Warsaw, the first self-serve shopping centre in Poland, 1969
Pewex, a chain of hard currency stores which sold unobtainable Western goods and items
Ration cards for sugar, 1977
Bar mleczny, a former milk bar in Gdynia. These canteens offered value meals to citizens throughout Communist Poland.
Trybuna Ludu (People's Tribune) was a government-sponsored newspaper and propaganda outlet
Andrzej Wajda was a key figure in Polish cinematography during and after the fall of communism
Allegory of communist censorship, Poland, 1989. Newspapers visible are from all Eastern Bloc countries including East Germany, the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia
The 237-meter Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw, constructed in 1955. At the time of its completion it was one of the tallest buildings in Europe
Smyk Department Store, 1960s
Polish university students during lecture, 1964
One of many schools constructed in central Warsaw in the 1960s
Jerzy Popiełuszko was a Roman Catholic priest who supported the anti-communist opposition. He was murdered by the Security Services "SB" of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
A demographics graph illustrating population growth between 1900 and 2010. The highest birth rate was during the Second Polish Republic and consequently under the Polish People's Republic.
A typical socialist apartment building in Warsaw representing the style of functionalism, built due to the ever-growing population and high birth rate at the time
Konstantin Rokossovsky, pictured in a Polish uniform, was Marshal of the Soviet Union and Marshal of Poland until being deposed during the Polish October in 1956.
Poland's old and new borders, 1945

Country in Central Europe that existed from 1947 to 1989 as the predecessor of the modern Republic of Poland.

- Polish People's Republic

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Map showing Poland's borders pre-1938 and post-1945. The Eastern Borderlands is in gray while the Recovered Territories are in pink.

Recovered Territories

The Recovered Territories or Regained Lands (Ziemie Odzyskane), also known as Western Borderlands (Kresy Zachodnie), and previously as Western and Northern Territories (Ziemie Zachodnie i Północne), Postulated Territories (Ziemie Postulowane) and Returning Territories (Ziemie Powracające), are the former eastern territories of Germany and the Free City of Danzig that became part of Poland after World War II, at which time their former German inhabitants were forcibly deported.

The Recovered Territories or Regained Lands (Ziemie Odzyskane), also known as Western Borderlands (Kresy Zachodnie), and previously as Western and Northern Territories (Ziemie Zachodnie i Północne), Postulated Territories (Ziemie Postulowane) and Returning Territories (Ziemie Powracające), are the former eastern territories of Germany and the Free City of Danzig that became part of Poland after World War II, at which time their former German inhabitants were forcibly deported.

Map showing Poland's borders pre-1938 and post-1945. The Eastern Borderlands is in gray while the Recovered Territories are in pink.
Early Piast Poland at the death of Mieszko I in 992, who is considered as the first historical ruler of Poland and the creator of the Polish state, after his realm was recognized by the papacy.
Map (published in 1917 in the United States) showing Poland at the death of Boleslaw III in 1138
Polish nationalist propaganda from the 1930s: "Nie jestesmy tu od wczoraj. Sięgaliśmy daleko na zachód." (We are not here since yesterday. Once we reached far west.)
Location of the annexed part (orange) of the Province of Pomerania and of the other "Recovered Territories" (green)
Castle of the Dukes of Pomerania in Szczecin
Gdańsk was a principal seaport of Poland since the Middle Ages. From the mid-15th to the early 18th century it was the largest city of Poland. Lost by Poland in the Second Partition in 1793.
Location of the former Free City of Danzig (orange) and of the other "Recovered Territories" (green)
Location of East Brandenburg (orange) and of the other "Recovered Territories" (green)
A 19th-century map of Piast-ruled Greater Poland: Lubusz Land, stretched on both sides of the Oder, marked in yellow, northwestern parts of Greater Poland annexed by Brandenburg, marked in green
Location of Posen-West Prussia (orange) and of the other "Recovered Territories" (green)
Birthplace of Stanisław Staszic, a leading figure of Polish Enlightenment, in Piła (nowadays a museum)
Location of Silesia (orange) in the "Recovered Territories" (green)
Polish city names in Silesia; from a 1750 Prussian official document published in Berlin during the Silesian Wars.
Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights/Ducal Prussia as a feudal fief of the Polish Crown (1466–1657). Warmia was directly incorporated to the Polish state until the First Partition of Poland (1772)
Location of southern East Prussia (orange) and of the other "Recovered Territories" (green)
Władysław Gomułka (center), minister in the Polish People's Republic who oversaw the integration and development of the Recovered Territories between 1945 and 1948
US Department of State demographics map from 10 January 1945 Germany – Poland Proposed Territorial Changes
Piast Castle in Opole before its destruction by the local German authorities between 1928 and 1930
The former headquarters of the pre-war Polish newspaper Gazeta Olsztyńska in Olsztyn, destroyed under Nazi rule in 1939, rebuilt in 1989
Polish soldiers marking the new Polish-German border in 1945
The baroque interior of the Lubiąż abbey was removed and transferred to Stężyca, in eastern Poland in order to replace church stalls destroyed by the Germans.
Mămăligă is a dish which was very popular with Poles in East Galicia. People from these areas who resettled in the Recovered Territories brought this and other culinary traditions with them to their new homes.
"The 10th stage, Zgorzelec to Wrocław, leads you through primeval Polish lands." Photograph from the June 1955 Peace Race
Municipal House of Culture in Zgorzelec, place of signing of the Treaty of Zgorzelec in 1950
Boundary stones of Germany and Poland in the Ueckermünde Heath
Pre-1945 administrative division (yellow)
Projected Polish administration (Okreg I-IV) in March, 1945
Integration into the Voivodeships of Poland as of June, 1946
Present-day administrative division of Poland, Western and Northern Lands in dark green

The Soviet-appointed communist authorities that conducted the resettlement also made efforts to remove many traces of German culture, such as place names and historic inscriptions on buildings, from the newly Polish territories.

The first Sejm in Łęczyca. Recording of laws. A.D. 1180

Sejm

Lower house of the bicameral parliament of Poland.

Lower house of the bicameral parliament of Poland.

The first Sejm in Łęczyca. Recording of laws. A.D. 1180
In 1791, the "Great Sejm" or Four-Year Sejm of 1788–1792 and Senate adopted the May 3rd Constitution at the Royal Castle in Warsaw
Tadeusz Rejtan tries to prevent the legalisation of the first partition of Poland by preventing the members of the Sejm from leaving the chamber (1773). Painting by Jan Matejko
Stanisław Dubois speaking to envoys and diplomats in the Sejm, 1931
Józef Beck, Minister of Foreign Affairs, delivers his famous Honour Speech in the Sejm, 5 May 1939.
The Sejm building in Warsaw
The Sejm's main hall
Sessions chamber in the Sejm
Sessions chamber viewed from the rostrum
Sejm cross
Column hall in the Sejm

The Sejm has been the highest governing body of the Third Polish Republic since the transition of government in 1989.

Refugees moving westwards in 1945. Courtesy of the German Federal Archives (Deutsches Bundesarchiv).

Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950)

During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period, Germans and Volksdeutsche fled and were expelled from various Eastern and Central European countries, including Czechoslovakia, and the former German provinces of Silesia, Pomerania, and East Prussia, which were annexed by Poland and the Soviet Union.

During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period, Germans and Volksdeutsche fled and were expelled from various Eastern and Central European countries, including Czechoslovakia, and the former German provinces of Silesia, Pomerania, and East Prussia, which were annexed by Poland and the Soviet Union.

Refugees moving westwards in 1945. Courtesy of the German Federal Archives (Deutsches Bundesarchiv).
Europe before and after the First World War.
Karl Hermann Frank, Secretary of State and Higher SS and Police Leader in Nazi Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (right) was born in Carlsbad, Austria-Hungary (present-day Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic).
Adolf Hitler being welcomed by a crowd in Sudetenland, where the pro-Nazi Sudeten German Party gained 88% of ethnic-German votes in May 1938.
The Curzon Line
Votes for the Nazi Party in the March 1933 elections
Polish teachers from Bydgoszcz guarded by members of Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz before execution
Massacred German civilians in Nemmersdorf, East Prussia. News of Soviet atrocities, spread and exaggerated by Nazi propaganda, hastened the flight of ethnic Germans from much of Eastern Europe.
Evacuation from Pillau, 26 January 1945
Refugee camp in Aabenraa (Apenrade) in Denmark, February 1945
Potsdam Conference: Joseph Stalin (second from left), Harry Truman (center), Winston Churchill (right)
German expellees, 1946
Czech territories with 50% (red) or more German population in 1935
Retreating Wehrmacht, Hungary, March 1945
Monument to the expelled Germans in Elek, Hungary
German refugees from East Prussia, 1945
Polish boundary post at the Oder–Neisse line in 1945
August 1948, German children deported from the eastern areas taken over by Poland arrive in West Germany.
Evacuation of German civilians and troops in Ventspils, October 1944
A refugee trek of Black Sea Germans during the Second World War in Hungary, July 1944
Refugee treks, Curonian Lagoon, northern East Prussia, March 1945
Push-cart used by German refugees with some items they were able to take with them
Former camp for expellees in Eckernförde, picture taken in 1951
Refugees in Berlin, 27 June 1945
Refugee settlement in Espelkamp, about 1945 to 1949
Refugee settlement in Bleidenstadt, 1952
Expellee organisations demonstrate in Bonn, capital of West Germany, in 1951
A road sign indicating former German cities
Parade of German expellees in October 1959 in Espelkamp, North Rhine-Westphalia
A stamp issued in West Germany ten years after expulsions began

The largest numbers came from former eastern territories of Germany ceded to the People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union (about seven million), and from Czechoslovakia (about three million).

The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. Behind them stand, from the left, Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, Fleet Admiral Ernest King, Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, General of the Army George Marshall, Major General Laurence S. Kuter, General Aleksei Antonov, Vice Admiral Stepan Kucherov, and Admiral of the Fleet Nikolay Kuznetsov.

Yalta Conference

The World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union to discuss the postwar reorganization of Germany and Europe.

The World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union to discuss the postwar reorganization of Germany and Europe.

The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. Behind them stand, from the left, Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, Fleet Admiral Ernest King, Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, General of the Army George Marshall, Major General Laurence S. Kuter, General Aleksei Antonov, Vice Admiral Stepan Kucherov, and Admiral of the Fleet Nikolay Kuznetsov.
Soviet, American and British diplomats during the Yalta conference
Yalta American Delegation in Livadia Palace from left to right: Secretary of State Edward Stettinius, Maj. Gen. L. S. Kuter, Admiral E. J. King, General George C. Marshall, Ambassador Averell Harriman, Admiral William Leahy, and President F. D. Roosevelt. Livadia Palace, Crimea, RSFSR
A Big Three meeting room
Leaders of the Big Three at the negotiating table at the Yalta conference
Allied-occupied territories (red) on 15 February 1945, four days after the end of the conference
Poland's old and new borders, 1945 – Kresy in light red
The eventual partition of Germany into Allied Occupation Zones: {{legend|#69AB69|British zone}} {{legend|#2464D8|French zone (two exclaves) and beginning in 1947, the Saar protectorate}} {{legend|#FCA93E|American zone, including Bremen}} {{legend|#FF5555|Soviet zone, later the GDR}} {{legend|#FFFFCF|Polish and Soviet annexed territory}}
Partition plan from Winston Churchill: {{legend|#C9A091|North German state}} {{legend|#9195C9|South German state, including modern Austria and Hungary}} {{legend|#92C991|West German state}}
Morgenthau Plan: {{legend|#FF6464|North German state}} {{legend|#6464FF|South German state}} {{legend|#64ff64|International zone}} {{legend|#C8C8C8|Territory lost from Germany (Saarland to France, Upper Silesia to Poland, East Prussia, partitioned between Poland and the Soviet Union)}}
From left to right: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. Also present are Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov (far left); Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Andrew Cunningham, RN, Marshal of the RAF Sir Charles Portal, RAF, (standing behind Churchill); General George C. Marshall, Chief of Staff of the United States Army, and Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, USN, (standing behind Roosevelt)

After the Second World War ended, a communist government was installed in Poland.

Temporary borders created by advancing German and Soviet troops. The border was soon readjusted following diplomatic agreements.

Territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union

Seventeen days after the German invasion of Poland in 1939, which marked the beginning of the Second World War, the Soviet Union entered the eastern regions of Poland (known as the Kresy) and annexed territories totalling 20,1015 km2 with a population of 13,299,000.

Seventeen days after the German invasion of Poland in 1939, which marked the beginning of the Second World War, the Soviet Union entered the eastern regions of Poland (known as the Kresy) and annexed territories totalling 20,1015 km2 with a population of 13,299,000.

Temporary borders created by advancing German and Soviet troops. The border was soon readjusted following diplomatic agreements.
Planned and actual divisions of Europe, according to the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, with later adjustments
Soviet annexation of territory of eastern Poland ceded to Ukrainian SSR (yellow), 1940
Soviet map of the newly expanded Byelorussian SSR (yellow), 1940. Parts of prewar Poland invaded by the Nazis labeled area of state interests of Germany
See map
Sectors of prewar Poland under the Nazi German occupational authority
Curzon-Namier Line's variants. Tehran, 1943

The Polish People's Republic regime described the territories as the "Recovered Territories".

Emblem worn by LWP soldiers; the "Piast eagle" without the crown

Polish People's Army

Emblem worn by LWP soldiers; the "Piast eagle" without the crown
Polish troops, 1943
The Polish First Army on their way to Berlin, 1945
Polish flag raised on the top of Berlin Victory Column on 2 May 1945
T-55A tanks of the Polish People's Army (Martial law in Poland)

The Polish People's Army (Ludowe Wojsko Polskie, LWP) constituted the second formation of the Polish Armed Forces in the East in 1943–1945, and in 1945–1989 the armed forces of the Polish communist state (from 1952, the Polish People's Republic), ruled by the Polish Workers' Party and then the Polish United Workers' Party.

Photograph of a Soviet T-54 in Prague during the Warsaw Pact's occupation of Czechoslovakia.

Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia

Photograph of a Soviet T-54 in Prague during the Warsaw Pact's occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev and Polish leader Władysław Gomułka in East Berlin, 1967
Brezhnev, Nikolai Podgorny, and East German leader Walter Ulbricht in Moscow
Nicolae Ceauşescu (right) visiting Czechoslovakia in 1968; here, with Alexander Dubček and Ludvik Svoboda
Barricades and Soviet tanks on fire
Prague resident attempting conversation with a Soviet soldier.
Soviet soldier with a tank shell – potentially having retrieved it from a burning tank.
Soviet tanks marked with invasion stripes during the invasion
Population securing food supplies
National flag of Czechoslovakia covered in blood
One of the protesters' banners "For your freedom and ours"
Bucharest, August 1968: Ceauşescu criticizing the Soviet invasion
Demonstration in Helsinki against the invasion
Demonstration in Kiel, West Germany against the invasion of Czechoslovakia and Vietnam War, 23 August 1968
Commander-in-chief of the Warsaw Pact Ivan Yakubovsky with Walter Ulbricht in 1970
Erich Honecker, Gustáv Husák, and Walter Ulbricht in Berlin, East Germany, 1971
Memorial plate in Košice, Slovakia

On 20–21 August 1968, Czechoslovakia was jointly invaded by four Warsaw Pact countries: the Soviet Union, Poland, Bulgaria and Hungary.

Kraków

Second-largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.

Second-largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.

Tomb of Casimir III the Great at Wawel Cathedral. Kraków was the capital of Poland from 1038 to 1596.
The Church of St. Adalbert is one of the oldest churches in the city, dating from the 11th century.
Woodcut of Kraków from the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493
View of Kraków (Cracovia) near the end of the 16th-century
Tadeusz Kościuszko takes the oath of loyalty to the Polish nation in Kraków's market square (Rynek), 1794
Act of granting the constitution to the Free City of Krakow. After the Partitions of Poland, Kraków was independent city republic and the only piece of sovereign Polish territory between 1815 and 1846.
Flower vendors in Rynek. First autochrome in Poland, dated 1912
Kraków Ghetto, 1942—a German checkpoint during operation Aktion Krakau
Kraków's territorial growth from the late 18th to the 20th century
Camaldolese Hermit Monastery in Bielany
Convent of Norbertine Sisters in Kraków-Zwierzyniec and the Vistula River during the summer season
The Renaissance Cloth Hall (Sukiennice) in Main Market Square
The Kraków Barbican dating from around 1498 was once a fortified outpost of the inner medieval city.
Kanonicza Street, at the foot of the Wawel Castle
View of Kraków from St. Mary's Basilica in the Market Square
Palace of Art at Szczepański Square is an example of Art Nouveau architecture in central Kraków.
Basztowa Street, filled with some of the most unique historical buildings in all architectural styles; part of the Royal Route of Kraków
Pawilon Wyspiański 2000 is a rare example of Postmodern architecture present in Kraków's Old Town.
Planty Park, which surrounds Kraków's Old Town
A pavilion within the Planty Park during winter
The New Town Hall of Podgórze, which used to be a self-governing independent town until its incorporation into Kraków in 1915
Entrance to the Wielopolski Palace from 1560, the seat of Kraków's mayor, administration and city council
Matejko Square, featuring the Grunwald Monument at Kleparz, is one of the city's most important public spaces.
Socialist-realist district of Nowa Huta
The Center for Business Innovation office complex in Kraków
Unity Tower, one of the tallest buildings in the city
Bombardier city tram on Piłsudski Bridge
PKP Intercity train at the Main Railway Station
Wawel Cathedral, home to royal coronations and resting place of many national heroes; considered to be Poland's national sanctuary
Saint Anne's Church is the leading example of Baroque architecture in Poland.
Kraków University of Economics
Collegium Maius, Jagiellonian University's oldest building
Leonardo da Vinci's Lady with an Ermine, at the Czartoryski Museum
The National Museum in Kraków is one of Poland's finest galleries of art.
Kraków Congress Centre – the business and cultural flagship of the city
Kraków's renowned Juliusz Słowacki Theatre
Concert hall of the Kraków Philharmonic
Wisła Kraków Stadium
Tauron Arena Kraków
Cracovia Stadium
Wawel Castle
German concentration camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau
Wieliczka Salt Mine
Pieskowa Skała castle
Benedictine Tyniec Abbey

After the war, under the Polish People's Republic, the intellectual and academic community of Kraków was put under complete political control.

John Paul II in 1984

Pope John Paul II

The head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 until his death in 2005.

The head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 until his death in 2005.

John Paul II in 1984
The wedding portrait of John Paul II's parents, Emilia and Karol Wojtyła Sr.
Painting of Saint John Paul II painted by Zbigniewa Kotyłły, 2012
Karol Wojtyła (second from right) in a Baudienst forced labor work crew during the German occupation of Poland in WWII, circa 1941
The Pontifical International Athenaeum Angelicum in Rome, Italy
Karol Wojtyła pictured during a kayaking trip to the countryside with a groups of students, circa 1960
19 Kanonicza Street in Kraków, Poland where John Paul II lived as a priest and bishop (now an Archdiocese Museum).
First appearance of Pope John Paul II following his election on 16 October 1978
John Paul's first papal trip to Poland in June 1979
John Paul II with the president of Italy Sandro Pertini in 1984
John Paul II during a visit to West Germany, 1980
US President Ronald Reagan meeting with Pope John Paul II during a visit to the Vatican City, 1982
Graffiti showing John Paul II with quote "Do not be afraid" in Rijeka, Croatia
John Paul II was the first Pope to enter and pray in a mosque, visiting the tomb of John the Baptist at Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
John Paul II moments after being shot during an assassination attempt by Mehmet Ali Ağca in St. Peter's Square, 13 May 1981
An ailing John Paul II riding in the Popemobile in September 2004 in St. Peter's Square
(l-r) George W. Bush, Laura Bush, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, Condoleezza Rice, and Andrew Card, US dignitaries paying respects to John Paul II on 6 April 2005 at St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
The tomb of John Paul II in the Vatican Chapel of Saint Sebastian within St. Peter's Basilica where it has been since 2011.
1.5 million St. Peter's Square attendees witness the beatification of John Paul II on 1 May 2011 in Vatican City
Statue of John Paul II outside the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Tepeyac, Mexico City
Candles around monument to John Paul II in Zaspa, Gdańsk at the time of his death
The canonisation of John Paul II and John XXIII
The tomb of the parents of John Paul II at Rakowicki Cemetery in Kraków, Poland
Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka
Karol Wojtyła (1958)

He has also been credited with helping to end Communist rule in his native Poland as well as the rest of Europe.

Citroën Traction Avant, a car commonly used by the UB

Ministry of Public Security (Poland)

Citroën Traction Avant, a car commonly used by the UB
The PKWN Manifesto, issued on 22 July 1944
Jakub Berman
Józef Światło, born Izaak Fleischfarb, defected to the West and spoke publicly of UB's brutal actions
Ministry office in Warsaw (current Ministry of Justice)
Office of Public Security regional location in Szczecin, Poland
Ministry of Public Security organization for 1953, (Organizacja Ministerstwa Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego na rok 1953, M Malinowski)
Ministry of Public Security field organization, 1953
Stamp of the Committee for Public Security, 1954–1956

The Ministry of Public Security (Ministerstwo Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego), commonly known as UB or later SB, was the secret police, intelligence and counter-espionage agency operating in the Polish People's Republic.