A report on Polish People's Republic

The Polish People's Republic in 1989
Poland's fate was heavily discussed at the Yalta Conference in February 1945. Joseph Stalin, whose Red Army occupied the entire country, presented several alternatives which granted Poland industrialized territories in the west whilst the Red Army simultaneously permanently annexed Polish territories in the east, resulting in Poland losing over 20% of its pre-war borders - areas primarily inhabited by ethnic Belarusians or Ukrainians. Soviet-backed Polish communists came to power and oversaw the country's entry into the Warsaw Pact in 1955.
Border changes of Poland after World War II. The eastern territories (Kresy) were annexed by the Soviets. The western territories, referred to as the "Recovered Territories", were granted as war reparations. Despite the western lands being more industrialized, Poland lost 77,035 km2 (29,743 sq mi) and major cities like Lviv and Vilnius.
The 1970 Polish protests were put down by the Communist authorities and Citizens' Militia. The riots resulted in the deaths of 42 people and over 1,000 injured.
Queues waiting to enter grocery stores in Warsaw and other Polish cities and towns were typical in the late 1980s. The availability of food and goods varied at times, and the most sought after basic item was toilet paper.
The new Warszawa Centralna railway station in Warsaw had automatic doors and escalators. It was a flagship project during the 1970s economic boom and was dubbed the most modern station in Europe at the time of its completion in 1975.
Lech Wałęsa co-founded and headed the Solidarity movement which toppled Communism. He later became the President of Poland.
The 1980 Gdańsk Shipyard Strike and subsequent Summer 1981 Hunger Demonstrations were instrumental in strengthening the Solidarity movement's influence.
Logo of the Polish United Workers' Party
Władysław Gomułka and Leonid Brezhnev in East Berlin, 1967
An abandoned State Agricultural Farm in south-eastern Poland. State farms were a form of collective farming created in 1949.
Łódź was Poland's largest city after the destruction of Warsaw during World War II. It was also a major industrial centre in Europe and served as the temporary capital due to its economic significance in the 1940s.
Female textile workers in a state-run factory, Łódź, 1950s
Supersam Warsaw, the first self-serve shopping centre in Poland, 1969
Pewex, a chain of hard currency stores which sold unobtainable Western goods and items
Ration cards for sugar, 1977
Bar mleczny, a former milk bar in Gdynia. These canteens offered value meals to citizens throughout Communist Poland.
Trybuna Ludu (People's Tribune) was a government-sponsored newspaper and propaganda outlet
Andrzej Wajda was a key figure in Polish cinematography during and after the fall of communism
Allegory of communist censorship, Poland, 1989. Newspapers visible are from all Eastern Bloc countries including East Germany, the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia
The 237-meter Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw, constructed in 1955. At the time of its completion it was one of the tallest buildings in Europe
Smyk Department Store, 1960s
Polish university students during lecture, 1964
One of many schools constructed in central Warsaw in the 1960s
Jerzy Popiełuszko was a Roman Catholic priest who supported the anti-communist opposition. He was murdered by the Security Services "SB" of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
A demographics graph illustrating population growth between 1900 and 2010. The highest birth rate was during the Second Polish Republic and consequently under the Polish People's Republic.
A typical socialist apartment building in Warsaw representing the style of functionalism, built due to the ever-growing population and high birth rate at the time
Konstantin Rokossovsky, pictured in a Polish uniform, was Marshal of the Soviet Union and Marshal of Poland until being deposed during the Polish October in 1956.
Poland's old and new borders, 1945

Country in Central Europe that existed from 1947 to 1989 as the predecessor of the modern Republic of Poland.

- Polish People's Republic

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Demonstration in front of the main gate of Warsaw University, May 1988

1988 Polish strikes

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Demonstration in front of the main gate of Warsaw University, May 1988

The 1988 Polish strikes were a massive wave of workers' strikes which broke out from 21 April, 1988 in the Polish People's Republic.

Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic

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Republic of the Soviet Union (USSR).

Republic of the Soviet Union (USSR).

Location of Byelorussia (red) within the Soviet Union (red and white) between 1945 and 1991
A 2019 stamp dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the BSSR.
Location of Byelorussia (red) within the Soviet Union (red and white) between 1945 and 1991
The initial and provisional borders of the SSRB (dark green)
The Litbel was a Soviet attempt to justify its irredentist ambition by drawing on a historic parallel.
After their 1918–1919 winter conquest of Byelorussia, Ukraine and Lithuania, Soviet forces faced Poland as a competing power in the region.
After the decisive Polish victory in Warsaw, the Red Army was forced to retreat from Polish territories, but attempts to hold Western Belarus were lost after the Polish victory on the Nieman River.
A Belarusian caricature showing the division of their country by Poles and Bolsheviks.
BSSR between the two World Wars
Minsk Railway Station (1926), with the city's name given in Belarusian, Russian, Polish and Yiddish (or interwar Belarus's 4 official languages)
BSSR from September 1939 to June 1941, with territories added after the invasion of Poland marked in orange.
Members of the Soviet resistance in Belarus hanged by the German army on 26 October 1941
Russia-born Andrei Gromyko (right) served as Soviet foreign minister (1957–1985) and as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1985–1988)
The Supreme Soviet of Byelorussia, meets for its legislative sessions in Minsk.
Draniki, the national dish

To the west it bordered Poland.

The "Big Three" at the Potsdam Conference, Winston Churchill, Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin

Potsdam Conference

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Held in Potsdam, Germany, from July 17 to August 2, 1945, to allow the three leading Allies to plan the postwar peace, while avoiding the mistakes of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. The participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Held in Potsdam, Germany, from July 17 to August 2, 1945, to allow the three leading Allies to plan the postwar peace, while avoiding the mistakes of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. The participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

The "Big Three" at the Potsdam Conference, Winston Churchill, Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin
A conference session including Clement Attlee, Ernest Bevin, Joseph Stalin, Vyacheslav Molotov, William D. Leahy, Joseph E. Davies, James F. Byrnes, and Harry S. Truman
From left to right, first row: General Secretary Joseph Stalin; President Harry Truman, Soviet Ambassador to the United States Andrei Gromyko, Secretary of State James F. Byrnes, and Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov. Second row: Brigadier General Harry H. Vaughan, Truman's confidant and military aide, Russian interpreter Charles Bohlen, Truman naval aide James K. Vardaman Jr., and (partially obscured) Charles Griffith Ross
Sitting (from left): Clement Attlee, Harry S. Truman, Joseph Stalin, and behind: Fleet Admiral William Daniel Leahy, Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin, Secretary of State James F. Byrnes, and Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov
Cecilienhof, site of the Potsdam Conference, pictured in 2014
Demographics map used for the border discussions at the conference
The Oder–Neisse line (click to enlarge)
Poland's old and new borders, 1945. The territory previously part of Germany is identified in pink.
The Foreign Ministers: Vyacheslav Molotov, James F. Byrnes, and Anthony Eden, July 1945

The Soviet Union converted several countries of Eastern Europe into satellite states within the Eastern Bloc, such as the People's Republic of Poland, the People's Republic of Bulgaria, the People's Republic of Hungary, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the People's Republic of Romania, and the People's Republic of Albania.

Poznań

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City on the River Warta in west-central Poland, within the Greater Poland region.

City on the River Warta in west-central Poland, within the Greater Poland region.

14th-century seal showing Poznań's coat of arms
Monument of Mieszko I and Boleslaus I the Brave, Golden Chapel at the Poznań Cathedral
Poznań Cathedral (center) and the smaller Church of Holy Virgin Mary to its right, standing on the site of the original ducal residence
Royal Castle after its total reconstruction
Poznań, c. undefined 1617, view from the north
Interior details in the Parish Church, or simply Fara, built in 1651–1701. One of the most stunning and best preserved examples of baroque architecture in Poland
Raczyński Library (1828) at Liberty Square in 2016
Old Market Square in 1934. The Odwach guardhouse and the 1893's New Town Hall, which was not rebuilt after World War II
The skyline of Poznań, as seen from the east bank of the Warta river
Malta lake, the Mound of Freedom and artificial ski slope Malta-ski
Administrative division into 42 osiedla auxiliary units since 2011
The pre-1990 city division into main districts dzielnica, which are still retained for some administrative purposes
Bałtyk office building
A view of Stary Browar, Poznań Financial Centre, and Andersia Tower from the Collegium Altum of the University of Economics
Historical Herbrand B3/H0 horse-drawn tram used in Poznań between 1880 and 1898
The Renaissance Town Hall from 1560 served as the seat of local government until 1939 and now houses a museum
Grand Theatre behind Adama Mickiewicza Park
St. Martin's croissant
Collegium Minus of the Adam Mickiewicz University
AMU's Faculty of Political Science and Journalism at the Campus Morasko
Faculty of Chemical Technologies – Poznań University of Technology
Academy of Music
Municipal Stadium
Hala Arena before planned modernization
Poznań Główny – main railway station
Greater Poland Railways train at the Poznań Główny
A2 motorway before the six-lane expansion done in 2019
Moderus Gamma tram, which is produced near Poznań, in city's eastern underground section
City Bike's station
Solaris bus; they are also produced near Poznań
Eurocopter EC135 Lifeguard 9 waiting for an emergency dispatch at the Ławica Airport
Freedom Square (Plac Wolności)
Imperial Castle, now the Zamek Culture Centre
Merchant houses, originally 16th century's herring stalls, at the Old Market Square
Bamberka fountain at the Old Market Square
Śródka's Tale Mural in 2015
Stary Browar, Kufel by Wojciech Kujawski (Guinness ratified largest beer mug in the world), and Art Stations Foundation gallery in the background
Poznań Goat mascot, Old Market Square
Rogalin's Raczyński Palace within Rogalin Landscape Park, some 8 mi south of Poznań. Rear view

Since the bend of the communist era in 1989, city investments into transportation have been mostly into public transport.

"Drive to the Collective Farm!" — 1920s Yiddish-language poster featuring women kolkhoz workers

Collective farming

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Collective farming and communal farming are various types of, "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise".

Collective farming and communal farming are various types of, "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise".

"Drive to the Collective Farm!" — 1920s Yiddish-language poster featuring women kolkhoz workers
"Kolkhoz-woman with pumpkins", 1930 painting
Latter-day Iroquois longhouse housing several hundred people
Soviet famine of 1932–33. Areas of most disastrous famine marked with black.
1962 stamp commemorating the "completion" of land collectivization.

The Baltic states and most of the Eastern Bloc (except Poland) adopted collective farming after World War II, with the accession of communist regimes to power.

Three Arrows through red flag of Marx-Engles-Lenin

Anti-communism

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Political and ideological opposition to communism.

Political and ideological opposition to communism.

Three Arrows through red flag of Marx-Engles-Lenin
White propaganda poster "For united Russia" representing the Bolsheviks as a fallen communist dragon and the White Cause as a crusading knight
The Freikorps were anti-communist right-wing paramilitaries (which were essential in fighting against and dismantling the Communist Revolution in Germany between 1918 and 1919) who are widely seen as a precursor to Nazism and responsible for the assassination of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, the leaders of the Communist Revolution.
Mussolini and the Fascist paramilitary Blackshirts' March on Rome in October 1922
Members of the Lapua Movement assaults a former Red officer and the publisher of the communist newspaper at the Vaasa riot on June 4, 1930, in Vaasa, Finland.
Anti-communist propaganda in West Germany in 1953: "All ways of Marxism lead to Moscow! Therefore CDU"
Herta Müller in 2009
Russian èmigré anti-Bolshevik poster, c. 1932
Nazi anti-Bolshevik poster in German-occupied Estonia
Prior to the June 1990 elections, demonstrators on Wenceslas Square in April gather under a poster where the red star and initials of the KSČ has a swastika painted on top of it while the coat of arms depicted is from before the formation of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
Lauri Törni (1919–1965), Finnish-born green beret, captain, who fought against communism in the ranks of three different armies (Finnish Defence Forces, Waffen-SS and United States Army)
German anti-communist propaganda poster
Symbol of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956: Hungarian flag with the 1949–1956 communist emblem cut out
The flag of Europe was a symbol for Moldovan anti-communists in 2009
"Bolshevik freedom", Polish anti-communist propaganda poster with nude caricature of Leon Trotsky
Polish anti-communist university students
During the Spanish Civil War, Pope Pius XI wrote, "bolshevistic and atheistic Communism, which aims at upsetting the social order and at undermining the very foundations of Christian civilization", had destroyed "as far as possible every church and every monastery".
Spanish prisoners in the Mauthausen Concentration Camp upon being liberated by the United States Army.
Signing of the Treaty of Friendship and Non-Aggression between Nazi Germany and Turkey, 18 June 1941
Chinese Kuomintang troops rounding up communist prisoners for execution in Shanghai
A Hong Kong demonstration in 2009
Bodo League massacre of communists and suspected sympathizers, South Korea, 1950
Augusto Pinochet, an anti-communist Chilean general who overthrew the Marxist government of President Salvador Allende in September 1973
Joseph N. Welch (left) being questioned by Senator Joe McCarthy (right) on 9 June 1954
Cover to the 1947 propaganda comic book Is This Tomorrow
John F. Kennedy's 1963 "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech in West Berlin
Anti-communists Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher, respectively president of the United States and prime minister of the United Kingdom

Poznań 1956 protests were massive anti-communist protests in the People's Republic of Poland.

Military eagle

Polish Land Forces

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The Land Forces (Wojska Lądowe) are a military branch of the Polish Armed Forces.

The Land Forces (Wojska Lądowe) are a military branch of the Polish Armed Forces.

Military eagle
Polish infantry advancing during the Battle of Warsaw; Polish–Soviet War, August 1920
Polish army's 7TP tanks on military manoeuvres before the Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, 1939.
Polish flag raised over Berlin on the Victory Column; World War II, 2 May 1945
Polish soldiers during Anakonda 2016 exercises
Polish Military Contingent in Afghanistan - KTO Rosomak
Leopard 2PL
Poprad Anti-Air missile system
AHS Krab
Structure of the Polish Land Forces
Polish 120 mm battery during the Battle of Warsaw; Polish–Soviet War, August 1920

The army operational today has its roots in the surrogate force formed in support of Soviet interests during the establishment of the People's Republic of Poland after the Second World War.

Collectivization in the Polish People's Republic

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The Polish People's Republic pursued a policy of agricultural collectivization throughout the Stalinist regime period, from 1948 until the liberalization during Gomułka's thaw of 1956.

Headline from 14 December 1981 reporting Martial law in Poland

Trybuna Ludu

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Headline from 14 December 1981 reporting Martial law in Poland

Trybuna Ludu (People's Tribune) was one of the largest newspapers in communist Poland, which circulated between 1948 and 1990.

Edward Gierek in visit to the Rząśnik PGR

State Agricultural Farm

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Edward Gierek in visit to the Rząśnik PGR
Former PGR in Szczyrzyc
One of the many agricultural machines used in the State Farms - harvester Bison model Z056
PGR Wieżanka
PGR Żelechów
PGR Krościenko
PGR Gwoździany
PGR Rybotycze
PGR Grąziowa
PGR Pieszcz
PGR Wielopole
PGR Grabowo

A State Agricultural Farm (Państwowe Gospodarstwo Rolne, PGR) was a form of collective farming in the People's Republic of Poland, similar to Soviet sovkhoz and to the East German Volkseigenes Gut.